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The Human Brain: An Introduction to Its Functional Anatomy

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780815189114

ISBN10:
0815189117
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/1998
Publisher(s):
Elsevier Science Health Science div

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Summary

Known for its readability, this new edition incorporates 3-dimensional brain images for increased visual clarity and greater understanding. The latest edition of this core introductory neuroscience text includes over 500 full-color photographs, brain scans, and drawings. THE HUMAN BRAIN presents the major concepts of brain structure and function with the use of new, modern imaging techniques that enhances understanding of brain activity. The text includes more neurophysiology, substantially more charts and tables, smaller-sized chapters, and clinically relevant illustrations.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction to the Nervous System,
1(35)
The nervous system has central and peripheral parts,
1(1)
The principal cellular elements of the nervous system are neurons and glial cells
2(34)
2 Development of the Nervous System
36(15)
The neural tube and neural crest give rise to the central and peripheral nervous systems
36(7)
Adverse events during development can cause congenital malformations of the nervous system
43(8)
3 Gross Anatomy and General Organization of the Central Nervous System
51(25)
The long axis of the CNS bends at the cephalic flexure
52(1)
Hemisecting a brain reveals parts of the diencephalon, brainstem, and ventricular system
52(1)
Humans, relative to other animals, have large brains
53(2)
Named sulci and gyri cover the cerebral surface,
55(5)
The diencephalon includes the thalamus and hypothalamus
60(1)
Most cranial nerves are attached to the brainstem
61(3)
The cerebellum includes a vermis and two hemispheres
64(1)
Sections of the cerebrum reveal the basal ganglia and limbic structures
64(4)
Parts of the nervous system are interconnected in systematic ways
68(8)
4 Meningeal Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord
76(20)
There are three meningeal layers: the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
77(1)
The dura mater provides mechanical strength
78(5)
The dura mater has an arachnoid lining
83(4)
Pia mater covers the surface of the CNS
87(1)
The vertebral canal contains spinal epidural space
87(2)
Bleeding can open up potential meningeal spaces
89(2)
Parts of the CNS can herniate from one intracranial compartment into another
91(5)
5 Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid
96(21)
The brain contains four ventricles
96(3)
Choroid plexus is the source of most CSF
99(5)
CSF is a secretion of the choroid plexus
104(3)
Imaging techniques allow both CNS and CSF to be visualized
107(7)
Disruption of CSF circulation can cause hydrocephalus
114(3)
6 Blood Supply of the Brain
117(27)
The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries supply the brain
117(19)
A system of barriers partially separates the nervous system from the rest of the body
136(1)
Superficial and deep veins drain the brain
137(7)
7 Electrical Signaling by Neurons
144(27)
A lipid/protein membrane separates intracellular and extracellular fluids
145(6)
Inputs to neurons cause slow, local potential changes
151(3)
Action potentials convey information over long distances
154(17)
8 Synaptic Transmission Between Neurons
171(20)
Most chemical synapses share certain structural and functional features
173(10)
Most neurotransmitters are small amine molecules, amino acids, or neuropeptides
183(5)
Gap junctions mediate direct current flow from one neuron to another
188(3)
9 Sensory Receptors and Peripheral Nervous System
191(24)
Receptors encode the nature, intensity, duration, and location of stimuli
192(3)
Somatosensory receptors detect mechanical or chemical changes
195(14)
Peripheral nerves convey information to and from the CNS
209(6)
10 Spinal Cord
215(39)
The spinal cord is segmented
216(4)
All levels of the spinal cord have a similar cross-sectional structure
220(2)
The spinal cord is involved in sensory processing, motor outflow, and reflexes
222(1)
Spinal gray matter is regionally specialized
222(4)
Reflex circuitry is built into the spinal cord
226(4)
Ascending and descending pathways have defined locations in the spinal white matter
230(11)
The autonomic nervous system monitors and controls visceral activity
241(6)
A longitudinal network of arteries supplies the spinal cord
247(1)
Spinal cord damage causes predictable deficits
247(7)
11 Organization of the Brainstem
254(29)
The brainstem has conduit, cranial nerve, and integrative functions
255(1)
The medulla, pons, and midbrain have characteristic gross anatomical features
256(3)
The internal structure of the brainstem reflects surface features and the position of long tracts
259(9)
The reticular core of the brainstem is involved in multiple functions
268(4)
Some brainstem nuclei have distinctive neurochemical signatures
272(5)
The brainstem is supplied by the vertebral-basilar system
277(6)
12 Cranial Nerves and Their Nuclei
283(27)
Cranial nerve nuclei have a generally predictable arrangement
284(3)
Cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and XII contain somatic motor fibers
287(7)
Branchiomeric nerves contain axons from multiple categories
294(13)
Brainstem damage commonly causes deficits on one side of the head and the opposite side of the body
307(3)
13 The Chemical Senses of Taste and Smell
310(15)
Taste is mediated by receptors in taste buds, innervated by cranial nerves VII, IX, and X
311(5)
Olfaction is mediated by receptors that project directly to the telencephalon
316(9)
14 Hearing and Balance: The Eighth Cranial Nerve
325(34)
Auditory and vestibular receptor cells are located in the walls of the membranous labyrinth
326(3)
The cochlear division of the eighth nerve conveys information about sound
329(16)
The vestibular division of the eighth nerve conveys information about linear and angular acceleration of the head
345(14)
15 Atlas of the Human Brainstem
359(38)
16 The Thalamus and Internal Capsule: Getting to and From the Cerebral Cortex
374(1)
The diencephalon includes the epithalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, and thalamus
375(3)
The thalamus is the gateway to the cerebral cortex
378(12)
Interconnections between the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures travel through the internal capsule
390(7)
17 The Visual System
397(37)
The eye has three concentric tissue layers and a lens
398(4)
The retina contains five major neuronal cell types
402(7)
Retinal neurons translate patterns of light into patterns of contrast
409(7)
Half of the visual field of each eye is mapped systematically in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere
416(10)
Primary visual cortex sorts visual information and distributes it to other cortical areas
426(2)
Early experience has permanent effects on the visual system
428(2)
Reflex circuits adjust the size of the pupil and the focal length of the lens
430(4)
18 Overview of Motor Systems
434(16)
Each lower motor neuron innervates a group of muscle fibers, forming a motor unit
434(2)
Motor control systems involve both hierarchical and parallel connections
436(3)
The corticospinal tract has multiple origins and terminations
439(11)
19 Basal Ganglia
450(19)
The basal ganglia include five major nuclei
450(4)
Basal ganglia circuitry involves multiple parallel loops that modulate cortical output
454(7)
Penetrating branches from the circle of Willis supply the basal ganglia
461(2)
Many basal ganglia disorders result in abnormalities of movement
463(6)
20 Cerebellum
469(25)
The cerebellum can be divided into transverse and longitudinal zones
470(5)
All parts of the cerebellum share common organizational principles
475(5)
Cerebellar cortex receives multiple inputs
480(5)
Each longitudinal zone has a distinctive output
485(1)
Patterns of connections indicate the functions of longitudinal zones
486(4)
Clinical syndromes correspond to functional zones
490(4)
21 Control of Eye Movements
494(12)
Six extraocular muscles move the eye in the orbit
494(2)
There are fast and slow conjugate eye movements
496(7)
Changes in object distance require vergence movements
503(1)
The basal ganglia and cerebellum participate in eye movement control
504(2)
22 Cerebral Cortex
506(31)
Most cerebral cortex is neocortex
507(8)
Neocortical areas are specialized for different functions
515(13)
The corpus callosum unites the two cerebral hemispheres
528(1)
Consciousness and sleep are active processes
529(8)
23 Drives, Emotions, and Memories: The Hypothalamus and Limbic System
537(27)
The hypothalamus coordinates drive-related behaviors
539(8)
Limbic structures are interposed between the hypothalamus and neocortex
547(17)
24 Atlas of the Human Forebrain
564


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