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Human Communication : Motivation, Knowledge, and Skills,9780534570248

Human Communication : Motivation, Knowledge, and Skills

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780534570248

ISBN10:
0534570240
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/22/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $161.33

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Summary

Part One: FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION. 1. Introducing Communication. 2. A Model of Communication Competence. 3. Perception and Culture. 4. Language. 5. Nonverbal Communication. 6. Listening. Part Two: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION. 7. Interpersonal Competence: Building Knowledge. 8. Interpersonal Competence: Developing Skills. Part Three: SMALL GROUP COMMUNICATION. 9. Decision Making: Building Knowledge. 10. Participating In And Leading Groups: Developing Skills. Part Four: PUBLIC SPEAKING. 11. Speech Preparation: Building Knowledge. 12. Speech Presentation: Developing Skills. 13. Speaking to Inform. 14. Speaking to Persuade. Part Five: COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE IN A MEDIATED WORLD. 15. Computer-Mediated Communication Competence 16. Mass Communication And Media Competence. Appendix: Interviewing. Glossary. References. Index.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
PART ONE Foundations of Communication
2(156)
Introducing Communication
2(24)
What Is Communication?
4(3)
Messages
5(1)
Media
6(1)
Meaning
6(1)
Managing
7(1)
Models of Communication
7(8)
Communication as Information Transfer
7(2)
Communication as Sharing Meaning
9(2)
Communication as Persuasion
11(1)
Communication as Community
12(3)
Assumptions about Communication
15(6)
Communication Is a Process
15(1)
Communication Creates Our Social Worlds
16(1)
Communication Is Functional
16(1)
Communication Is Limiting and Liberating
16(1)
Communication Is Adaptive
17(1)
Communication Is Holistic
17(1)
Communication Is Ambiguous
18(1)
Communication Is Crucial to a Quality Life
19(1)
Close-Up on Community: Integrating Community Concerns with Your Experience
20(1)
Communication and Competence
21(1)
Chapter Summary
21(1)
Study and Review
22(4)
A Model of Communication Competence
26(28)
How Competent Are You?
28(1)
What Is Communication Competence?
29(5)
Competence as an Impression
29(2)
The Competence Grid
31(1)
Ethics and Communication Competence
32(1)
Close-Up on Ethics: The Ethics of Interpersonal Communication
33(1)
Basic Components of the Communication Competence Model
34(8)
Motivation
25(12)
Knowledge
37(1)
Skills
38(1)
Context
38(4)
The Process Model of Communication Competence
42(2)
Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
42(1)
Perception, Expectations, and Impressions
43(1)
The Competence Model in Action
43(1)
Chapter Summary
44(1)
Study and Review
45(9)
Perception and Culture
54(30)
What Is Perception?
56(7)
Perception Means Noticing
56(2)
Perception Means Organizing
58(2)
Perception Means Interpretation
60(3)
How Does Culture Affect Perception?
63(2)
Culture and Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values
63(1)
Perceptions Vary by Culture
64(1)
How Do We Develop Self-Concept?
65(3)
Communication and Self
65(1)
The Postmodern Self
66(2)
Close-Up on Community: Managing Multiple ``Me's'' in a Diverse Society
68(1)
Expressing Self to Others
68(4)
Self-Disclosure
69(3)
Challenges to Perception and Self
72(1)
Managing the Challenges to Perception and Self
73(2)
Using Multiple Perspectives to Create Descriptions
73(1)
Anticipate Consequences
73(1)
Envision the Future
74(1)
Chapter Summary
75(1)
Study and Review
75(9)
Language
84(24)
What Is Language?
86(4)
Language Is a System of Symbols
87(2)
Language Is Guided by Rules
89(1)
How Is Language Important?
90(1)
Functions of Language
91(7)
Language Makes Us Notice Things
91(1)
Language Creates Opportunities and Limitations
92(2)
Language Facilitates Social Coordination
94(1)
Close-Up on Diversity: Reducing Bias in Language
95(3)
Challenges to Competent Language Use
98(1)
Strategies for Overcoming Challenges to Language
99(4)
Be Curious about the Meaning of Words
99(1)
Anticipate Possible Interpretations before You Speak
100(1)
Experiment with Possible Phrasings
101(2)
Chapter Summary
103(1)
Study and Review
103(5)
Nonverbal Communication
108(26)
Defining Nonverbal Communication
110(1)
Appreciating Nonverbal Communication
110(1)
Functions of Nonverbal Communication
111(3)
Substituting for and Repeating Words
112(1)
Complementing and Accenting Words
112(1)
Contradicting Words
112(1)
Regulating Interactions
113(1)
Defining Social and Emotional Relationships
113(1)
Types of Nonverbal Messages
114(10)
Physical Appearance and First Impressions
114(1)
Body Communication
114(4)
Touch
118(1)
Voice
119(1)
Time and Space
120(4)
Challenges to Nonverbal Communication
124(2)
Quantity, Constancy, and Awareness of Nonverbal Messages
124(1)
Individual, Gender, and Cultural Differences
124(1)
Close-Up on Gender: Female and Male Nonverbal Communication---Nature or Nurture?
125(1)
Overcoming Challenges to Nonverbal Communication
126(1)
Chapter Summary
127(1)
Study and Review
127(7)
Listening
134(24)
What Is Listening?
137(1)
Types of Listening
138(4)
Listening to Learn and Comprehend
138(1)
Listening to Evaluate and Critique
139(2)
Listening to Empathize and Understand
141(1)
Integrating the Types of Listening
141(1)
Close-Up on Gender: Gender-Based Stereotypes and Expectations for Listening
142(1)
Challenges to Listening
142(4)
Physical Barriers
143(2)
Interaction Barriers
145(1)
Overcoming Challenges to Listening
146(5)
Receiving Competence
146(1)
Constructing Meaning Competence
147(1)
Responding Competence
148(3)
Chapter Summary
151(1)
Study and Review
152(4)
Listening Competence Skills Grid
156(2)
PART TWO Interpersonal Communication
158(54)
Interpersonal Competence: Building Knowledge
158(26)
How We Learn
161(1)
Content Knowledge: Knowing What to Communicate
162(6)
Repertoires
163(2)
Scripts
165(3)
Rules
168(1)
Procedural Knowledge: Knowing How to Communicate
168(7)
Planning
168(2)
Close-Up on Culture: Conversational Rules
170(3)
Action Assembly
173(2)
Challenges to Competence in Relationships
175(2)
Empathy and Perspective Taking
175(1)
Knowledge-Gaining Strategies
176(1)
Chapter Summary
177(1)
Study and Review
177(7)
Interpersonal Competence: Developing Skills
184(28)
The Nature of Communication Skills
186(11)
Characteristics of Skills
186(3)
Types of Interpersonal Skills
189(5)
Close-Up on Conflict: Conflict, Assertiveness, and Competence
194(3)
Challenges to Managing Interpersonal Skills
197(4)
Habit and Routine
197(1)
Balancing Adaptability and Consistency
198(1)
Balancing the Amount of Skills
199(1)
Balancing Self-Interests and Other-Interests
200(1)
Chapter Summary
201(1)
Study and Review
202(8)
Interpersonal Communication Competence Skills Grid
210(2)
PART THREE Small Group Communication
212(62)
Small Groups and Decision Making: Building Knowledge and Skills
212(32)
What Is a Small Group?
215(3)
Includes Three or More People
215(1)
Includes Shared Perception
215(1)
Emphasizes Interdependence
216(1)
Requires Communication
217(1)
Knowing How to Make Group Decisions
218(8)
Distinguishing between Problem Solving and Decision Making
218(1)
Close-Up on Teams and Teamwork: Teams and Teamwork
219(2)
Defining Group Decision-Making Tasks
221(1)
Communication and Group Decision Making
222(3)
Assessing the Quality of Decision Making
225(1)
Task Skills for Making Decisions
226(5)
Close-Up on Group Decision Making: When to Use Groups to Make Decisions
227(1)
Defining the Problem
228(1)
Analyzing the Problem
229(1)
Identifying Criteria for Solving the Problem
230(1)
Generating Solutions or Alternatives
230(1)
Evaluating Solutions or Alternatives
230(1)
Challenges to Competent Decision Making
231(1)
Causes of Groupthink
231(1)
Concurrence Seeking and Decision Making
232(1)
Overcoming Challenges to Competence
233(4)
Stimulating Divergent Thinking
234(1)
Initiating Convergent Thinking
235(2)
Chapter Summary
237(1)
Study and Review
238(6)
Leadership in Small Groups: Challenges and Overcoming Them
244(30)
Knowing How to Lead Groups
247(6)
Understanding Leadership
247(3)
Close-Up on Gender: A Feminine Advantage?
250(2)
Leadership and Change
252(1)
Group Conflict
253(3)
Conflict Management Styles
256
Challenges to Leadership
253(6)
Managing Leadership Challenges
259(7)
Creating a Supportive Group Climate
259(2)
Explaining Positions
261(3)
Framing the Issue
264(2)
Chapter Summary
266(1)
Study and Review
267(4)
Leadership Competence Skills Grid
271(3)
PART FOUR Public Speaking
274(124)
Speech Preparation: Building Knowledge
274(38)
Rhetoric and Public Speaking
276(2)
The Greek Period
276(1)
The Roman Period
276(2)
What Is Public Speaking?
278(2)
Types of Speeches
278(1)
Types of Delivery
278(2)
Preparing with Competence
280(1)
Analyzing the Audience and Situation
280(7)
Analyzing the Audience
280(4)
Close-Up on Diversity: Analyzing and Adapting to a Diverse Audience
284(2)
Analyzing the Situation
286(1)
Choosing and Narrowing a Topic
287(1)
Finding a Good Topic
287(1)
Adapting and Narrowing the Topic
287(1)
Developing a Speech Purpose and Thesis Statement
288(1)
General Purpose
288(1)
Specific Purpose
288(1)
Thesis Statement
289(1)
Gathering Support Materials
289(7)
Personal Observations, Experiences, and Interviews
290(1)
Using the Internet
290(3)
Evaluating Internet Sources
293(1)
Using the Library
293(3)
Support Materials and Critical Thinking
296(1)
Organizing and Outlining
296(10)
Close-Up on Critical Thinking: Thinking Critically during Speech Preparation
297(1)
Organizational Patterns
297(1)
Basics of Outlining
298(1)
Types of Outlines
299(2)
Introduction
301(4)
Body of the Speech
305(1)
Conclusion
305(1)
Chapter Summary
306(1)
Study and Review
306(6)
Speech Presentation: Developing Skills
312(34)
Presenting with Competence and Credibility
314(2)
Becoming a Credible Speaker
315(1)
Becoming a Competent Presenter
315(1)
Using Words
316(5)
Clarity
316(1)
Vividness
317(2)
Appropriateness
319(2)
Using Your Voice
321(3)
Rate
321(1)
Close-Up on Diversity: Language in a Multicultural World
322(1)
Pitch
323(1)
Volume
323(1)
Public Voice and Private Voice
324(1)
Speaking Correctly and Appropriately
324(3)
Pronunciation
325(1)
Articulation
325(1)
Grammar
326(1)
Using Nonverbal Cues
327(3)
Appearance
327(1)
Posture and Body Movement
327(1)
Gestures
328(1)
Facial Expression
329(1)
Eye Contact
329(1)
Using Presentational Aids
330(7)
Types of Aids
330(4)
Methods of Presentation
334(1)
Computerized Aids
335(1)
How-Tos for Presenting with Aids
336(1)
The Challenge of Public Speaking Anxiety
337(1)
Overcoming Public Speaking Anxiety
338(2)
Systematic Desensitization
339(1)
Cognitive Modification
339(1)
Goal Setting
339(1)
Chapter Summary
340(1)
Study and Review
341(5)
Speaking to Inform
346(24)
Understanding the Informative Speech
348(3)
What Is an Informative Speech?
348(2)
Why Do You Need Informative Speaking Skills?
350(1)
Types of Informative Speeches
351(1)
Speaking to Describe
351(1)
Speaking to Explain
351(1)
Speaking to Instruct
352(1)
Organizing and Outlining an Informative Speech
352(5)
Topic
353(1)
Chronology
354(1)
Space
355(1)
Comparison and Contrast
355(2)
Cause and Effect
357(1)
Using Support Materials to Inform
357(5)
Definitions and Descriptions
358(1)
Examples
359(1)
Stories
359(1)
Testimonies and Quotations
360(1)
Facts and Statistics
360(2)
Close-Up on Ethics: Ethics and Informative Speaking
362(1)
Ethics and Informative Speaking
362(1)
Final Suggestions for Informative Speaking
362(1)
Chapter Summary
363(1)
Study and Review
364(6)
Speaking to Persuade
370(28)
Understanding the Persuasive Speech
372(4)
Why Do You Need Persuasive Speaking Skills?
372(1)
Types of Persuasive Speeches
373(3)
Making Your Arguments Persuasive
376(4)
Logical Appeals
376(2)
Emotional Appeals
378(1)
Credibility Appeals
379(1)
Organizing and Outlining a Persuasive Speech
380(6)
Problem-Solution Organization
380(1)
Motivated Sequence
381(4)
Refuting the Opponent
385(1)
Comparing Alternatives
385(1)
Reasoning Logically
386(2)
Close-Up on Ethics: Ethics and Speaking to Persuade
387(1)
Ethics and Persuasive Public Speaking
388(1)
Chapter Summary
388(1)
Study and Review
389(7)
Public Speaking Presentation Competence Skills Grid
396(2)
PART FIVE Communication Competence in a Mediated World
398(53)
Computer-Mediated Communication
393(31)
What Is Computer-Mediated Communication Competence?
400(3)
Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication
401(2)
The Importance of Computer-Mediated Communication
403(2)
The Extent of Mediated Communication
404(1)
Information Haves and Have-Nots
404(1)
Close-Up on Technology: The Dark Side of CMC
405(1)
The Computer-Mediated Communication Competence Model
405(8)
Motivation
406(1)
Knowledge
407(1)
Skills
407(3)
Context Factors
410(3)
Overcoming Challenges to Mediated Communication
413(2)
Access
414(1)
Mastery
414(1)
Chapter Summary
415(1)
Study and Review
415(9)
Mass Communication
424(27)
Mass Communication and Media Competence
426(12)
Trends in Mass Communication
426(2)
How Mass Communication Works
428(4)
The Mass Communication Professions
432(1)
Close-Up on Media Effects: What's the Rap on Rap?
433(5)
Overcoming Challenges to Media Literacy and Competence
438(4)
Critical Thinking
440(1)
Counterarguing
441(1)
Bias Testing
442(1)
Chapter Summary
442(1)
Study and Review
443(5)
Media Competence Skills Grid
448(3)
Appendix Communication Competence in Interviews 451(16)
Glossary 467(12)
Photo Credits 479(1)
Index 480


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