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Human Development : A Life-Span View,9780495093046
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Human Development : A Life-Span View

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780495093046

ISBN10:
0495093041
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/27/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 2/27/2006.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

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Summary

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: A LIFE-SPAN VIEW, Fourth Edition provides students with balanced coverage of the entire life span. John C. Cavanaugh's extensive research in gerontology, combined with Robert V. Kail's expertise in childhood and adolescence, result in a textbook that presents complete and balanced coverage of all life stages. Utilizing a modified chronological approach, the authors trace development from conception through late life in sequential order, while also dedicating several chapters to important topical issues pertaining to particular points in the life span. This Fourth Edition includes unparalleled technology integration to help students better understand and remember the enormous amount of information covered in this course.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
About the Authors xxiii
The Study of Human Development
1(44)
How to Use This Book
2(3)
Learning and Study Aids
2(1)
Terminology
3(1)
Organization
4(1)
Thinking About Development
5(6)
Recurring Issues in Human Development
5(2)
Basic Forces in Human Development: The Biopsychosocial Framework
7(4)
Developmental Theories
11(13)
Psychodynamic Theory
11(3)
Learning Theory
14(1)
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
15(3)
The Ecological and Systems Approach
18(1)
Life-Span Perspective, Selective Optimization With Compensation, and Life Course Perspective
19(4)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Sarah and Elizabeth Delany
23(1)
The Big Picture
24(1)
Doing Developmental Research
24(21)
Measurement in Human Development Research
25(3)
General Designs for Research
28(2)
Designs for Studying Development
30(1)
Spotlight on Research: Stability and Change in Life Satisfaction
31(3)
Integrating Findings From Different Studies
34(1)
Conducting Research Ethically
34(1)
Communicating Research Results
35(1)
Applying Research Results: Social Policy
36(1)
Current Controversies: Stem Cell Research
37(1)
Putting It All Together
38(1)
Summary
38(2)
Key Terms
40(1)
Learn More About It
40(5)
PART I PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT, INFANCY, AND EARLY CHILDHOOD
Biological Foundations
45(42)
Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
In the Beginning: 23 Pairs of Chromosomes
46(11)
Mechanisms of Heredity
46(3)
Genetic Disorders
49(2)
Heredity, Environment, and Development
51(4)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Ben and Matt Pick Their Niches
55(2)
From Conception to Birth
57(6)
Period of the Zygote (Weeks 1--2)
57(1)
Current Controversies: Conception in the 21st Century
57(2)
Period of the Embryo (Weeks 3--8)
59(2)
Period of the Fetus (Weeks 9--38)
61(2)
Influences on Prenatal Development
63(12)
General Risk Factors
63(2)
Teratogens: Drugs, Diseases, and Environmental Hazards
65(3)
Spotlight on Research: Impact of Prenatal Exposure to PCBs on Cognitive Functioning
68(1)
How Teratogens Influence Prenatal Development
69(3)
Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment
72(3)
Labor and Delivery
75(12)
Stages of Labor
75(1)
Approaches to Childbirth
76(1)
Adjusting to Parenthood
77(1)
Birth Complications
78(2)
Infant Mortality
80(2)
Putting It All Together
82(1)
Summary
82(2)
Key Terms
84(1)
Learn More About It
84(3)
Tools for Exploring the World
87(44)
Physical, Perceptual and Motor Development
The Newborn
88(8)
The Newborn's Reflexes
88(1)
Assessing the Newborn
89(1)
The Newborn's States
90(3)
Temperament
93(3)
Physical Development
96(9)
Growth of the Body
96(4)
The Emerging Nervous System
100(5)
Moving and Grasping---Early Motor Skills
105(7)
Locomotion
106(3)
Fine-Motor Skills
109(3)
Coming to Know the World: Perception
112(10)
Smell, Taste, and Touch
112(1)
Hearing
113(1)
Seeing
114(6)
Spotlight On Research: How Infants Become Face Experts
120(1)
Integrating Sensory Information
121(1)
Becoming Self-Aware
122(9)
Origins of Self-Concept
123(1)
Theory of Mind
123(2)
Real People: Applying Human Development: ``Seeing Is Believing . . .'' for 3-Year-Olds
125(1)
Putting It All Together
126(1)
Summary
126(2)
Key Terms
128(1)
Learn More About It
128(3)
The Emergence of Thought and Language
131(46)
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Early Childhood
The Onset of Thinking: Piaget's Account
132(15)
Basic Principles of Cognitive Development
132(2)
Sensorimotor Thinking
134(1)
Preoperational Thinking
135(1)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Christine, Egocentrism, and Animism
136(3)
Spotlight on Research: Finding Toys in a Shrunken Room
139(1)
Evaluating Piaget's Theory
140(3)
Extending Piaget's Account: Children's Naive Theories
143(4)
Information Processing During Infancy and Early Childhood
147(7)
General Principles of Information Processing
147(1)
Attention
147(1)
Learning
148(1)
Memory
149(2)
Current Controversies: Preschoolers on the Witness Stand
151(1)
Learning Number Skills
152(2)
Mind and Culture: Vygotsky's Theory
154(3)
The Zone of Proximal Development
155(1)
Scaffolding
155(1)
Private Speech
156(1)
Language
157(20)
The Road to Speech
157(4)
First Words and Many More
161(6)
Speaking in Sentences: Grammatical Development
167(2)
Communicating With Others
169(3)
Putting It All Together
172(1)
Summary
172(2)
Key Terms
174(1)
Learn More About It
175(2)
Entering the Social World
177(42)
Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood
Beginnings: Trust and Attachment
178(9)
Erikson's Stages of Early Psychosocial Development
178(1)
The Growth of Attachment
179(4)
What Determines Quality of Attachment?
183(1)
Attachment, Work, and Alternative Caregiving
184(2)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Lois, Bill, and Sarah
186(1)
Emerging Emotions
187(6)
Experiencing and Expressing Emotions
187(3)
Recognizing and Using Others' Emotions
190(1)
Regulating Emotions
191(2)
Interacting With Others
193(9)
The Joys of Play
193(4)
Helping Others
197(1)
Spotlight on Research: Are Empathic Children More Likely to Help?
198(4)
Gender Roles and Gender Identity
202(17)
Images of Men and Women: Facts and Fantasy
202(2)
Gender Typing
204(3)
Biological Influences
207(1)
Evolving Gender Roles
208(1)
Putting It All Together
209(1)
Summary
210(2)
Key Terms
212(1)
Learn More About It
212(7)
PART II SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
Off to School
219(46)
Cognitive and Physical Development in Middle Childhood
Cognitive Development
220(6)
More Sophisticated Thinking: Piaget's Version
220(1)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Combinatorial Reasoning Goes to the Races
221(2)
Information-Processing Strategies for Learning and Remembering
223(3)
Aptitudes for School
226(12)
Theories of Intelligence
226(4)
Binet and the Development of Intelligence Testing
230(1)
Do Tests Work?
231(1)
Hereditary and Environmental Factors
232(3)
The Impact of Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status
235(3)
Special Children, Special Needs
238(6)
Gifted and Creative Children
238(1)
Children With Mental Retardation
239(1)
Children With Learning Disabilities
240(1)
Spotlight on Research: Improving Reading Skill in Children With Reading Disability
241(1)
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
242(2)
Academic Skills
244(11)
Reading
244(3)
Writing
247(2)
Math Skills
249(1)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Shin-ying Loves School
250(2)
Effective Schools, Effective Teachers
252(1)
Current Controversies: Computers in the Classroom
253(2)
Physical Development
255(10)
Growth
256(1)
Development of Motor Skills
257(1)
Physical Fitness
258(1)
Participating in Sports
258(1)
Putting It All Together
259(1)
Summary
260(2)
Key Terms
262(1)
Learn More About It
262(3)
Expanding Social Horizons
265(42)
Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood
Family Relationships
266(17)
The Family as a System
266(1)
Dimensions and Styles of Parenting
267(7)
Siblings
274(2)
Divorce and Remarriage
276(3)
Parent-Child Relationships Gone Awry: Child Abuse
279(4)
Peers
283(9)
Friendships
283(3)
Spotlight on Research: Influence of Best Friends on Sexual Activity
286(1)
Groups
286(2)
Popularity and Rejection
288(2)
Aggressive Children and Their Victims
290(2)
Television: Boob Tube or Window on the World?
292(4)
Influence on Attitudes and Social Behavior
292(3)
Influences on Cognition
295(1)
Criticisms of TV
296(1)
Understanding Others
296(11)
Describing Others
297(1)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Tell Me About a Girl That You Like a Lot
297(1)
Understanding What Others Think
298(2)
Prejudice
300(2)
Putting It All Together
302(1)
Summary
302(2)
Key Terms
304(1)
Learn More About It
305(2)
Rites of Passage
307(32)
Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence
Pubertal Changes
308(7)
Signs of Physical Maturation
308(2)
Mechanisms of Maturation
310(1)
Psychological Impact of Puberty
311(4)
Health
315(7)
Nutrition
316(2)
Physical Fitness
318(2)
Threats to Adolescent Well-Being
320(2)
Information Processing During Adolescence
322(4)
How Does Information Processing Improve in Adolescence?
322(2)
Limits on Information Processing
324(1)
Spotlight on Research: Beliefs Can Interfere With Effective Reasoning
324(2)
Reasoning About Moral Issues
326(13)
Kohlberg's Theory
326(2)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Schindler's List
328(2)
Cultural Differences in Moral Reasoning
330(1)
Beyond Kohlberg's Theory
331(2)
Promoting Moral Reasoning
333(1)
Putting It All Together
334(1)
Summary
335(1)
Key Terms
336(1)
Learn More About It
336(3)
Moving Into the Adult Social World
339(36)
Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
Identity and Self-Esteem
340(8)
The Search for Identity
340(3)
Ethnic Identity
343(2)
Self-Esteem in Adolescence
345(1)
The Myth of Storm and Stress
346(2)
Romantic Relationships and Sexuality
348(6)
Romantic Relationships
348(1)
Sexual Behavior
348(3)
Sexual Orientation
351(1)
Sexual Coercion
352(1)
Spotlight on Research: Why Are Some Boys More Likely to Perpetrate Dating Violence?
352(2)
The World of Work
354(6)
Career Development
354(2)
Real People: Applying Human Development: ``The Life of Lynne,'' a Drama in Three Acts
356(2)
Part-Time Employment
358(2)
The Dark Side
360(15)
Drug Use
360(3)
Depression
363(2)
Delinquency
365(2)
Current Controversies: When Juveniles Commit Serious Crimes, Should They Be Tried as Adults?
367(1)
Putting It All Together
368(1)
Summary
369(1)
Key Terms
370(1)
Learn More About It
370(5)
PART III YOUNG AND MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
375(158)
Becoming an Adult
377(38)
Physical, Cognitive, and Personality Development
When Does Adulthood Begin?
378(6)
Role Transitions Marking Adulthood
378(2)
Going to College
380(1)
Psychological Views
381(1)
So When Do People Become Adults?
382(1)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Britney Spears's Transition to Adulthood
383(1)
Physical Development and Health
384(7)
Growth, Strength, and Physical Functioning
384(1)
Health Status
384(1)
Lifestyle Factors
385(1)
Current Controversies: Binge Drinking on College Campuses
386(3)
Social, Gender, and Ethnic Issues in Health
389(2)
Cognitive Development
391(13)
How Should We View Intelligence in Adults?
392(1)
What Happens to Intelligence in Adulthood?
392(1)
Spotlight on Research: The Seattle Longitudinal Study
393(3)
Going Beyond Formal Operations: Thinking in Adulthood
396(4)
The Role of Stereotypes in Thinking
400(4)
Who Do You Want to Be? Personality in Young Adulthood
404(11)
Creating Scenarios and Life Stories
405(1)
Possible Selves
406(2)
Personal Control Beliefs
408(2)
Putting It All Together
410(1)
Summary
410(2)
Key Terms
412(1)
Learn More About It
412(3)
Being With Others
415(36)
Forming Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood
Relationships
416(9)
Friendships
416(2)
Love Relationships
418(3)
Spotlight on Research: Patterns and Universals of Romantic Attachment Around the World
421(1)
The Dark Side of Relationships: Violence
422(3)
Lifestyles
425(10)
Singlehood
426(1)
Cohabitation
427(2)
Gay and Lesbian Couples
429(1)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Maggie O'Carroll's Story
429(1)
Marriage
430(5)
The Family Life Cycle
435(5)
Deciding Whether to Have Children
435(1)
The Parental Role
436(4)
Divorce and Remarriage
440(11)
Divorce
441(2)
Current Controversies: ``Covenant Marriage,'' A Way to Keep Couples Together?
443(3)
Remarriage
446(1)
Putting It All Together
447(1)
Summary
447(1)
Key Terms
448(1)
Learn More About It
448(3)
Work and Leisure
451(38)
Occupational and Lifestyle Issues in Young and Middle Adulthood
Occupational Selection and Development
452(10)
The Meaning of Work
452(1)
Holland's Theory of Occupational Choice Revisited
453(1)
Occupational Development
454(3)
Job Satisfaction
457(1)
Spotlight on Research: The Connection Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover
458(4)
Gender, Ethnicity, and Discrimination Issues
462(8)
Gender Differences in Occupational Selection
462(1)
Women and Occupational Development
463(2)
Ethnicity and Occupational Development
465(1)
Bias and Discrimination
466(3)
Current Controversies: Is It Sexual Harassment?
469(1)
Occupational Transitions
470(5)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Changing Occupations to Find Satisfying Work
471(1)
Retraining Workers
472(1)
Occupational Insecurity
473(1)
Coping With Unemployment
473(2)
Work and Family
475(6)
The Dependent Care Dilemma
476(2)
Juggling Multiple Roles
478(3)
Time to Relax: Leisure Activities
481(8)
Types of Leisure Activities
482(1)
Developmental Changes in Leisure
482(1)
Consequences of Leisure Activities
483(1)
Putting It All Together
484(1)
Summary
485(1)
Key Terms
486(1)
Learn More About It
486(3)
Making It in Midlife
489(44)
The Unique Challenges of Middle Adulthood
Physical Changes and Health
490(13)
Changes in Appearance
491(1)
Changes in Bones and Joints
491(3)
Reproductive Changes
494(2)
Current Controversies: Hormone Replacement Therapy
496(2)
Stress and Health
498(3)
Exercise
501(2)
Cognitive Development
503(7)
Practical Intelligence
503(4)
Becoming an Expert
507(1)
Lifelong Learning
508(2)
Personality
510(7)
Stability Is the Rule: The Five-Factor Model
510(2)
Spotlight on Research: Is Personality in Young and Middle Adulthood Set in Plaster?
512(1)
Change Is the Rule: Changing Priorities in Midlife
512(5)
Family Dynamics and Middle Age
517(16)
Letting Go: Middle-Aged Adults and Their Children
518(2)
Giving Back: Middle-Aged Adults and Their Aging Parents
520(1)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Taking Care of Mom
521(2)
Grandparenthood
523(3)
Putting It All Together
526(1)
Summary
526(2)
Key Terms
528(1)
Learn More About It
528(5)
PART IV LATE ADULTHOOD
533(123)
The Personal Context of Later Life
535(42)
Physical, Cognitive, and Mental Health Issues
What Are Older Adults Like?
536(8)
The Demographics of Aging
536(3)
Longevity
539(4)
The Third-Fourth Age Distinction
543(1)
So How Long Will You Live?
543(1)
Physical Changes and Health
544(11)
Biological Theories of Aging
544(2)
Physiological Changes
546(7)
Health Issues
553(2)
Cognitive Processes
555(9)
Information Processing
555(2)
Current Controversies: Information Processing in Everyday Life: Older Drivers
557(1)
Memory
558(3)
Creativity and Wisdom
561(3)
Mental Health and Intervention
564(13)
Depression
565(2)
Anxiety Disorders
567(1)
Dementia: Alzheimer's Disease
567(1)
Real People: Applying Human Development: What's the Matter With Mary?
568(3)
Spotlight on Research: Training Persons With Dementia to Be Group Activity Leaders
571(1)
Putting It All Together
572(1)
Summary
573(1)
Key Terms
574(1)
Learn More About It
575(2)
Social Aspects of Later Life
577(40)
Psychosocial, Retirement, Relationship, and Societal Issues
Theories of Psychosocial Aging
578(3)
Continuity Theory
578(1)
Competence and Environmental Press
579(2)
Real People: Applying Human Development: Still Flying at 91
581(1)
Personality, Social Cognition, and Spirituality
581(7)
Integrity Versus Despair
582(1)
Well-Being and Social Cognition
583(1)
Spotlight on Research: Understanding the Influences on Subjective Well-Being
583(3)
Religiosity and Spiritual Support
586(2)
I Used to Work at . . . : Living in Retirement
588(5)
What Does Being Retired Mean?
589(1)
Why Do People Retire?
590(1)
Adjustment to Retirement
591(1)
Keeping Busy in Retirement
592(1)
Friends and Family in Late Life
593(8)
Friends and Siblings
594(2)
Marriage and Gay and Lesbian Partnerships
596(1)
Caring for a Partner
597(1)
Widowhood
598(1)
Great-Grandparenthood
599(2)
Social Issues and Aging
601(16)
Frail Older Adults
601(1)
Living in Nursing Homes
602(4)
Elder Abuse and Neglect
606(2)
Politics, Social Security, and Medicare
608(2)
Current Controversies: Saving Social Security
610(2)
Putting It All Together
612(1)
Summary
612(2)
Key Terms
614(1)
Learn More About It
614(3)
The Final Passage
617(39)
Dying and Bereavement
Definitions and Ethical Issues
618(8)
Sociocultural Definitions of Death
618(2)
Legal and Medical Definitions
620(1)
Ethical Issues
621(3)
Current Controversies: The Terri Schiavo Case
624(2)
Thinking About Death: Personal Aspects
626(10)
A Life Course Approach to Dying
627(1)
Dealing With One's Own Death
627(3)
Death Anxiety
630(1)
Creating a Final Scenario
631(1)
The Hospice Option
632(2)
Real People: Applying Human Development: One Family's Experience With Dying
634(2)
Surviving the Loss: The Grieving Process
636(7)
The Grief Process
636(2)
Normal Grief Reactions
638(2)
Coping With Grief
640(1)
Spotlight On Research: Grief Processing and Avoidance in the United States and China
641(1)
Traumatic Grief Reactions
642(1)
Dying and Bereavement Experiences Across the Life Span
643(13)
Childhood
644(2)
Adolescence
646(1)
Adulthood
646(2)
Late Adulthood
648(2)
Putting It All Together
650(1)
Summary
651(2)
Key Terms
653(1)
Learn More About It
653(3)
Glossary 656(11)
References 667(65)
Name Index 732(11)
Subject Index 743


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