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Human Diversity in Education : An Integrative Approach with PowerWeb,9780073126517
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Human Diversity in Education : An Integrative Approach with PowerWeb

by ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780073126517

ISBN10:
0073126519
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/29/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $106.15
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Summary

This research-based, comprehensive introduction to multicultural education and diversity prepares future teachers for the wide diversity of students they will meet in their classrooms, schools, and communities. Moving beyond the purely cultural approach of many comparable texts, Human Diversity in Education addresses the full range of human diversity found in today's schools--including nationality, ethnicity, race, religion, gender, class, language, sexual orientation, and ability levels.Based on the assumption that change begins with the individual teacher, the text argues that prospective teachers must learn to incorporate issues of diversity in all of their work--including in their interactions with children, parents, colleagues, and the community.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
part one Foundations for Multicultural Teaching 1(148)
1 EDUCATION IN A CHANGING SOCIETY
3(26)
Case Study: Drew Daniels' Diversity Class
4(1)
The Reality of Social Change
5(5)
Demographics in Transition
5(1)
Institutions in Transition
6(4)
Economics and Politics
Marriage and Family Life
Organized Religion
7(3)
Schools as a Reflection of Social Change
10(3)
Demographics
10(1)
Language
10(1)
Ability
11(1)
Gender
11(1)
Students and Teachers: A Clash of Cultures?
12(1)
Rethinking Schools and Learning: The Effort to Reform Our Schools
12(1)
Schools in Transition
13(7)
Characteristics of Classrooms for the Industrial (Factory) Age, or Second Wave
14(1)
Standardization
Synchronization
Specialization
Centralization
Large Scale
14(1)
Characteristics of Classrooms for the Information Age, or Third Wave
15(3)
Individualization and Choice
Collaboration
Diversity
Decentralization
Small Scale
16(2)
Where We Are Today
18(1)
The Difficulty of Change
18(2)
Ideological Perspectives on Multicultural Education
20(2)
Goals of This Book
22(3)
Goal 1: To Recognize Social and Cultural Change
24(1)
Goal 2: To Understand Culture, Learning, and the Culture-Learning Process
24(1)
Goal 3: To Improve Intergroup and Intragroup Interactions
24(1)
Goal 4: To Transmit Intercultural Understanding and Skills to Students
25(1)
The Role of Stories, Cases, and Activities
25(1)
Stories
25(1)
Case Studies and Critical Incidents
25(1)
Summary
26(1)
Chapter Review
26(1)
Key Terms
26(1)
Reflective Questions
27(1)
References
27(2)
2 MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION: HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES
29(28)
Case Study: Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957
30(2)
Historical Perspectives on Pluralism
32(4)
We Have Been Different from the Beginning
32(1)
Industrialization, Immigration, and Religious Pluralism
33(1)
The Civil War: Freedmen's Schools and the Issue of Race
34(1)
The Civil Rights Movement and the Schools
35(1)
Historical Perspectives on Multicultural Education
36(12)
Anglo-Conformity and Assimilationist Ideology
36(2)
Multiculturalism and the Pluralist Ideology
38(1)
Legislative and Judicial Landmarks
38(7)
Public Responses to Multicultural and Bilingual Education Reforms
45(1)
Judicial and Legislative Mandates Regarding Equity
46(1)
Constitutional Bases of Legal and Judicial Mandates
47(1)
Reaction to Multicultural Education from the 1980's to Today
47(1)
Theoretical Perspectives on Multicultural Education
48(3)
Teaching the Culturally Different
48(1)
Human Relations
48(1)
Single-group Studies
49(1)
Inclusive Multicultural Education
49(1)
Education that Is Multicultural and Social Reconstructionist
50(1)
The Outcomes of Multicultural Education
51(2)
Student Outcomes
51(1)
Program Outcomes
52(1)
Summary
53(1)
Chapter Review
53(1)
Key Terms
53(1)
Reflective Questions
54(1)
References
54(3)
3 CULTURE AND THE CULTURE-LEARNING PROCESS
57(38)
Case Study: Midland: A Thought Experiment
58(3)
Exploring the Concept of Culture
61(3)
Defining Culture
61(1)
Culture in Everyday Use
62(2)
Subculture
Microculture
Minority Group
Ethnic Group
People of Color
62(2)
Commonalities in Definitions of Culture
64(4)
Humans Construct Culture
64(1)
Culture Is Shared
65(1)
Culture Is Both Objective and Subjective
66(1)
Culture Is Nurtured
66(2)
Applying the Concept of Culture
68(1)
Culture-Specific versus Culture-General Frameworks
68(1)
The Culture-Learning Process
69(16)
What Is Learned: The Sources of Cultural Knowledge
69(8)
Sex/Gender
Health
Ability/Disability
Social Class
Ethnicity/Nationality
Religion/Spirituality
Geographic Location/Region
Age
Sexuality
Language
Social Status
71(6)
How Culture Is Learned: The Socializing Agents
77(1)
When Culture Is Learned: The Process of Socialization
78(7)
Primary Socialization and Cultural Similarities
Secondary Socialization
Some Consequences of Socialization
Perception and Categorization
Some Limits on Socialization
79(6)
Understanding Cultural Differences
85(6)
Variations in Cultural Environments: Returning to Midland
85(2)
Variations in Cultural Attributes, Socializing Agents, and Cultural Learners
87(5)
Critical Incident: Definitely College Material
89(1)
Critical Incident: Who, Exactly, Am I?
90(1)
Critical Incident: What's Wrong with a Golf Scholarship?
90(1)
Critical Incident: Am I Black or White?
90(1)
Summary
91(1)
Chapter Review
91(1)
Key Terms
91(1)
Reflective Questions
92(1)
References
92(3)
4 CLASSROOMS AND SCHOOLS AS CULTURAL CROSSROADS
95(32)
Case Study: Melinda's Induction Year Dilemma
96(1)
Schools and Classrooms: Where Cultures Intersect
97(8)
Student Culture
98(1)
Teacher Culture
98(1)
Parent Culture
99(1)
School Culture
99(1)
Teachers as Cultural Mediators
100(1)
Cross-Cultural Adaptation
100(3)
Acculturation and Identity
103(2)
Themes from Cross-Cultural Psychology
105(2)
A Model of Cross-Cultural Interaction
107(9)
Stage 1: Understanding Emotional Responses in Intercultural Interaction
107(3)
Anxiety
Ambiguity
Disconfirmed Expectations
Belonging/Rejection
Confronting Personal Prejudices
108(2)
Stage 2: Understanding the Cultural Basis of Unfamiliar Behavior
110(3)
Communication and Language Use
Values
Rituals and Superstitions
Situational Behavior
Roles
Social Status
Time and Space
Relationship to the Group versus the Individual
111(2)
Stage 3: Making Adjustments and Reshaping Cultural Identity
113(3)
Categorization
Differentiation
Ingroups and Outgroups
Learning Style
Attribution
114(2)
Applying the Culture-General Model
116(8)
Identifying Commonalities among Groups
117(1)
Identifying Differences within a Group
117(1)
Critical Incidents at Miami Central High
118(3)
Critical Incident: Andre's Role Dilemma
119(1)
Critical Incident: Rosita's Alienation Problem
119(1)
Critical Incident: Joao's Identity Crisis
120(1)
Critical Incident: Rema's Classroom Concerns
120(1)
Critical Incident: Lack of Communication with Kaye
121(1)
Discussion of Critical Incidents
121(4)
Andre's Role Dilemma
Rosita's Alienation Problem
Joao's Identity Crisis
Rema's Classroom Concerns
Lack of Communication with Kaye
121(3)
Summary
124(1)
Chapter Review
124(1)
Key Terms
124(1)
Reflective Questions
125(1)
References
125(2)
5 INTERCULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: CONSIDERING THE GROWTH OF SELF AND OTHERS
127(22)
Case Study: Dissent at Maplewood School
128(2)
Developmental Models of Ethnic and Racial Identity
130(3)
Pre-Encounter
Encounter
Immersion-Emersion
Immersion
Internalization
131(2)
Intercultural Competence
133(2)
Developing Intercultural Sensitivity
135(8)
Ethnocentric Stages of the DMIS
135(5)
Denial
Defense
Minimization
135(5)
Ethnorelative Stages of the DMIS
140(3)
Acceptance
Adaptation
Integration
140(3)
Critical Incidents at Maplewood
143(3)
Critical Incident: John Reading, Fifth Grade Social Studies and Language Arts Teacher
143(1)
Critical Incident: Fran Violet, Fifth Grade Language Arts Teacher
144(1)
Critical Incident: Steven Goodwin, Principal
145(1)
Summary
146(1)
Chapter Review
146(1)
Key Terms
147(1)
Reflective Questions
147(1)
References
147(2)
part two Multicultural Teaching in Action 149
6 CREATING CLASSROOMS THAT ADDRESS RACE AND ETHNICITY
151(26)
Case Study: The Chameleon
152(3)
Lay versus Scientific Understanding of Race and Ethnicity
155(2)
Pedagogies: Old and New
155(1)
Roles: Old and New
155(1)
Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New
156(1)
Assessment: Old and New
157(1)
Understanding Prejudice and Racism
157(2)
The Functions of Prejudice
158(1)
Adjustment Function
Ego-Defensive Function
Value-Expressive Function
Knowledge Function
158(1)
Prejudice Formation: The Components of Prejudice
159(3)
How Children Learn Prejudice
160(1)
Observation and Passive Learning
Group Membership
The Media
Religious Fundamentalism
160(1)
Extreme Cases of Prejudice
161(1)
Racism
Hate Groups
White Privilege
Racial Profiling
161(1)
Curriculum Transformation: Strategies for Prejudice Reduction
162(6)
1. Improving Social Contact and Intergroup Relations
163(2)
Equal Status Contact
Superordinate Goals
Encouragement of Intergroup Interaction
Personal Familiarity
163(2)
Some Cautions in Applying the Contact Hypothesis
165(1)
2. Increasing Cognitive Sophistication
166(1)
3. Improving Self-Confidence and Self-Acceptance
167(1)
4. Increasing Empathy for and Understanding of Others
168(1)
Comprehensive Programs That Improve Intergroup Relations
168(6)
Anti-Bias Education for Young Children
169(1)
Cooperative Learning
169(1)
A World of Difference
169(1)
Facing History and Ourselves
169(5)
Critical Incident: Do You Know Anyone Else Like John Gray?
170(1)
Critical Incident: Reflections from John Gray
171(1)
Critical Incident: John Gray Shares an Important Part of Himself
172(2)
Summary
174(1)
Chapter Review
174(1)
Key Terms
174(1)
Reflective Questions
174(1)
References
174(3)
7 THE CLASSROOM AS A GLOBAL COMMUNITY: NATIONALITY AND REGION
177(32)
Case Study: A Global Classroom
178(5)
Education in a Global Society
183(2)
What Is Globalization?
184(1)
Characteristics of Globalization
184(1)
Teaching with a Global Purpose
185(3)
Education for a Global Perspective
186(1)
Cognitive Demands for a Global Mindset
187(1)
Curriculum Transformation: The International Perspective
188(6)
Perspective Consciousness
188(1)
State of the Planet Awareness
189(2)
Cross-Cultural Awareness
191(1)
Knowledge of Global Dynamics or World Systems
192(1)
Awareness of Human Choice
193(1)
What, Specifically, Should Students Study?
194(3)
Characteristics of a Global Classroom
194(1)
Pedagogies: Old and New
195(1)
Roles: Old and New
196(1)
Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New
196(1)
Assessment: Old and New
197(1)
Teaching the Global Perspective
197(6)
Programs That Link Schools
199(4)
Associated Schools Project of UNESCO
iEARN
Global SchoolNet
199(1)
How Might This Look in Practice?
200(1)
Part One (United States)
Part Two (India)
200(3)
Perspectives on a Globally Oriented Curriculum
203(3)
Ethical Concerns
204(3)
Critical Incident: A Delayed Response
205(1)
Critical Incident: A Sensitive Assignment
205(1)
Summary
206(1)
Chapter Review
206(1)
Key Terms
206(1)
Reflective Questions
206(1)
References
207(2)
8 DEVELOPING LEARNING COMMUNITIES: LANGUAGE AND LEARNING STYLE
209(34)
Case Study: Language and Learning Style in a Learning-Community Classroom
210(7)
Case Analysis
216(1)
Characteristics of a Learning Community
217(3)
Rationale for Learning-Community Classrooms
218(1)
Pedagogies: Old and New
219(1)
Roles: Old and New
219(1)
Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New
220(1)
Assessment: Old and New
220(1)
Perspectives on Language Acquisition
220(2)
Language and the Family
221(1)
Institutional Aspects of Language in the Family
221(1)
Perspectives on Language Variation
222(4)
Verbal Communication
222(3)
Accents
Dialects
Bidialectalism
Sign Language
222(3)
Nonverbal Communication
225(1)
Proxemics
Kinesics
Paralanguage
225(1)
Culture, Language, and Learning Style
226(6)
Components of Learning Style
227(1)
Multiple Intelligences
227(1)
Origins of Learning Style
228(1)
The Relation of Language and Learning Style to Culture
228(2)
Communication Style
230(2)
Formal versus Informal Communication
Emotional versus Subdued
Communication
Direct versus Indirect Communication
Objective versus
Subjective Communication
Responses to Guilt and Accusations
231(1)
Perspectives on Bilingual Education and Second Language Acquisition
232(6)
The Bilingual Education Backlash
233(1)
Other Bilingual Education Issues
234(1)
Second Language Acquisition
235(1)
Ethical Issues: Local and Global
236(4)
Critical Incident: Martina's Dilemmas
238(1)
Summary
238(1)
Chapter Review
238(1)
Key Terms
239(1)
Reflective Questions
239(1)
Endnote
239(1)
References
240(3)
9 RELIGIOUS PLURALISM IN SECULAR CLASSROOMS
243(28)
Case Study: Religion in a Secular Classroom
244(2)
Rationale for Attending to Religion in Public Schools
246(2)
Definitions of Religion
247(1)
Religious Pluralism in the United States
248(2)
Characteristics of a Classroom That Attends to Religious Pluralism
250(4)
Pedagogies: Old and New
250(1)
Roles: Old and New
251(1)
Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New
252(1)
Assessment: Old and New
252(1)
Case Analysis
253(1)
Perspectives on Religion and Schooling in the United States
254(7)
Private Freedoms: Religion and Compulsory School Attendance
255(1)
Private Freedoms: The Practice of Religious Beliefs in Classrooms
256(2)
Public Freedoms: Public Funding for Religious Schools
258(1)
Charter Schools, Home Schooling, and Voucher Programs
259(1)
Public Freedoms: The Provision of Religious Instruction
260(1)
Perspectives on Religious Identity
261(4)
Religion as a Form of Personal Identity
261(1)
The Influence of the Religious Right
262(3)
Ethical Issues
265(1)
Critical Incident: Celebrating the Holidays
265(1)
Critical Incident: Suggested Reading?
266(1)
Summary
266(1)
Chapter Review
267(1)
Key Terms
267(1)
Reflective Questions
267(1)
Endnote
268(1)
References
268(3)
10 DEVELOPING A COLLABORATIVE CLASSROOM: GENDER AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION
271(6)
Case Study: Gender and Sexual Orientation in a Collaborative Classroom
272(6)
Case Analysis
276(1)
Rationale for Collaborative Teaching and Learning
277(1)
Characteristics of a Collaborative Classroom
278(5)
Pedagogies: Old and New
279(2)
Roles: Old and New
281(1)
Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New
282(1)
Assessment: Old and New
283(1)
Perspectives on Gender Identity
283(4)
Gender Role Socialization
284(1)
Gender Role Socialization in the Middle Class
285(1)
Masculine and Feminine Behavior
286(1)
Perspectives on Gender and Schooling
287(2)
Schools as Socializing Agents
288(1)
Gender Stereotypes in School
288(1)
Gender as an Issue of Legal Equity in Schools
289(4)
Legislation and Court Cases
289(2)
Major Studies on Gender and Schooling in the Last Decade
291(1)
Where We Are Now
292(1)
Perspectives on Gender and Sexuality
293(3)
Ethical Issues
296(2)
Critical Incident: Responsibilities at Home
296(1)
Critical Incident: Should She Go to College?
297(1)
Critical Incident: Who's Using the Computer?
297(1)
Summary
298(1)
Chapter Review
298(1)
Key Terms
298(1)
Reflective Questions
298(1)
Endnotes
299(1)
References
300(3)
11 CREATING DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE CLASSROOMS: THE IMPORTANCE OF AGE AND DEVELOPMENTAL STATUS
303(5)
Case Study: Age in Developmentally Appropriate Classrooms
304(4)
Rationale for Developmentally Appropriate Educational Practice
308(4)
Economic Aims for Schooling
309(1)
Early Childhood Education and Developmentally Appropriate Practice
310(1)
Constructivist Thought in Developmentally Appropriate Practice
311(1)
Characteristics of a Developmentally Appropriate Classroom
312(5)
Pedagogies: Old and New
312(2)
Roles: Old and New
314(2)
Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New
316(1)
Assessment: Old and New
316(1)
Perspectives on Age and Development
317(5)
Sensitive Periods and Developmental Crises
317(1)
Individual Differences and Developmental Domains
318(1)
The Importance of Developmental Knowledge
319(6)
Critical Incident: Responding to a Concerned Board Member
321(1)
Critical Incident: The Disgruntled Parent
321(1)
Summary
322(1)
Chapter Review
322(1)
Key Terms
322(1)
Reflective Questions
322(1)
Endnotes
322(1)
References
323(2)
12 CREATING INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS: THE ABILITY/DISABILITY CONTINUUM AND THE HEALTH DIMENSION
325(4)
Case Study: Schools That Include All Students
326(3)
Rationale for Inclusive Classrooms
329(2)
What Is Exceptionality?
331(7)
The Ability/Disability Continuum
332(1)
Historical Perspectives on Special Education
332(3)
The Health Dimension
335(3)
Characteristics of an Inclusive Classroom
338(5)
Inclusion and Human Diversity
338(1)
Pegagogies: Old and New
339(1)
Roles: Old and New
340(1)
Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New
341(1)
Assessment: Old and New
342(1)
Making Inclusive Teaching Work
343(3)
The Importance of Collaboration
343(1)
What Does Flexibility Involve?
344(9)
Curriculum Materials
Instructional Strategies
Classroom Organization
Behavior Management
344(2)
Ethical Issues in Inclusive Education
346(3)
Critical Incident: Integrating the New Student with a Disability
348(1)
Critical Incident: The Reluctant Parents
349(1)
Summary
349(1)
Chapter Review
349(1)
Reflective Questions
349(1)
Key Terms
350(1)
Endnotes
350(1)
References
350(3)
13 THE ROLE OF SOCIAL CLASS AND SOCIAL STATUS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
353(7)
Case Study: Fulfilling the Promise in the Northeast Kingdom
354(3)
Case Analysis
356(1)
Pedagogies: Old and New
357(1)
Roles: Old and New
358(1)
Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New
358(1)
Assessment: Old and New
359(1)
Perspectives on Social Class and Social Status
360(6)
Definitions of Social Class
360(2)
Social Class and Minority Group Membership
362(1)
The Working Poor
362(1)
Social Class and Child-Rearing Practices
363(1)
Social Status
364(1)
The Importance of Teacher Expectations
365(1)
Social Class and School Funding
366(2)
Ethical Issues
368(1)
Critical Incident: The Pull of Home
368(1)
Critical Incident: Too Much Traveling
369(1)
Summary
369(1)
Chapter Review
369(1)
Key Terms
370(1)
Reflective Questions
370(1)
Endnotes
370(1)
References
370(3)
14 ASSESSING PROGRESS: THE QUEST TO IMPROVE SCHOOLS FOR ALL CHILDREN
373(6)
Case Study: Redesigning the Jefferson Schools' Math Assessment Program
374(5)
Rationale for Broadened Definitions of Assessment
379(6)
Accountability and the Educational Standards Movement
379(2)
Assumptions about Standards
381(1)
The Case for Standardized Testing
381(2)
The Case against Standardized Testing
383(1)
The Case for Multiple Forms of Assessment
384(1)
Characteristics of Classrooms That Use Multiple Forms of Assessment
385(3)
Pedagogies: Old and New
386(1)
Roles: Old and New
386(1)
Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New
386(1)
Assessment: Old and New
387(1)
Perspectives on Means for Assessing Student Learning
388(7)
The Importance of Criteria
388(1)
The Issue of Grading
389(3)
Grading to Sort
Grading to Motivate
Grading as Feedback
391(1)
Case Analysis
392(3)
Perspectives on Multiple Forms of Assessment: Demand versus Support
395(2)
Ethical Issues
397(2)
Critical Incident: How Is My Child Really Doing?
399(1)
Critical Incident: What about the State Assessment Tests?
399(1)
Summary
399(1)
Chapter Review
400(1)
Kery Terms
400(1)
Reflective Questions
400(1)
Endnote
401(1)
References
401
Glossary G-1
Index I-1
Photo Credits C-1


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