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Human Heredity: Principles and Issues/With Infotrac

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Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780534523725

ISBN10:
0534523722
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/30/1999
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
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Author Biography

Michael R. Cummings University of Illinois at Chicago

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Genetics as a Human Endeavor
1(13)
Welcome to Genetics
2(1)
Concepts and Controversies Genetic Disorders in Culture and Art
3(1)
What are Genes and How do They Work?
3(1)
How are Genes Transmitted From Parents to Offspring?
4(1)
How do Scientists Study Genes?
5(3)
Approaches to the Study of Genetics
5(2)
Basic and Applied Research
7(1)
What is the Historical Impact of Genetics on Society?
8(1)
Genetics and Social Policy
8(1)
Eugenics and Immigration Laws
8(1)
Eugenics and Reproductive Rights
8(1)
Eugenics and the Nazi Movement
9(1)
When did Human Genetics Get Started?
9(1)
Concepts and Controversies Genetics, Eugenics, and Nazi Germany
10(1)
Where is Human Genetics Going in the Future?
11(2)
Internet Activities
13(1)
For Further Reading
13(1)
Cells, Chromosomes, and Cell Division
14(32)
Two Main Types of Cells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
15(1)
Cell Structure Reflects Function
15(7)
There is a Wide Range of Cell Sizes
16(1)
The Plasma Membrane and the Cytoplasm Are Two Cellular Domains
17(1)
Organelles Are Specialized Structures in the Cytoplasm
18(4)
Guest Essay Exploring Membranes
22(1)
Anne Walter
Chromosomes Have a Characteristic Structure
22(2)
The Cell Cycle Describes the Life History of A Cell
24(2)
Interphase Has Three Stages
24(2)
Concepts and Controversies Sea Urchins, Cyclins, and Cancer
26(5)
Cell Division by Mitosis Occurs in Four Stages
26(5)
Mitosis is Essential for Growth and Cell Replacement
31(1)
Cell Division by Meiosis: The Basis of Sex
32(7)
Meiosis I Reduces the Chromosome Number
32(2)
Meiosis II Begins with Haploid Cells
34(1)
Meiosis Produces New Combinations of Genes in Two Ways
34(5)
Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis are Processes That Form Gametes
39(3)
Case Studies
42(1)
Summary
43(1)
Questions and Problems
43(2)
Internet Activities
45(1)
For Further Reading
45(1)
Transmission of Genes from Generation to Generation
46(28)
Heredity: How Does it Work?
48(1)
Mendel's Experimental Approach Resolved Many Unanswered Questions
48(2)
Crossing Pea Plants: The Principle of Segregation
50(2)
Results and Conclusions from Mendel's First Series of Crosses
50(2)
Concepts and Controversies Ockham's Razor
52(3)
Inheritance of a Single Trait: The Principle of Segregation
53(2)
More Crosses With Pea Plants: The Principle of Independent Assortment
55(3)
Crosses Involving Two Traits
55(1)
Methods, Results, and Conclusions
55(1)
The Principle of Independent Assortment
56(2)
Concepts and Controversies Evaluating Results---The Chi-Square Test
58(2)
Meiosis Explains Mendel's Results: Genes are on Chromosomes
60(2)
Many Genes Have More Than Two Alleles
62(1)
Variations on a Theme by Mendel
62(2)
Both Codominant Alleles are Expressed in the Phenotype
63(1)
Incomplete Dominance Has a Distinctive Phenotype
63(1)
The Concepts of Dominance and Recessiveness
64(1)
Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
64(2)
Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics
65(1)
Concepts and Controversies Solving Genetics Problems
66(3)
Case Studies
69(1)
Summary
70(1)
Questions and Problems
70(2)
Internet Activities
72(1)
For Further Reading
73(1)
Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics
74(36)
Humans as a Subject for Genetics
76(1)
Pedigree Construction is a Basic Method in Human Genetics
76(2)
There is a Catalog of Mendelian Genetic Disorders
78(1)
Concepts and Controversies Was Noah an Albino?
79(1)
Autosomal Recessive Traits
79(6)
Cystic Fibrosis is a Recessive Trait
80(3)
Sickle Cell Anemia Is a Recessive Trait
83(2)
Autosomal Dominant Traits
85(3)
The Pattern of Inheritance for Autosomal Dominant Traits
85(1)
Marfan Syndrome Is an Autosomal Dominant Trait
85(3)
Sex-Linked Inheritance Involves Genes on the X and Y Chromosomes
88(7)
X-Linked Dominant Inheritance
90(1)
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
91(2)
Muscular Dystrophy Is an X-Linked Recessive Trait
93(2)
Concepts and Controversies Hemophilia and History
95(1)
Y-Linked Inheritance Involves Transmission from Male to Male
95(1)
Mitochondrial Inheritance is From Mother to Offspring
96(1)
Several Factors Cause Variations in Gene Expression
97(1)
Temperature and Gene Expression
97(1)
Guest Essay Nothing in Biology Makes Sense without Evolution
98(2)
Michael Rose
Age and Gene Expression
98(1)
Penetrance and Expressivity Are Variations in Gene Expression
99(1)
Genes on the Same Chromosome are Linked
100(1)
Using Linkage and Recombination Frequencies to Make Genetic Maps
101(1)
Linkage and Recombination can be Measured by a Lod Score
102(2)
Case Studies
104(1)
Summary
105(1)
Questions and Problems
105(3)
Internet Activities
108(1)
For Further Reading
108(2)
Polygenes and Multifactorial Inheritance
110(30)
Some Traits are Controlled by Two or More Genes
111(1)
Polygenes and Variations in Phenotype
112(5)
The Additive Model for Polygenic Inheritance
115(1)
Averaging Out the Phenotype: Regression to the Mean
116(1)
Polygenes and the Environment: Multifactorial Traits
117(1)
Threshold Effects and the Expression of Multifactorial Traits
117(1)
Concepts and Controversies Is Autism a Genetic Disorder?
118(1)
Estimating the Interaction between Genotype and Environment
119(1)
Phenotypic Variation is Measured by Heritability
119(2)
Heritability Estimates are Based on Genetic Relatedness
119(1)
Using Fingerprints to Estimate Heritability
120(1)
Twin Studies and Multifactorial Traits
121(5)
The Biology of Twins
122(1)
Concordance and Twins
123(1)
Using Twins to Study Obesity
124(1)
Genetic Clues to Obesity
125(1)
Concepts and Controversies Twins, Quintuplets, and Armadillos
126(1)
A Survey of Some Multifactorial Traits
127(9)
Cardiovascular Disease Has Genetic and Environmental Components
127(3)
Skin Color Is a Multifactorial Trait
130(2)
Intelligence and IQ: Are They Related?
132(2)
The Controversy about IQ and Race
134(1)
Searching for Genes That Control Intelligence
135(1)
Case Studies
136(1)
Summary
137(1)
Questions and Problems
137(1)
Internet Activities
138(1)
For Further Reading
138(2)
Cytogenetics
140(34)
The Human Chromosome Set
141(3)
Concepts and Controversies Making a Karyotype
144(2)
Analyzing Chromosomes and Karyotypes
146(2)
Getting Cells for Chromosome Studies
146(2)
Concepts and Controversies Using Fetal Cells from the Mother's Blood
148(3)
Amniocentesis Collects Cells from the Fluid Surrounding the Fetus
148(2)
Chorionic Villus Sampling Retrieves Fetal Tissue from the Placenta
150(1)
Variations in Chromosomal Number
151(6)
Polyploidy Changes the Number of Chromosomal Sets
151(2)
Aneuploidy Changes the Number of Individual Chromosomes
153(1)
Monosomy Is Rare
153(1)
Trisomy is Relatively Common
154(3)
What are the Risks for Autosomal Trisomy?
157(1)
Maternal Age Is the Leading Risk Factor for Trisomy
157(1)
Why Is Age a Risk Factor?
158(1)
Aneuploidy of the Sex Chromosomes
158(4)
Turner Syndrome (45,X)
158(2)
Klinefelter Syndrome (47,XXY)
160(1)
XYY Syndrome (47,XYY)
161(1)
Aneuploidy of the Sex Chromosomes: Some Conclusions
161(1)
Structural Alterations Within Chromosomes
162(4)
Deletions Involve Loss of Chromosomal Material
163(1)
Translocations Involve Exchange of Chromosomal Parts
164(2)
What are Some Consequences of Aneuploidy?
166(1)
Other Forms of Chromosomal Abnormalities
167(3)
Uniparental Disomy
167(1)
Fragile Sites
167(3)
Case Studies
170(1)
Summary
170(1)
Questions and Problems
171(1)
Internet Activities
172(1)
For Further Reading
172(2)
Development and Sex Determination
174(26)
Human Development from Fertilization to Birth
175(6)
Human Development Is Divided into Three Stages
178(3)
Birth Occurs in Stages
181(1)
Reproduction and Technology
181(2)
Contraception Uncouples Sexual Intercourse from Pregnancy
181(1)
Technology Expands Reproductive Choices
182(1)
Teratogens Pose a Risk to the Developing Fetus
183(2)
Little Is Known about Teratogens
184(1)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
184(1)
Sex Determination in Humans
185(2)
Chromosomes Can Help Determine Sex
185(2)
The Sex Ratio in Humans
187(1)
Sex Differentiation Follows Sex Determination
187(1)
Chromosomal Sex and Phenotypic Sex
187(1)
Events in Embryogenesis Begin Sex Differentiation
187(1)
Concepts and Controversies Sex Testing in International Athletics---Is It Necessary?
188(3)
Genetic Control of Sexual Differentiation
191(2)
Androgen Insensitivity and Phenotypic Sex
192(1)
Gene Expression and Sexual Phenotype
192(1)
Concepts and Controversies Joan of Arc---Was It Really John of Arc?
193(1)
Dosage Compensation and the X Chromosome
193(4)
Expression of Genes on the X Chromosome
193(1)
Barr Bodies and X Inactivation
194(1)
Females are Mosaics for X-Linked Genes
195(1)
Sex-Influenced and Sex-Limited Traits
196(1)
Case Studies
197(1)
Summary
197(1)
Questions and Problems
198(1)
Internet Activities
199(1)
For Further Reading
199(1)
DNA Structure and Chromosomal Organization
200(19)
DNA Carries Genetic Information
202(1)
Transfer of Genetic Traits in Bacteria
202(1)
Concepts and Controversies DNA as a Commercial Product
203(1)
DNA Is a Part of Chromosomes
203(1)
Watson, Crick, and the Structure of DNA
204(7)
Reviewing Some Basic Chemistry
204(1)
Nucleotides: The Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids
205(1)
DNA Is a Double Helix
206(4)
RNA Is Single-Stranded
210(1)
DNA is Coiled With Proteins to Form Chromosomes
211(3)
The Mitochondrial Chromosome Is a Circular DNA Molecule
211(1)
Nuclear Chromosomes Have a Complex Structure
211(3)
DNA Replication Depends on Base Pairing
214(1)
Case Studies
215(1)
Summary
216(1)
Questions and Problems
216(1)
Internet Activities
217(1)
For Further Reading
218(1)
Gene Expression: How Proteins Are Made
219(21)
The Link Between Genes and Proteins
220(2)
Genes and Metabolism
221(1)
The Relationship between Genes and Enzymes
221(1)
How is Genetic Information Stored in DNA?
222(1)
The Flow of Genetic Information is a Multistep Process
222(4)
Transcription Produces Genetic Messages
223(1)
Genes Can Have a Complex Internal Organization
224(1)
Messenger RNA Is Processed and Spliced
224(1)
Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
225(1)
Concepts and Controversies Antibiotics and Protein Synthesis
226(4)
The Genetic Code: The Key to Life
230(1)
The Polypeptide Product of Translation
231(5)
Proteins Have Several Levels of Structure
232(1)
Proteins Have Many Functions
232(4)
Case Studies
236(1)
Summary
236(1)
Questions and Problems
237(2)
Internet Activities
239(1)
For Further Reading
239(1)
From Proteins to Phenotypes
240(27)
The Role of Proteins
241(1)
Proteins are the Link Between Genotype and Phenotype
242(1)
Metabolic Pathways and Genetic Disorders
242(3)
Phenylketonuria: A Defect in Amino Acid Metabolism
244(1)
Concepts and Controversies Garrod and Metabolic Disease
245(3)
Other Metabolic Disorders in the Phenylalanine Pathway
246(1)
Defects in Carbohydrate Metabolism
246(2)
Concepts and Controversies Dietary Management and Metabolic Disorders
248(2)
Mutations in Receptor Proteins: Familial Hypercholesterolemia
250(2)
The Globin Genes: Unlocking the Protein-Phenotype Link
252(8)
Sickle Cell Anemia
255(1)
Other Hemoglobin Variants
256(1)
Thalassemias
257(2)
Treatment of Hemoglobin Disorders by Gene Switching
259(1)
Pharmacogenetics and Ecogenetics
260(3)
Taste and Smell Differences: We Live in Different Sensory Worlds
260(1)
Drug Sensitivities are Genetic Traits
261(1)
Pesticide Metabolism
262(1)
Case Studies
263(1)
Summary
263(1)
Questions and Problems
264(2)
Internet Activities
266(1)
For Further Reading
266(1)
Mutation: The Source of Genetic Variation
267(23)
The Nature of Mutation
268(1)
Detecting Mutations
269(1)
Measuring Mutation Rates
270(2)
Gene-Specific Mutation Rates
271(1)
Factors That Influence the Mutation Rate
271(1)
Enrivonmental Factors That Influence Mutation Rates
272(3)
Radiation Is One Source of Mutations
272(1)
How Much Radiation Are We Exposed To?
273(1)
Action of Chemical Mutagens
274(1)
Concepts and Controversies Irradiated Food
275(1)
Mutation at the Molecular Level: DNA as a Target
276(5)
Nucleotide Substitutions
276(2)
Deletions and Insertions
278(1)
Trinucleotide Repeats, Gene Expansion, and Mutation
279(1)
Allelic Expansion and Anticipation
280(1)
DNA Repair Mechanisms
281(1)
DNA Repair Systems
281(1)
Genetic Disorders and DNA Repair
282(1)
Mutation, Genotypes, and Phenotypes
282(1)
Mutation Can Cause a Range of Phenotypes
283(1)
Genomic Imprinting: Reversible Alterations to the Genome
283(2)
Case Studies
285(1)
Summary
286(1)
Questions and Problems
286(2)
Internet Activities
288(1)
For Further Reading
289(1)
An Introduction to Cloning and Recombinant DNA
290(23)
What are Clones?
291(4)
Plants Can Be Cloned from Single Cells
292(1)
Animals Can Be Cloned by Several Methods
293(2)
Cloning Genes is a Multistep Process
295(7)
Restriction Enzymes Cut DNA at Specific Sites
295(1)
Vectors Serve as Carriers of DNA
296(2)
Steps in the Process of Cloning DNA
298(4)
Concepts and Controversies Asilomar: Scientists Get Involved
302(1)
Cloned Libraries
302(1)
Finding a Specific Clone in a Library
303(1)
A Revolution in Cloning: The Polymerase Chain Reaction
303(2)
Analyzing Cloned Sequences
305(3)
Southern Blotting
305(1)
DNA Sequencing
306(2)
Guest Essay The Human Genome Project: Reading Our Own Genetic Blueprint
308(1)
Francis Sellers Collins
Case Studies
309(1)
Summary
310(1)
Questions and Problems
310(2)
Internet Activities
312(1)
For Further Reading
312(1)
Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology
313(27)
Recombinant DNA Techniques Have Revolutionized Human Gene Mapping
314(5)
RFLPs Are Heritable Genetic Markers
315(2)
Mapping Genes Using RFLPs
317(1)
Mapping the Gene for Cystic Fibrosis: RFLPs and Positional Cloning
317(2)
Mapping at the Chromosomal Level
319(1)
Prenatal and Presymptomatic Testing for Genetic Disorders
319(3)
Prenatal Testing for Sickle Cell Anemia
320(1)
Preimplantation Testing
321(1)
Presymptomatic Testing for Genetic Disorders
321(1)
DNA Chips and Genetic Testing
321(1)
DNA Fingerprinting
322(4)
Minisatellites and VNTRs
323(1)
Forensic Applications of DNA Fingerprinting
324(1)
Other Applications of DNA Fingerprinting
325(1)
Concepts and Controversies Death of a Czar
326(1)
The Human Genome Project is an international Effort
327(3)
The Genome Project Has Several Steps
327(2)
The Human Genome Project: A Progress Report
329(1)
Gene Transfer Technology Has Many Applications
330(4)
The Rise of Biotechnology
330(1)
Bio-Pharming: Making Human Proteins in Animals
330(2)
Genetic Disorders Can Be Corrected by Gene Therapy
332(1)
New Plants and Animals Can Be Created by Gene Transfer
333(1)
Ethical Questions About Cloning and Recombinant DNA
334(2)
Case Studies
336(1)
Summary
337(1)
Questions and Problems
337(2)
Internet Activities
339(1)
For Further Reading
339(1)
Genes and Cancer
340(27)
Cancers and Malignant Tumors
342(1)
Mutations in Specific Genes Can Predispose to Cancer
342(2)
Tumor Suppressor Genes, Oncogenes, and the Cell Cycle
344(4)
Retinoblastoma Is Caused by Mutation in a Tumor Suppressor Gene
344(2)
The Search for Breast Cancer Genes
346(2)
Oncogenes and Cancer
348(4)
Rous Sarcoma Virus and the Discovery of Oncogenes
348(2)
The Conversion of Proto-Oncogenes to Oncogenes
350(2)
A Genetic Model for Cancer: Colon Cancer
352(2)
Genomic Changes and Cancer
354(1)
DNA Repair Mutations Can Result in Genomic Instability
354(1)
Gatekeeper and Caretaker Genes: Insights from Colon Cancer
354(1)
Chromosome Changes and Cancer
355(2)
Chromosome Rearrangements and Leukemias
355(1)
Translocations, Hybird Genes, and Leukemias
356(1)
Cancer and the Environment
357(1)
Concepts and Controversies Epidemiology, Asbestos, and Cancer
358(2)
Epidemiology and Links to Environmental Factors
358(1)
Occupational Hazards and Cancer Risk
359(1)
Guest Essay A Journey through Science
360(2)
Bruce Ames
Environmental Factors and Cancer
360(1)
Behavior and Cancer
361(1)
Case Studies
362(1)
Summary
363(1)
Questions and Problems
363(2)
Internet Activities
365(1)
For Further Reading
365(2)
Genetics of the Immune System
367(27)
The Immune System Defends the Body Against Infection
368(1)
The Inflammatory Responses is a General Reaction
369(2)
Nonspecific Responses are Activated by the Inflammatory Reaction
369(1)
The Complement System Kills Microorganisms Directly
370(1)
The Immune Response is a Specific Defense Against Infection
371(7)
An Overview of the Immune Response
371(2)
The Antibody-Mediated Immune Response Involves Several Steps
373(1)
Antibodies are Molecular Weapons against Antigens
374(1)
Antibody Genes Undergo Recombination in B Cells
375(1)
T Cells Mediate the Cellular Immune Response
376(1)
The Immune System Has a Memory Function
377(1)
Blood Types are Determined by Cell-Surface Antigens
378(2)
ABO Blood Typing Allows Safe Blood Transfusions
379(1)
Rh Blood Types Can Cause Immune Reactions between Mother and Fetus
379(1)
Organ Transplants Must be Immunologically Matched
380(3)
Successful Transplants Depend on HLA Matching
381(1)
Animal-Human Organ Transplants
381(2)
The HLA System and Disease Associations
383(1)
Disorders of the Immune System
383(3)
Overreaction in the Immune System Causes Allergies
383(2)
Autoimmune Reactions Cause the Immune System to Attack the Body
385(1)
Genetic Disorders Can Impair the Immune System
385(1)
Concepts and Controversies Why Bee Stings Can Be Fatal
386(3)
AIDS Attacks the Immune System
387(2)
Guest Essay Medicine---A Scientific Safari
389(1)
M. Michael Glovsky
Case Studies
390(1)
Summary
390(1)
Questions and Problems
391(1)
Internet Activities
392(1)
For Further Reading
392(2)
Genetics of Behavior
394(27)
Models, Methods, and Phenotypes in Studying Behavior
396(2)
Genetic Models of Inheritance and Behavior
396(1)
Methods of Studying Behavior Genetics
397(1)
Concepts and Controversies Is Going to Medical School a Genetic Trait?
398(1)
Phenotypes: How Is Behavior Defined?
398(1)
Animal Models: The Search for Behavior Genes
399(2)
Open-Field Behavior in Mice
399(1)
Learning in Drosophila
399(2)
Single-Gene Effects on Human Behavior
401(3)
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome Is a Disorder of Nucleic Acid Metabolism
401(1)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Affects Nerve Fibers
402(1)
Huntington Disease Is an Adult Onset Disorder
403(1)
Single Genes, Aggressive Behavior, and Brain Metabolism
404(2)
Mapping a Gene for Aggression
405(1)
Problems with Single-Gene Models
406(1)
The Genetics of Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia
406(3)
Mood Disorders: Unipolar and Bipolar Illnesses
406(2)
Schizophrenia Has a Complex Phenotype
408(1)
Concepts and Controversies The Link between Madness and Genius
409(1)
Genetics and Social Behavior
410(4)
Tourette Syndrome Affects Speech and Behavior
410(1)
Alzheimer Disease Has Genetic and Nongenetic Components
410(2)
Alcoholism Has Several Components
412(1)
Sexual Orientation is a Multifactorial Trait
413(1)
Guest Essay Neurogenetics: From Mutants to Molecules
414(1)
Summing Up: The Current Status of Human Behavior Genetics
415(2)
Case Studies
417(1)
Summary
417(1)
Questions and Problems
418(1)
Internet Activities
419(1)
For Further Reading
419(2)
Genes in Populations
421(20)
The Population as a Genetic Reservoir
423(2)
Measuring Allele Frequencies in Populations
425(2)
Codominant Allele Frequencies Can Be Measured Directly
425(1)
Recessive Allele Frequencies Cannot by Measured Directly
426(1)
Concepts and Controversies The Thrifty Genotype
427(1)
The Hardy-Weinberg Law: Measuring Allele and Genotype Frequencies
427(2)
Assumptions for the Hardy-Weinberg Law
428(1)
Calculating Allele and Genotype Frequencies
428(1)
Populations Can Be in Genetic Equilibrium
429(1)
Using the Hardy-Weinberg Law in Human Genetics
429(6)
Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Alleles
430(1)
Autosomal Codominant Alleles
430(1)
X-Linked Traits
430(1)
Multiple Alleles
431(1)
Estimating the Frequency of Heterozygotes in a Population
431(4)
Anthropology, Population Structure, and Genetics
435(3)
Case Studies
438(1)
Summary
438(1)
Questions and Problems
439(1)
Internet Activities
439(1)
For Further Reading
440(1)
Human Diversity and Evolution
441(27)
Measuring Genetic Diversity in Human Populations
442(5)
New Alleles are Generated by Mutation
443(1)
Genetic Drift Can Change Allele Frequencies
444(1)
Natural Selection Acts on Variation in Populations
445(2)
Selection and the Genetic History of a Population
447(1)
Natural Selection and the Frequency of Genetic Disorders
447(1)
Human Activity as a Force in Changing Allele Frequencies
448(6)
Migration Reduces Genetic Variation between Populations
448(2)
Mate Selection Is Usually Nonrandom
450(1)
Culture Is a Force in Altering Allele Frequencies
451(3)
Genetic Variation in Human Populations
454(2)
The Spread of Polymorphisms
454(1)
Measuring Gene Flow among Populations
455(1)
The Question of Race
456(2)
Races as Subspecies
457(1)
Are There Human Races?
457(1)
Human Genetic Variation: Summing Up
458(1)
Primate Evolution and Human Origins
458(4)
Humanlike Hominids Appeared about Four Million Years Ago
458(2)
The Genus Homo Appeared about Two Million Years Ago
460(1)
Homo Erectus Originated in Africa
461(1)
Concepts and Controversies Tool Time: Did Homo erectus Use Killer Frisbees?
462(1)
The Appearance and Spread of Homo Sapiens
463(2)
Two Theories Differ on How and Where Homo sapiens Originated
463(1)
The Spread of Humans Across the World
464(1)
Case Studies
465(1)
Summary
465(1)
Questions and Problems
466(1)
Internet Activities
466(1)
For Further Reading
467(1)
Genetic Screening and Genetic Counseling
468(20)
Genetic Screening
469(5)
Newborn and Carrier Screening
470(2)
Occupational Screening
472(1)
Reproductive Screening
473(1)
Prenatal Testing
474(4)
Ultrasonography
475(1)
Fetoscopy
476(1)
Testing Embryonic Blastomeres
476(1)
Risks and Problems Associated with Prenatal Testing
477(1)
Genetic Counseling
478(1)
Who are Genetic Counselors?
478(1)
Concepts and Controversies The Business of Making Babies
479(3)
Reasons to Seek Genetic Counseling
480(1)
How Does Genetic Counseling Work?
480(2)
Future Directions
482(1)
The Impact of Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening
482(3)
Personal Consequences
482(1)
Social Consequences
483(1)
Legal Implications
484(1)
Case Studies
485(1)
Summary
485(1)
Questions and Problems
486(1)
Internet Activities
487(1)
For Further Reading
488
Appendix A Probability A-a
Appendix B Answers to Selected Questions and Problems B-a
Glossary G-a
Credits C-a
Index I-a


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