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Human Learning,9780138756840
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Human Learning

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780138756840

ISBN10:
0138756848
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

This leading text in learning theories explains principles and theories of human learning in a lucid and engaging fashion and lays out the application of those theories and principles to educational practice. Written for students with little background in psychology, the text demonstrates how different concepts relate to one another, provides numerous examples, and emphasizes meaningful learning of the material it presents. The text covers a broad range of theories, including conditioning, social cognitive theory, information processing, and social constructivism.

Table of Contents

PART ONE INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN LEARNING
Definitions and Perspectives of Learning
1(8)
Importance of Learning
2(1)
Defining Learning
3(1)
Nature of Principles and Theories
4(2)
Advantages of Theories
5(1)
Disadvantages of Theories
6(1)
A Perspective on Theories and Principles
6(1)
Applying Principles and Theories to Instructional Practice
6(1)
Overview of the Book
7(1)
Summary
8(1)
PART TWO BEHAVIORIST VIEWS OF LEARNING
Overview of Behaviorism
9(12)
Assumptions of Behaviorism
10(1)
Early Theorists in the Behaviorist Tradition
11(7)
Ivan Pavlov
11(1)
Edward L. Thorndike
12(1)
John B. Watson
13(1)
Edwin R. Guthrie
14(1)
Clark L. Hull
15(1)
Burrhus Frederic Skinner
16(2)
Contemporary Behaviorism
18(1)
General Educational Implications of Behaviorism
18(2)
Emphasis on Behavior
18(1)
Drill and Practice
19(1)
Breaking Habits
19(1)
Rewards (Reinforcement) for Desirable Behavior
20(1)
Summary
20(1)
Classical Conditioning
21(14)
Pavlov's Experiment
22(1)
The Classical Conditioning Model
23(1)
Classical Conditioning in Human Learning
24(2)
Basic Concepts in Classical Conditioning
26(3)
Extinction
26(1)
Spontaneous Recovery
26(1)
Stimulus Generalization
27(1)
Stimulus Discrimination
27(1)
Higher-Order Conditioning
27(1)
Sensory Preconditioning
28(1)
Contemporary Perspectives on Classical Conditioning
29(1)
Changing Inappropriate Conditioned Responses
30(3)
Extinguishing Undersirable Responses
31(1)
Counterconditioning More Desirable Responses
31(2)
Educational Implications of Classical Conditioning
33(1)
Summary
34(1)
Operant Conditioning
35(32)
The Operant Conditioning Model
36(2)
Defining Reinforcers and Reinforcement
37(1)
Three Important Conditions for Operant Conditioning
37(1)
What Behaviors Can Be Reinforced?
38(1)
Contrasting Operant Conditioning and Classical Conditioning
38(1)
Basic Concepts in Operant Conditioning
39(4)
Free Operant Level (Baseline)
39(1)
Terminal Behavior
40(1)
Extinction
40(1)
Superstitious Behavior
41(1)
Shaping
41(1)
Chaining
42(1)
The Nature of Reinforcers
43(6)
Primary and Secondary Reinforcers
43(1)
Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, and Punishment
44(2)
Different Kinds of Reinforcing Stimuli
46(3)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Reinforcement
49(2)
Timing
49(1)
Magnitude and Appeal
49(1)
Consistency
50(1)
Schedules of Reinforcement
51(5)
Ratio Schedules: Reinforcing a Certain Number of Responses
51(2)
Interval Schedules: Reinforcing the First Response After a Time Period
53(2)
Differential Schedules: Reinforcing Rates of Responding
55(1)
Stimulus Control
56(3)
Stimulus Generalization
57(1)
Stimulus Discrimination
57(1)
Stimulus Control in the Classroom
58(1)
Contemporary Perspectives on Operant Conditioning
59(1)
Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors
60(2)
Extinguishing Responses
61(1)
Reinforcing Other Behaviors
61(1)
Reinforcing Incompatible Behaviors
62(1)
When Reinforcement Doesn't Work
62(3)
The ``Reinforcer'' Doesn't Reinforce
62(1)
Reinforcement Is Inconsistent
63(1)
Change Isn't Worthwhile
64(1)
Shaping Proceeds Too Rapidly
64(1)
Skinner on Education
65(1)
Summary
65(2)
Applications of Operant Conditioning
67(27)
Instructional Objectives
68(4)
Behavioral Objectives
68(1)
The Current Perspective on Instructional Objectives
69(1)
Formulating Different Levels of Objectives
70(1)
Usefulness and Effectiveness of Objectives
70(2)
Programmed Instruction and Computer-Assisted Instruction
72(5)
Effectiveness of PI and CAI
77(1)
Mastery Learning
77(3)
Keller's Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)
78(1)
Effectiveness of Mastery Learning and PSI
79(1)
Contingency Contracts
80(2)
Guidelines for Writing Contingency Contracts
81(1)
Applied Behavior Analysis
82(7)
Components of Applied Behavior Analysis
82(3)
Using Applied Behavior Analysis with Large Groups
85(3)
Adding a Cognitive Component to ABA
88(1)
Effectiveness of ABA
88(1)
Criticisms of Using Reinforcement in the Classroom
89(2)
Bogus Complaints
89(1)
Genuine Concerns
90(1)
When Operant Conditioning Techniques are Most Appropriate
91(1)
Summary
92(2)
Effects of Aversive Stimuli
94(20)
Escape and Avoidance Learning
94(4)
Escape Learning
95(1)
Avoidance Learning
96(2)
Punishment
98(13)
Disadvantages of Punishment
99(2)
Effectiveness of Punishment
101(2)
Theoretical Perspectives on Punishment
103(1)
Using Punishment in Classroom Settings
104(2)
Guidelines for Using Punishment Effectively
106(5)
Learned Helplessness
111(2)
Summary
113(1)
PART THREE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Social Learning Theory
114(31)
The Social Learning Model
116(1)
General Principles of Social Learning Theory
116(1)
Environmental Factors in Social Learning: Reinforcement and Punishment
117(5)
How the Environment Reinforces and Punishes Modeling
118(2)
Problems with a Strict Operant Conditioning Analysis of Social Learning
120(1)
A Contemporary Social Learning Perspective of Reinforcement and Punishment
121(1)
Cognitive Factors in Social Learning
122(1)
Learning without Performance
122(1)
Cognitive Processing during Learning
122(1)
Expectations
122(1)
Awareness of Response-Consequence Contingencies
123(1)
Reciprocal Causation
123(2)
Modeling
125(8)
Types of Models
125(1)
Behaviors That Can Be Learned through Modeling
125(3)
Conditions Necessary for Effective Modeling to Occur
128(3)
Effects of Modeling on Behavior
131(1)
Characteristics of Effective Models
132(1)
Self-Efficacy
133(3)
How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior
134(1)
Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy
134(2)
Self-Regulation
136(5)
Aspects of Self-Regulation
136(1)
Promoting Self-Regulation
137(3)
Self-Regulation from a Cognitive Perspective
140(1)
Educational Implications of Social Learning Theory
141(3)
Summary
144(1)
PART FOUR COGNITIVE VIEWS OF LEARNING
Antecedents and Assumptions of Cognitivism
145(30)
Edward Tolman's Purposive Behaviorism
146(4)
Gestalt Psychology
150(4)
Jean Piaget's Developmental Theory
154(6)
Lev Vygotsky's Developmental Theory
160(3)
Verbal Learning Research
163(5)
Introduction to Contemporary Cognitivism
168(4)
General Assumptions of Cognitive Theories
168(2)
Information Processing Theory
170(1)
Constructivism
171(1)
Contextual Views
171(1)
Integrating Cognitive Perspectives
172(1)
General Educational Implications of Cognitive Theories
172(1)
Overview of Upcoming Chapters
173(1)
Summary
174(1)
Basic Components of Memory
175(28)
Basic Terminology in Memory Theory
176(2)
Learning versus Memory
176(1)
Storage
177(1)
Encoding
177(1)
Retrieval
177(1)
A Dual-Store Model of Memory
178(1)
Sensory Register
179(2)
Characteristics of the Sensory Register
180(1)
Moving Information on to Working Memory: The Role of Attention
181(6)
Factors Influencing Attention
182(1)
Nominal versus Effective Stimuli
183(1)
Nature of Attention
184(2)
Attention as a Limited Capacity
186(1)
Working Memory
187(5)
Characteristics of Working Memory
188(2)
Control Processes in Working Memory
190(2)
Long-Term Memory
192(2)
Characteristics of Long-Term Memory
192(1)
Control Processes in Long-Term Memory
193(1)
Are Working Memory and Long-Term Memory Really Different?
194(2)
Evidence Supporting the Distinction
194(1)
Evidence against the Distinction
195(1)
Functional Theories of Human Memory
196(3)
Levels of Processing
196(2)
Memory Activation
198(1)
Generalizations About Memory and Their Educational Implications
199(2)
Summary
201(2)
Long-Term Memory I: Storage
203(27)
Construction in Storage
204(4)
Examples of Construction in Action
205(3)
Long-Term Memory Storage Processes
208(11)
Selection
210(1)
Rehearsal
211(1)
Meaningful Learning
212(1)
Internal Organization
213(2)
Elaboration
215(2)
Visual Imagery
217(2)
Factors Affecting Long-Term Memory Storage
219(9)
Activities That Occur during Learning
219(1)
Working Memory
220(1)
Prior Knowledge
221(4)
Prior Misconceptions
225(1)
Expectations
226(2)
Some Final Remarks About Long-Term Memory Storage
228(1)
Summary
229(1)
Long-Term Memory II:The Nature of Knowledge
230(34)
Possible Dichotomies in Long-Term Memory
231(2)
Episodic versus Semantic Memory
232(1)
Declarative versus Procedural Knowledge
232(1)
Explicit versus Implicit Memory
232(1)
How Information is Encoded in Long-Term Memory
233(5)
Encoding in Terms of Symbols: Words, Numbers, Etc.
233(1)
Encoding in Terms of Appearance: Imagery
234(1)
Encoding in Terms of Meanings: Propositions
235(1)
Encoding in Terms of Actions: Productions
236(2)
The Organization of Long-Term Memory
238(6)
Long-Term Memory as a Hierarchy
239(2)
Long-Term Memory as a Propositional Network
241(2)
Parallel Distributed Processing
243(1)
Concepts
244(10)
Theories of Concept Learning
247(7)
Schemas and Scripts
254(3)
Mental Theories
257(1)
Development of Expertise
258(1)
Generalizations About the Nature of Knowledge
259(3)
Summary
262(2)
Long-Term Memory III: Retrieval, Forgetting, and Classroom Practice
264(21)
How Retrieval Works
265(3)
Retrieval Cues
268(2)
Construction in Retrieval
270(3)
Value of Repetition and Review
273(3)
Development of Automaticity
274(2)
Theories of Forgetting
276(4)
Decay
276(1)
Obliterative Subsumption
277(1)
Interference
277(1)
Failure to Retrieve
278(1)
Repression
278(1)
Construction Error
279(1)
Failure to Store
279(1)
Facilitating Storage and Retrieval in the Classroom
280(4)
Summary
284(1)
Applications of Cognitivism I: Promoting Effective Memory Processes
285(33)
Expository Instruction
286(7)
Advance Organizers
288(1)
Ongoing Connections to Prior Knowledge
289(2)
Coherent Organization
291(1)
Signals
291(1)
Visual Aids
292(1)
Summaries
293(1)
Teaching Concepts
293(5)
Factors Influencing Concept Learning
294(2)
Teaching Concepts Effectively
296(2)
Mnemonics
298(6)
Verbal Mediation
298(1)
Visual Imagery
299(3)
Superimposed Meaningful Structure
302(1)
External Retrieval Cues
303(1)
Why Mnemonics Work
304(1)
Teacher Questions
304(1)
Wait Time
305(2)
Conceptual Change
307(6)
Classroom Assessment Practices and Learning
313(2)
Paper-Pencil Tests
313(1)
Alternative Forms of Assessment
314(1)
Teacher Expectations
315(2)
Summary
317(1)
PART FIVE COMPLEX LEARNING AND COGNITION
Metacognition and Study Strategies
318(29)
Metacognitive Knowledge and Skills
320(2)
Self-Regulated Learning
322(2)
Effective Learning and Study Strategies
324(10)
Meaningful Learning and Elaboration
324(1)
Organization
325(3)
Note Taking
328(2)
Identifying Important Information
330(1)
Comprehension Monitoring
330(3)
Summarizing
333(1)
Development of Metacognitive Knowledge and Skills
334(1)
Epistemological Beliefs
335(4)
Why Students Don't Always Use Effective Strategies
339(2)
Promoting Effective Learning and Study Strategies
341(4)
Effectiveness of Study Skills Training Programs
341(1)
Guidelines for Promoting Effective Strategies
342(3)
Summary
345(2)
Transfer and Problem Solving
347(38)
Transfer
348(1)
Types of Transfer
348(2)
Theories of Transfer
350(4)
Factors Affecting Transfer
354(3)
Problem Solving
357(21)
Basic Concepts in Problem Solving
358(2)
Theories of Problem Solving
360(2)
Cognitive Factors in Problem Solving
362(9)
Problem-Solving Strategies
371(6)
Meaningless versus Meaningful Problem Solving
377(1)
Facilitating Transfer and Problem Solving in the Classroom
378(5)
Summary
383(2)
Applications of Cognitivism II: Learning through Interactions with Others
385(21)
Class Discussions
386(3)
Guidelines for Promoting Effective Discussions
387(2)
Reciprocal Teaching
389(3)
Effectiveness of Reciprocal Teaching
391(1)
Cooperative Learning
392(4)
Common Features of Cooperative Learning
393(2)
How Heterogeneous Should Cooperative Groups Be?
395(1)
Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning Activities
395(1)
Peer Tutoring
396(3)
Guidelines for Facilitating Effective Tutoring
397(2)
Apprenticeships
399(1)
Authentic Activities
400(2)
Effectiveness of Authentic Activities
401(1)
Community of Learners
402(2)
Advantages of Interactive Approaches
404(1)
Summary
404(2)
PART SIX MOTIVATION
Motivation and Affect
406(26)
General Effects of Motivation
407(1)
Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation
408(2)
Drives and Incentives
410(2)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
412(3)
Self-Worth Theory
415(1)
Individual Differences in Motivation
416(3)
Need for Affiliation
416(1)
Need for Approval
417(1)
Need for Achievement
417(2)
The Contemporary Cognitive Perspective of Motivation
419(1)
The Role of Affect
419(8)
Anxiety
421(6)
Promoting Student Motivation
427(4)
Summary
431(1)
Cognitive Factors in Motivation
432(41)
Goals
434(5)
Learning Goals versus Performance Goals
435(3)
Coordinating Multiple Goals
438(1)
Expectancies and Values
439(1)
Interest
440(3)
Effects of Interest
441(1)
Factors Promoting Interest
442(1)
Attributions
443(13)
Dimensions Underlying People's Attributions
443(3)
Effects of Attributions
446(3)
Factors Influencing the Development of Attributions
449(4)
Explanatory Style: Mastery Orientation versus Learned Helplessness
453(1)
Changing Attributions
454(2)
Competence and Self-Determination
456(6)
Competence
457(1)
Self-Determination
457(4)
Effects of Feedback
461(1)
Internalized Motivation
462(2)
Effects of Challenge and Competition
464(3)
Challenge
464(1)
Competition
465(2)
Promoting Cognitions That Motivate
467(4)
Summary
471(2)
References 473(55)
Author Index 528(19)
Subject Index 547


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