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Human Learning

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780132595186

ISBN10:
0132595184
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/14/2011
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $179.60

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Summary

This highly respected, market-leading textbook on learning theories applied to education prepares pre-service teachers and other educators with a unique and meaningful learning experience. The sixth edition of Human Learningcovers a broad-range of learning theories and key perspectives on learning related to education, including: behaviorist, cognitive, social cognitive, contextual, and developmental theories, always highlighting relationships between concepts. Additionally, the text details associationistic processes (e.g., classical and instrumental conditioning), and more complex and distinctly human processes (e.g. metacognition, self-regulated learning, critical thinking). Every chapter features key pedagogical concepts with specific applications to classroom practice, numerous concrete examples that illustrate key concepts, principles, and recommendations and dozens of proven examples help make the fundamentals of these theories comprehensible to students with little or no prior coursework in psychology.    Significant updates to this textbook include: important updates to reflect the most current research and new theories in the field, expansion of the chapter on cognition and memory, re-organization of Piaget and Vygotsky content into two separate chapters, a core section on teaching critical thinking skills, and the discussion of technology-based instructed has been significantly revised and expanded in this edition.

Author Biography

Jeanne Ellis Ormrod received her B.A. in psychology from Brown University and her M.S. and Ph.D. in educational psychology from The Pennsylvania State University. She earned licensure in school psychology through postdoctoral work at Temple University and the University of Colorado at Boulder and has worked as a middle school geography teacher and school psychologist. She was Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Northern Colorado until 1998, when she moved east to return to her native New England. She is currently affiliated with the University of New Hampshire, where she occasionally teaches courses in educational psychology and research methods. She has published numerous research articles on cognition and memory, cognitive development, and giftedness, but she is probably best known for this textbook and four others: Educational Psychology (currently in its seventh edition); Essentials of Educational Psychology (currently in its second edition); Child Development and Education (co-authored with Teresa McDevitt, currently in its fourth edition); and Practical Research (co-authored with Paul Leedy, currently in its ninth edition). With her three children now grown and out on their own, she lives in New Hampshire with her husband Richard.

Table of Contents

PART I. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN LEARNING

Chapter 1. Perspectives on Learning                                                                               

The Importance of Learning

Defining Learning

Determining When Learning Has Occurred

Research, Principles, and Theories

         How Theories of Learning Have Evolved over Time

         Advantages of Theories

         Potential Drawbacks of Theories

         A Perspective on Theories and Principles

Applying Knowledge about Learning to Instructional Practice

Overview of the Book

Summary

 

Chapter 2. Learning and the Brain                                                                                   

Basic Building Blocks of the Human Nervous System

         Neurons

         Synapses

         Glial Cells

Brain Structures and Functions

         Methods in Brain Research

         Parts of the Brain

         The Left and Right Hemispheres

         Interconnectedness of Brain Structures

Development of the Brain

         Prenatal Development

         Development in Infancy and Early Childhood

         Development in Middle Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood

         Factors Influencing Brain Development

         To What Extent Are There Critical Periods in Brain Development?

         To What Extent Is the Brain “Prewired” to Know or Learn Things?

The Physiological Basis of Learning

Educational Implications of Brain Research

Summary

 

PART II. BEHAVIORIST VIEWS OF LEARNING

Chapter 3. Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning                                                        

Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism

Classical Conditioning

         The Classical Conditioning Model

         Classical Conditioning in Human Learning

         Common Phenomena in Classical Conditioning

         Cognition in Classical Conditioning

         Changing Undesirable Conditioned Responses

Educational Implications of Behaviorist Assumptions and Classical Conditioning

Summary

 

Chapter 4. Instrumental Conditioning

Thorndike’s Early Research

Rewards and Reinforcement

         Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

         The Various Forms That Reinforcement Can Take

Punishment

         Effective Forms of Punishment

         Ineffective Forms of Punishment

Common Phenomena in Instrumental Conditioning

         Superstitious Behavior

         Shaping

         Chaining

         Extinction

         Effects of Reinforcement Schedules

         Avoidance Learning

Effects of Antecedent Stimuli and Responses in Instrumental Conditioning

         Cueing

         Setting Events

         Generalization

         Stimulus Discrimination

         Behavioral Momentum

Cognition and Motivation in Instrumental Conditioning

Summary

                                                                                                                                            

Chapter 5. Applications of Instrumental Conditioning                                                     

Applying Behaviorist Principles to Classroom Management

         Concerns about Using Reinforcement and Punishment in the Classroom

         Using Reinforcement to Increase Desirable Behaviors

         Strategies for Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors

Applied Behavior Analysis

         Using Applied Behavior Analysis with Large Groups

         Adding a Cognitive Component to ABA

Instructional Objectives

         Behavioral Objectives

         Current Perspectives on Instructional Objectives

         Usefulness and Effectiveness of Objectives

         Formulating Different Levels of Objectives

Programmed Instruction and Computer-Assisted Instruction

         Effectiveness of PI and CAI

Mastery Learning

         Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)

         Effectiveness of Mastery Learning and PSI

When Behaviorist Techniques Are Most Appropriate

Summary

PART III. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

Chapter 6. Social Cognitive Theory                                                                                  

General Principles of Social Cognitive Theory

Environmental Factors in Social Learning: Revisiting Reinforcement and Punishment

         Problems with a Strict Behaviorist Analysis of Social Learning

Cognitive Factors in Social Learning

Reciprocal Causation

Modeling

         How Modeling Affects Behavior

         Characteristics of Effective Models

         Behaviors That Can Be Learned through Modeling

         Conditions Necessary for Effective Modeling to Occur

Self-Efficacy

         How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Cognition

         Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy

Self-Regulation

         Elements of Self-Regulation

         Promoting Self-Regulated Behavior

         The Cognitive Side of Self-Regulation

Educational Implications of Social Cognitive Theory

Summary

 

PART IV. COGNITIVE VIEWS OF LEARNING

Chapter 7. Introduction to Cognitivism                                                                            

Edward Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism

Gestalt Psychology

Verbal Learning Research

Introduction to Contemporary Cognitivism

         General Assumptions of Cognitive Theories

         Information Processing Theory

         Constructivism

         Contextual Theories

         Integrating Cognitive Perspectives

General Educational Implications of Cognitive Theories

Summary

 

Chapter 8. Basic Components of Memory

A Dual-Store Model of Memory

         Sensory Register

         Moving Information to Working Memory: The Role of Attention

         Working Memory

         Moving Information to Long-Term Memory: Connecting New Information with Prior

            Knowledge

         Long-Term Memory

Challenges to the Dual-Store Model

         Are Working Memory and Long-Term Memory Really Different?

         Is Conscious Thought Necessary for Long-Term Memory Storage?

Alternative Views of Human Memory

         Levels of Processing

         Activation

Remembering That The Map Is Not the Territory

Generalizations about Memory and Their Educational Implications

Summary

        

Chapter 9. Long-Term Memory I: Storage and Encoding

Construction in Storage

         Examples of Construction in Action

Long-Term Memory Storage Processes

         Selection

         Rehearsal

         Meaningful Learning

         Internal Organization

         Elaboration

         Visual Imagery

         How Procedural Knowledge Is Acquired

         Does New Knowledge Require a Consolidation Period?

Factors Affecting Long-Term Memory Storage

         Working Memory

         Prior Knowledge

         Prior Misconceptions

         Expectations

         Verbalization

         Enactment

         Repetition and Review

Promoting Effective Storage Processes

Some Final Remarks about Long-Term Memory Storage

Summary

                                                                                                                                            

Chapter 10. Long-Term Memory II: The Nature of Knowledge

The Various Kinds of Knowledge

         Declarative and Procedural Knowledge

         Explicit and Implicit Knowledge

How Knowledge Is Encoded in Long-Term Memory

         Encoding in Terms of Physical Characteristics

         Encoding in Terms of Actions

         Encoding in Terms of Symbols

         Encoding in Terms of Meanings

         Different Forms of Encoding Are Not Mutually Exclusive

The Organization of Long-Term Memory

         Long-Term Memory as a Hierarchy

         Long-Term Memory as a Network

         Parallel Distributed Processing

Concepts

         Theories of Concept Learning

         Factors Facilitating Concept Learning

Schemas and Scripts

Personal Theories

         Personal Theories versus Reality

         Fostering Theory Development

Worldviews

The Challenge of Conceptual Change

         Promoting Conceptual Change

Development of Expertise

Generalizations about the Nature of Knowledge

Summary

 

Chapter 11. Long-Term Memory III: Retrieval and Forgetting                                     

How Retrieval Works

         Retrieval Cues

Construction in Retrieval

         The Power of Suggestion: Effects of Subsequently Presented

            Information

         Constructing Entirely New “Memories”

         Remembering Earlier Recollections

         Self-Monitoring During Retrieval

         Important Cautions in Probing People’s Memories

Forgetting

         Decay

         Interference and Inhibition

         Repression

         Failure to Retrieve

         Construction Error

         Failure to Store or Consolidate

         The Case of Infantile Amnesia

General Principles of Retrieval for Instructional Settings

Summary

 

PART V. DEVELOPMENTAL AND CONTEXTUAL PERSPECTIVES

Chapter 12. Cognitive-Developmental Perspectives                                                       

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

         Key Ideas in Piaget’s Theory

         Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

Current Perspectives on Piaget’s Theory

         Capabilities of Different Age-Groups

         Effects of Experience and Prior Knowledge             

         Effects of Culture

         Views on Piaget’s Stages

Neo-Piagetian Theories of Cognitive Development

         Case’s Theory

Implications of Piagetian and Neo-Piagetian Theories

Summary

 

Chapter 13. Sociocultural Theory and Other Contextual Perspectives                          

Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

         Key Ideas in Vygotsky’s Theory

         Comparing Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories

Current Perspectives on Vygotsky’s Theory

         Social Construction of Meaning

         Scaffolding

         Participation in Adult Activities

         Apprenticeships

         Acquisition of Teaching Skills

         Dynamic Assessment

Adding a Sociocultural Element to Information Processing Theory

         Intersubjectivity

         Social Construction of Memory

         Collaborative Use of Cognitive Strategies

Expanding the Contextualist Framework

General Implications of Sociocultural and Contextualist Theorists

Peer-Interactive Instructional Strategies

         Class Discussions

         Reciprocal Teaching

         Cooperative Learning

         Peer Tutoring

         Communities of Learners

         Technology-Based Collaborative Learning

Summary

 

PART VI. COMPLEX LEARNING AND COGNITION

Chapter 14. Metacognition, Self-Regulated Learning, and Study Strategies                

Metacognitive Knowledge and Skills

Self-Regulated Learning

         The Roots of Self-Regulated Learning

Effective Learning and Study Strategies

         Meaningful Learning and Elaboration

         Organization

         Note Taking

         Identifying Important Information

         Summarizing

         Comprehension Monitoring

         Mnemonics

Development of Metacognitive Knowledge and Skills

Epistemic Beliefs

         Developmental and Cultural Differences in Epistemic Beliefs

         Effects of Epistemic Beliefs

The Intentional Learner

Why Students Don’t Always Use Effective Strategies

Promoting Effective Learning and Study Strategies

Summary

 

Chapter 15. Transfer, Problem Solving, and Critical Thinking                                       

Transfer

         Types of Transfer

         Theories of Transfer

         Factors Affecting Transfer

Problem Solving

         Theories of Problem Solving

         Cognitive Factors in Problem Solving

         Problem-Solving Strategies

         Meaningless Versus Meaningful Problem Solving

Facilitating Transfer and Problem Solving in the Classroom

Critical Thinking

         Developmental, Individual, and Cultural Differences in Critical Thinking

         Fostering Critical Thinking in the Classroom

Summary

 

PART VII. MOTIVATION

Chapter 16. Motivation and Affect

General Effects of Motivation

         Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation

Basic Human Needs

         Drive Reduction

         Arousal

         Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

         Competence and Self-Worth

         Self-Determination

         Relatedness

Individual Differences in Motivation

         Need for Affiliation

         Need for Approval

         Need for Achievement

         Dispositions

Affect and Its Effects

         How Affect Is Related to Motivation

         How Affect Is Related to Learning and Cognition

         Anxiety

Creating a Motivating Classroom Environment

Summary

        

Chapter 17. Cognitive Factors in Motivation                                                                   

Interests

         Effects of Interest

         Factors Promoting Interest

Expectancies and Values

         Effects of Expectancies and Values

         Factors Influencing Expectancies and Values

Goals

         Achievement Goals

         Work-Avoidance Goals

         Social Goals

         Career Goals

         Coordinating Multiple Goals

Attributions

         Effects of Attributions

         Factors Influencing the Nature of Attributions

         Explanatory Style: Mastery Orientation Versus Learned Helplessness

Motivation, Affect, and Self-Regulation

         How Motivation and Affect Influence Self-Regulation

         How Self-Regulation Influences Motivation and Affect

         Internalized Motivation

Encouraging Motivating Cognitions

         A TARGETS Mnemonic for Motivational Strategies

Summary

 

REFERENCES


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