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Human Memory

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205457601

ISBN10:
0205457606
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2011
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $89.00
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  • Human Memory
    Human Memory




Summary

The goal of this book is to provide the reader with a guide to human memory, its properties, and theories about how it works and how an understanding of it can help understand who we are and why we do the things that we do. The author focuses on the fundamentals of how our memory works and how it is studied.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Overview and History of Memory Research
1(20)
A Smattering of Definitions
1(1)
Memory
1(1)
Learning
2(1)
Metaphors for Memory
2(2)
History of Memory Research
4(9)
The Ancients
4(1)
Important Modern Precursors
4(1)
Darwin and Evolution
5(1)
Philosophy of Mind
5(1)
Early Memory Researchers in Psychology
6(1)
Ebbinghaus
6(2)
Bartlett
8(1)
Gestalt Psychology
8(1)
Behaviorism
9(1)
Verbal Learning
10(1)
Early Efforts in Neuroscience
11(1)
The Cognitive Revolution
12(1)
The Modal Model of Memory
13(1)
Multiple Memory Systems
14(3)
Recurring Issues
17(2)
Neurological Bases
17(1)
Emotion
17(1)
Multiple Memory Sources
18(1)
Embodied Cognition
18(1)
Scientific Rigor and Converging Evidence
18(1)
Summary
19(1)
Key Terms
20(1)
Neuroscience of Memory
21(24)
Neurons
21(5)
Neural Structure
22(1)
Neural Communication
23(1)
Action Potential
23(1)
Neurotransmitters and the Synapse
24(1)
Neural Change in Learning
25(1)
A Blind Alley
26(1)
Larger Structures
26(7)
Subcortical Structures
27(1)
Hippocampus
27(1)
Other Structures
28(1)
Cortical Lobes
29(2)
Occipital Lobes
31(1)
Parietal Lobes
32(1)
Temporal Lobes
32(1)
Frontal Lobes
32(1)
Neurological Measures
33(9)
Structural Measures
33(1)
Computer-Assisted Tomography
33(1)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
33(1)
Electrical Measures
33(1)
Electrical Stimulation
34(3)
Single-Cell Recording
37(1)
Event-Related Potentials
37(1)
Blood Flow Measures
38(1)
Positron Emission Tomography
38(2)
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
40(1)
Altered Brains
40(1)
Case Studies and Lesions
40(1)
Special Populations
41(1)
The Hera Model
42(1)
Summary
43(1)
Key Terms
44(1)
Methods and Principles
45(20)
Components of Memory Research
45(1)
What Is an Experiment?
45(1)
Other Types of Studies
46(1)
Aspects of Learning
46(6)
Intentional versus Incidental Learning
47(1)
Methods
47(1)
Principles
47(1)
Levels of Processing
47(1)
Imagery
48(1)
Generation
48(2)
Automaticity
50(1)
Stimulus Characteristics
50(1)
Methods
50(1)
Principles
50(1)
Savings
50(1)
Pictures and Concreteness
51(1)
Emotion
51(1)
Frequency
51(1)
Assessing the Contents of Memory
52(6)
Recall
52(1)
Methods
52(1)
Free Recall
52(1)
Forced Recall
52(1)
Cued Recall
53(1)
Retrieval Plans
53(1)
Principles
53(1)
Forgetting Curve
53(1)
Overlearning
53(1)
Reminiscence and Hypermnesia
54(1)
Recognition
55(1)
Methods
55(1)
Old-New Recognition
55(1)
Correction for Guessing
55(1)
Forced-Choice Recognition
56(1)
Social Influences
57(1)
Collaborative Inhibition
57(1)
Collaborative Facilitation
57(1)
Assessing Memory Structure and Process
58(4)
Mental Chronometry
58(1)
Methods
58(2)
Principles
60(1)
Cluster Analysis
60(1)
Methods
60(1)
Inter-Item Delays
60(1)
ARC scores
60(1)
Subjective Organization
61(1)
Principles
61(1)
Conscious Experience of Memory
62(1)
Metamemory Measures
62(1)
Methods
62(1)
Principles
62(1)
Implicit Memory
63(1)
Methods
63(1)
Summary
63(1)
Key Terms
64(1)
Sensory and Short-Term Memory
65(26)
Sensory Memory
65(1)
Iconic Memory
66(7)
Span and Duration of Iconic Memory
66(2)
Anorthoscopic Perception
68(1)
Trans-Saccadic Memory
69(3)
Change Blindness
72(1)
Echoic Memory
73(1)
Span and Duration of Echoic Memory
73(1)
Haptic Sensory Memory
74(1)
Span and Duration of Haptic Sensory Memory
74(1)
Short-Term Memory
75(14)
Short-Term Memory Capacity
75(1)
Chunking
75(1)
Very Large Capacity
76(1)
Duration of Short-Term Memory
77(1)
Decay
77(1)
Interference
78(2)
Retrieval in Short-Term Memory
80(2)
Serial versus Parallel Issues
82(1)
Serial Position Curves
82(1)
Primacy Effect
82(1)
Recency Effect
83(1)
Changing the Serial Position Curve
84(1)
Memory for Actions
85(1)
Suffix Effect
85(1)
Memory for Serial Order
86(1)
Slot-Based Models
87(1)
Chaining Models
87(1)
Perturbation Model
87(1)
Inhibition Models
87(1)
Context-Based Models
88(1)
Summary
89(1)
Key Terms
90(1)
Working Memory
91(22)
Baddeley and Hitch Model
91(2)
Phonological Loop
93(3)
Components
93(1)
Phenomena of the Phonological Loop
93(1)
Word Length Effect
94(1)
Articulatory Suppression
94(1)
Irrelevant Speech
95(1)
Phonological Similarity
95(1)
Lexicality
96(1)
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
96(10)
Mental Images
97(1)
Visual Scanning
97(2)
Mental Rotation
99(1)
Boundary Extension
100(2)
Dynamic Memory
102(1)
Representational Momentum
103(1)
Representational Gravity
104(1)
Representational Friction
105(1)
Context
105(1)
Central Executive
106(2)
Suppression
107(1)
Dysexecutive Syndrome
107(1)
Span Tests
108(2)
Reading Span
108(1)
Comprehension Span
109(1)
Operation Span
109(1)
Spatial Span
109(1)
Working Memory and Complex Processing
110(1)
Summary
111(1)
Key Terms
112(1)
Nondeclarative Memory
113(20)
Classical Conditioning
113(6)
Abstract Structure
114(1)
Pavlov
114(1)
Examples with Humans
115(1)
Associative Structure
116(1)
Important Phenomenon
117(1)
Initial Learning
117(1)
Forgetting
117(1)
Other Situations
117(1)
Effects of Prior Conditioned Memories
117(1)
Mere Exposure Effect
118(1)
Instrumental Conditioning
119(1)
Procedural Memory
120(3)
Skill Acquisition
120(1)
Stages of Skill Acquisition
120(1)
Cognitive Stage
121(1)
Associative Stage
121(1)
Autonomous Stage
121(1)
Long-Term Working Memory
122(1)
Implicit Memory
123(8)
Incidental Learning
123(1)
Indirect Tests of Memory
123(1)
Priming
124(1)
Other Verbal Tasks
125(2)
Some Nonverbal Tasks
127(1)
Data-Driven and Conceptually Driven Processes
128(1)
Sequence Learning
128(2)
Memory Under Anesthesia
130(1)
Summary
131(1)
Key Terms
132(1)
Episodic Long-Term Memory
133(28)
The Contents of Episodic Memory
133(8)
Serial Position Effects
133(1)
Levels of Representation
134(1)
Cueing
135(1)
Types of Cues
135(2)
Context
137(1)
Encoding Specificity
137(1)
State-Dependent Memory
138(1)
Mood-Congruent Memory
138(2)
Transfer Appropriate Processing
140(1)
Irrelevant Memories
141(9)
Interference
141(1)
Negative Transfer
141(1)
Proactive Interference
142(1)
Retroactive Interference
142(3)
Associative Interference
145(1)
Inhibition
146(1)
Part-Set Cuing
146(1)
Directed Forgetting
147(1)
Negative Priming
148(1)
Repeated Practice
148(2)
Inhibition, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory
150(1)
Repetition and Practice
150(4)
Massed and Distributed Practice
151(1)
Deficient Processing
152(1)
Encoding Variability
152(1)
Dual Processes
152(1)
Overlearning and Permastore
153(1)
Organization and Distinctiveness
154(4)
Organization
154(2)
Distinctiveness
156(1)
Relational and Item-Specific Processing
156(1)
Material Appropriate Processing
157(1)
Summary
158(1)
Key Terms
159(2)
Memory for Space and Time
161(26)
Memory for Space
161(17)
Memory Psychophysics
162(1)
Uncertainty Hypothesis
162(1)
Reperceptual Hypothesis
163(1)
Transformation Hypothesis
163(1)
Category Adjustment Theory
163(1)
Mental Maps
163(1)
Spatial Theories
164(2)
Additional Mental Map Phenomena
166(4)
Temporal and Hybrid Theories
170(2)
Routes versus Surveys
172(1)
Semantic Effects
173(1)
Mental Maps and Thinking
173(1)
Spatial Frameworks
174(4)
Memory for Time
178(7)
Phenomena
179(1)
Basic Memory Effects
179(1)
Shifting in Time
180(1)
Ordering
181(1)
Theories
181(1)
Distance-Based Theories
181(2)
Location-Based Theories
183(1)
Relative Time Theories
184(1)
Category Adjustment Model of Time
184(1)
Summary
185(1)
Key Terms
186(1)
Semantic Memory
187(28)
Semantic Priming
187(5)
Controlled Priming
188(2)
Mediated Priming
190(1)
Semantic Interconnectivity
191(1)
Inhibition
191(1)
Nature of Semantic Information
191(1)
Concepts and Categories
192(8)
Properties of Categories
192(2)
Classical Theory of Categorization
194(1)
Prototype Theory
194(3)
Exemplar Theory
197(1)
Explanation-Based Theory
198(1)
Stereotypes and Prejudice
199(1)
Ordered Relations
200(1)
Schemas and Scripts
201(7)
Primary Schema Processes
201(1)
Selection
201(1)
Abstraction
202(2)
Interpretation
204(1)
Integration
204(1)
Reconstruction
204(2)
Scripts
206(1)
Limits on Schema Usage
207(1)
Problems with Semantic Memory
208(4)
Semantic Illusions
208(2)
Naive Physics
210(2)
Summary
212(1)
Key Terms
213(2)
Formal Models of Long-Term Memory
215(24)
Simple Models of Memory
216(3)
Threshold Model
216(1)
Generate-Recognize Model
217(1)
Modeling Recognition and Recall
218(1)
Network Theories
219(6)
Semantic Networks
220(1)
Spreading Activation
220(2)
Priming
222(1)
Act
222(1)
Act Network
222(2)
Memory Systems
224(1)
Global Matching Models
225(7)
Sam
225(1)
Recall
225(2)
Recognition
227(1)
Minerva 2
228(1)
Echo Intensity
228(1)
Echo Content
229(1)
Specific and General Retrieval
229(1)
Further Work
230(1)
Todam and Charm
231(1)
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models
232(3)
Learning
234(1)
Dual Process Theories
235(2)
Atkinson and Juola
235(1)
Recent Views
235(1)
One Process or Two?
236(1)
Summary
237(1)
Key Terms
238(1)
Autobiographical Memory
239(20)
Characteristics of Autobiographical Memories
239(1)
Episodic or Semantic?
239(1)
Varieties of Information
240(1)
Levels of Autobiographical Memory
240(5)
Event Specific Memories
242(1)
General Event Memories
242(1)
Lifetime Period Memories
243(1)
Evidence for the Hierarchy
243(1)
Neurological Evidence
244(1)
Autobiographical Memory as Life Narrative
245(3)
Perspectives in Autobiographical Memory
246(1)
Schema-Copy-Plus-Tag Model
247(1)
The Model
247(1)
Item-specific and Relational Processing
248(1)
Autobiographical Memory Over Time
248(8)
Infantile Amnesia
248(1)
Psychodynamic View
248(1)
Neurological View
249(1)
Schema Organization View
249(1)
Language Development View
249(2)
Emergent Self View
251(1)
Multicomponent Development
251(1)
Reminiscence Bump
251(1)
Cognitive View
251(1)
Neurological View
252(1)
Identity Formation View
253(1)
Summary
253(1)
Flashbulb Memories
253(1)
Flashbulb Memories Are Special
254(1)
Flashbulb Memories Are Not So Special
254(1)
Criteria for Flashbulb Memories
254(2)
Summary
256(1)
Key Terms
257(2)
Memory and Reality
259(20)
Source Monitoring
259(8)
Types of Source Information
260(1)
Types of Source Monitoring
261(1)
Internal Source Monitoring
261(1)
External Source Monitoring
262(1)
Reality Monitoring
262(1)
Source Monitoring Errors
262(1)
Source Cueing
263(1)
Cryptomnesia
263(1)
False Fame
264(1)
Sleeper Effect
265(2)
False Memories
267(7)
Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm
267(1)
False Memories from Integration
268(2)
Implanted Memories
270(3)
Hypnosis and Memory
273(1)
False Memories Through Normal Memory Use
274(2)
Verbal Overshadowing
274(1)
Revelation Effect
275(1)
Summary
276(1)
Key Terms
277(2)
Memory and the Law
279(20)
Eyewitness Testimony
279(9)
Wording Effects
280(1)
Misleading Postevent Information
281(1)
Methods
281(1)
Theories
281(3)
Arousal Influences
284(1)
Yarkes-Dodson Law
285(1)
Easterbrook Hypothesis
285(2)
Weapon Focus
287(1)
John Dean's Memory
287(1)
Eyewitness Confidence
288(2)
Cognitive Interview
290(1)
Eyewitness Identification
291(3)
Mugshots
291(1)
Lineups
292(1)
Unconscious Transference
293(1)
Juries
294(2)
Information Order
294(1)
Inadmissible Evidence
295(1)
Summary
296(2)
Key Terms
298(1)
Metamemory
299(20)
General Properties and Theories of Metamemory
299(2)
Cues and Targets
299(1)
Cue Familiarity Hypothesis
300(1)
Accessibility Hypothesis
300(1)
Competition Hypothesis
300(1)
Judgments of Learning
301(2)
Theories of JOLs
301(1)
JOL cues
302(1)
Allocation of Study Time
303(1)
Feeling of Knowing
303(3)
Problems with FOK Judgments
304(1)
Other Aspects of FOK Judgments
304(1)
Tip-of-the-Tongue State
305(1)
Characteristics of TOT States
305(1)
Theories of TOT States
305(1)
Knowing That You Don't Know
306(1)
Remember Versus Know
307(4)
The Distinction Between ``Remember'' and ``Know''
308(1)
Affecting ``Remember'' But Not ``Know''
308(1)
Affecting ``Know'' But Not ``Remember''
308(1)
Affecting ``Remember'' and ``Know'' in Opposite Ways
308(1)
Implications for the ``Remember'' and ``Know'' Distinction
308(1)
Hindsight Bias
309(1)
The Knew-It-All-Along Effect
310(1)
Remembering Forgetting
310(1)
Avoiding the Hindsight Bias
310(1)
Remembering Beliefs
311(1)
Prospective Memory
311(2)
Components of Prospective Memory
312(1)
Types of Prospective Memory
312(1)
Neurological Basis of Metamemory
313(1)
Mnemonics
314(1)
Exceptional Memory
315(3)
Memorists
316(1)
Eidetic Imagery
317(1)
Summary
318(1)
Key Terms
318(1)
Memory and Development
319(20)
Infancy
319(3)
Testing the Very Young
319(1)
Looking Method
320(1)
Nonnutritive Sucking
320(1)
Conjugate Reinforcement
320(1)
Elicited Imitation
320(1)
Memory and Infancy
321(1)
Semantic Memory
321(1)
Episodic Memory
321(1)
Childhood
322(6)
Semantic Memory
322(1)
Episodic Memory
323(2)
Working Memory
325(2)
Metamemory
327(1)
Old Age
328(9)
Neurological Changes
328(1)
Neural Conduction Speed
328(1)
Declines in Frontal and Temporal Lobes
328(1)
Theories of Age-Related Memory Declines
329(1)
Speed Theory
329(1)
Working Memory Declines
330(1)
Inhibitory Declines
330(1)
Self-Initiated Processing
331(1)
Some Things Change
331(1)
Episodic Memory
331(1)
Episodic versus Schematic Information
332(1)
Source Monitoring
333(1)
Metamemory
334(1)
Some Things Stay the Same
335(1)
Semantic Memory
335(1)
Episodic Memory
336(1)
Higher-Level Memory
336(1)
Summary
337(1)
Key Terms
338(1)
Amnesia
339(22)
Long-Term Memory Amnesia
339(15)
Retrograde Amnesia
339(1)
Characteristics of Retrograde Amnesia
340(1)
Case Studies of Retrograde Amnesia
341(1)
Electroconvulsive Therapy/Shock
342(2)
Transient Global Amnesia
344(3)
Anterograde Amnesia
347(1)
Medial Temporal Lobe and Hippocampus
347(1)
Diencephalic Anterograde Amnesia
348(1)
Anterograde Amnesia More Generally
349(1)
Other Case Studies of Anterograde Amnesia
350(1)
Living with Anterograde Amnesia
351(1)
Mixture of Retrograde and Anterograde Amnesia
352(2)
Short-Term Memory Amnesia
354(1)
Psychogenic Amnesia
355(3)
Repression
355(1)
Dissociative Amnesia
356(1)
Dissociative Fugue
357(1)
Dissociative Identity Disorder
357(1)
Summary
358(1)
Key Terms
359(2)
Other Memory Disorders
361(16)
Dementia
361(6)
Alzheimer's Disease
362(1)
Characteristics
362(1)
Causes of Alzheimer's Disease
362(1)
Stages of Alzheimer's Disease
363(1)
Memory Changes
364(1)
Parkinson's Disease
365(1)
Huntington's Disease
366(1)
Multiple Sclerosis
367(1)
Memory Problems Associated With Other Conditions
367(3)
Confabulation
367(1)
Schizophrenia
368(1)
Depression
368(2)
Anxiety and Stress
370(1)
Loss of Memory of Specific Knowledge or Skills
370(7)
Semantic Amnesia
371(2)
Aphasia, Amusia, and Agnosia
373(1)
Phantom Limbs
374(1)
Summary
374(1)
Key Terms
375(2)
APPENDIX Memory Methods
377(4)
Signal Detection Analysis
377(1)
Clustering
378(1)
Process Dissociation
379(2)
Glossary 381(6)
Bibliography 387(42)
Index 429


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