CART

(0) items

Human Physiology : An Integrated Approach,9780805368499
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!

FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Human Physiology : An Integrated Approach

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780805368499

ISBN10:
0805368493
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Pearson Prentice Hall
List Price: $113.00
More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Starting at $5.13
See Prices

Rent Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Used Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

eTextbook

We're Sorry
Not Available

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Related Products


  • Human Physiology An Integrated Approach with IP-10
    Human Physiology An Integrated Approach with IP-10




Summary

"Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach"broke ground with its thorough coverage of molecular physiology seamlessly integrated into a traditional homeostasis-based systems approach . The newly revised Fourth Edition strengthens the coverage of the "big picture" themes in the study of physiology and helps students tie concepts together in a logical framework for learning. BASIC CELL PROCESSES: INTEGRATION AND COORDINATION, Introduction to Physiology, Molecular Interactions, Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues, Energy and Cellular Metabolism, Membrane Dynamics, Communication, Integration, Homeostasis, HOMEOSTASIS AND CONTROL, Introduction to the Endocrine System, Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties, The Central Nervous System, Sensory Physiology, Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control, Muscles, Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement, INTEGRATION OF FUNCTION, Cardiovascular Physiology, Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure, Blood, Mechanics of Breathing, Gas Exchange and Transport, The Kidneys, Integrative Physiology II: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance, METABOLISM, GROWTH, AND AGING, Digestion, Energy Balance and Metabolism, Endocrine Control of Growth and Metabolism, The Immune System, Integrative Physiology III: Exercise, Reproduction and Development. For all readers interested in the study of human physiology.

Table of Contents

UNIT 1 BASIC CELL PROCESSES: Integration and Coordination
Introduction to Physiology
1(18)
Physiological Systems
2(1)
Function and Process
3(1)
Homeostasis
3(3)
Physiology: Moving Beyond the Genome
6(1)
Physiology Is an Integrative Science
6(1)
Themes in Physiology
7(2)
Focus on ... Mapping
8(1)
The Science of Physiology
9(5)
Good Scientific Experiments Must Be Carefully Designed
9(1)
The Results of Human Experiments Can Be Difficult to Interpret
10(1)
Human Studies Can Take Many Forms
11(1)
Focus on ... Graphs
12(2)
Searching and Reading the Scientific Literature
14(5)
Chapter Summary
15(1)
Questions
16(2)
Answers
18(1)
Molecular Interactions
19(31)
Running Problem: Chromium Supplements
20(1)
Chemistry Review
20(3)
Atoms Are Composed of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
20(1)
The Number of Protons in the Nucleus Determines the Element
21(1)
Isotopes of an Element Contain Different Numbers of Neutrons
21(1)
Electrons Form Bonds Between Atoms and Capture Energy
22(1)
Molecular Bonds and Shapes
23(4)
Covalent Bonds Are Formed When Adjacent Atoms Share Electrons
23(1)
Ionic Bonds Are Formed When Atoms Gain or Lose Electrons
24(1)
Hydrogen Bonds and Van der Waal Forces Are Weak Interactions Between Atoms
25(1)
Molecular Shape Is Related to Molecular Function
26(1)
Biomolecules
27(8)
Carbohydrates Are the Most Abundant Biomolecules
27(1)
Lipids Are Structurally the Most Diverse Biomolecules
27(3)
Proteins Are the Most Versatile Biomolecules
30(2)
Some Molecules Combine Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids
32(1)
Nucleotides Transmit and Store Energy and Information
32(3)
Aqueous Solutions, Acids, Bases, and Buffers
35(3)
Not All Molecules Dissolve in Aqueous Solutions
35(1)
There Are Several Ways to Express the Concentration of a Solution
35(2)
The Concentration of Hydrogen Ions in the Body Is Expressed in pH Units
37(1)
Protein Interactions
38(12)
Proteins Are Selective About the Molecules They Bind
39(1)
Multiple Factors Can Alter Protein Binding
40(1)
Modulation Alters Protein Binding and Activity
40(2)
Physical Factors Modulate or Inactivate Proteins
42(1)
The Body Regulates the Amount of Protein Present in Cells
43(1)
Reaction Rate Can Reach a Maximum
43(2)
Chapter Summary
45(2)
Questions
47(2)
Answers
49(1)
Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues
50(39)
Running Problem: The Pap Smear
51(1)
Functional Compartments of the Body
51(2)
The Lumens of Hollow Organs Are Not Part of the Internal Environment
51(1)
Functionally, the Body Has Three Fluid Compartments
52(1)
Biological Membranes
53(1)
The Cell Membrane Separates the Cell from Its Environment
53(5)
Membranes Are Mostly Lipid and Protein
53(2)
Biotechnology: Liposomes for Beauty and Health
55(1)
Membrane Lipids Form a Barrier Between the Cytoplasm and Extracellular Fluid
55(1)
Membrane Proteins May Be Loosely or Tightly Bound to the Membrane
55(3)
Membrane Carbohydrates Attach to Both Lipids and Proteins
58(1)
Intracellular Compartments
58(10)
Cells Are Divided into Compartments
59(2)
The Cytoplasm Includes the Cytosol, Inclusions, and Organelles
61(1)
Inclusions Are in Direct Contact with the Cytosol
61(1)
Cytoplasmic Protein Fibers Come in Three Sizes
61(1)
Microtubules Form Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella
61(1)
The Cytoskeleton Is a Changeable Scaffold
62(1)
Motor Proteins Create Movement
63(1)
Organelles Create Compartments for Specialized Functions
64(3)
The Nucleus Is the Cell's Control Center
67(1)
Tissues of the Body
68(13)
Extracellular Matrix Has Many Functions
68(1)
Cell Junctions Hold Cells Together to Form Tissues
69(3)
Epithelia Provide Protection and Regulate Exchange
72(4)
Connective Tissues Provide Support and Barriers
76(1)
Biotechnology: Growing New Cartilage
77(3)
Muscle and Neural Tissues Are Excitable
80(1)
Tissue Remodeling
81(1)
Apoptosis Is a Tidy Form of Cell Death
81(1)
Stem Cells Can Create New Specialized Cells
81(1)
Organs
82(7)
Focus on ... the Skin
83(2)
Chapter Summary
85(1)
Questions
86(2)
Answers
88(1)
Energy and Cellular Metabolis
89(39)
Running Problem: Tay-Sachs Disease
90(1)
Energy in Biological Systems
90(3)
Energy Is Used to Perform Work
91(1)
Energy Comes in Two Forms: Kinetic and Potential
92(1)
Energy Can Be Converted from One Form to Another
92(1)
Thermodynamics Is the Study of Energy Use
93(1)
Chemical Reactions
93(3)
Energy Is Transferred Between Molecules During Reactions
93(1)
Activation Energy Gets Reactions Started
94(1)
Energy Is Trapped or Released During Reactions
94(1)
Net Free Energy Change Determines Reaction Reversibility
95(1)
Enzymes
96(5)
Enzymes Take Part in Typical Protein Interactions
96(1)
Enzymes May Be Activated, Inactivated, or Modulated
97(1)
Biotechnology: Separation of Isozymes by Electrophoresis
97(1)
Enzymes Lower the Activation Energy of Reactions
98(1)
Reaction Rates Are Variable
98(1)
Reversible Reactions Obey the Law of Mass Action
99(1)
Enzymatic Reactions Can Be Categorized
99(2)
Metabolism
101(2)
Cells Regulate Their Metabolic Pathways
101(2)
ATP Transfers Energy Between Reactions
103(1)
ATP Production
103(9)
Glycolysis Converts Glucose and Glycogen into Pyruvate
104(2)
Anaerobic Metabolism Converts Pyruvate into Lactate
106(1)
Pyruvate Enters the Citric Acid Cycle in Aerobic Metabolism
107(1)
The Electron Transport System Transfers Energy from NADH and FADH2 to ATP
108(1)
ATP Synthesis Is Coupled to Hydrogen Ion Movement
109(1)
The Maximum Energy Yield of One Glucose Molecule is 30-32 ATP
110(1)
Large Biomolecules Can Be Used to Make ATP
110(2)
Synthetic Pathways
112(16)
Glycogen Can Be Made from Glucose
112(1)
Glucose Can Be Made from Glycerol or Amino Acids
112(1)
Acetyl CoA Is an Important Precursor for Lipid Synthesis
113(1)
Proteins Are the Key to Cell Function
113(1)
Clinical Focus: Energy and Exercise
113(2)
Clinical Focus: Insulin and Metabolism
115(1)
Translating DNA to Protein Is a Complex Process
115(1)
During Translation, Dna Guides the Synthesis of a Complementary mRNA Molecule
115(3)
Alternative Splicing Creates Multiple Proteins from One Sequence of DNA
118(1)
Emerging Concepts: Rna Interference
118(1)
Translation of mrna Produces a String of Amino Acids
118(1)
Protein Sorting Directs Proteins to Their Destination
119(1)
Final Protein Structure Is Determined by Post-Translational Modification
120(2)
Proteins Made on the Endoplasmic Reticulum Enter the Secretory Pathway
122(1)
Chapter Summary
123(2)
Questions
125(1)
Answers
126(2)
Membrane Dynamics
128(46)
Running Problem: Cystic Fibrosis
129(1)
Mass Balance and Homeostasis
129(3)
Excretion Clears Substances from the Body
130(1)
Homeostasis Does Not Mean Equilibrium
130(2)
Diffusion
132(4)
Diffusion Uses Only the Energy of Molecular Movement
133(2)
Lipophilic Molecules Can Diffuse Through the Phospholipid Bilayer
135(1)
Protein-Mediated Transport
136(12)
Membrane Proteins Function as Structural Proteins, Enzymes, Receptors, and Transporters
137(1)
Channel Proteins Form Open, Water-Filled Passageways
138(1)
Carrier Proteins Change Conformation to Move Molecules
139(2)
Facilitated Diffusion Uses Carrier Proteins
141(1)
Active Transport Moves Substances Against Their Concentration Gradients
142(3)
Carrier-Mediated Transport Exhibits Specificity, Competition, and Saturation
145(3)
Vesicular Transport
148(2)
Phagocytosis Creates Vesicles Using the Cytoskeleton
148(1)
Endocytosis Creates Smaller Vesicles
148(2)
Exocytosis Releases Molecules Too Large for Transport Proteins
150(1)
Clinical Focus: The Lethal Lipoprotein
150(1)
Transepithelial Transport
150(3)
Transepithelial Transport of Glucose Uses Membrane Proteins
152(1)
Transcytosis Uses Vesicles to Cross an Epithelium
153(1)
Osmosis and Tonicity
153(7)
The Body Is Mostly Water
154(1)
Clinical Focus: Estimating Body Water
154(1)
The Body Is in Osmotic Equilibrium
154(1)
Osmolarity Describes the Number of Particles in Solution
155(2)
Tonicity of a Solution Describes the Volume Change of a Cell Placed in that Solution
157(3)
The Resting Membrane Potential
160(6)
The Cell Membrane Enables Separation of Electrical Charge in the Body
161(1)
The Resting Membrane Potential Is Due Mostly to Potassium
162(3)
Changes in Ion Permeability Change the Membrane Potential
165(1)
Integrated Membrane Processes: Insulin Secretion
166(8)
Chapter Summar
169(1)
Questions
170(2)
Answers
172(2)
Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis
174(37)
Running Problem: Diabetes Mellitus
175(1)
Cell-to-Cell Communication
175(2)
Gap Junctions Create Cytoplasmic Bridges
175(1)
Contact-Dependent Signals Require Cell-to-Cell Contact
176(1)
Paracrine and Autocrine Signals Carry Out Local Communication
176(1)
Neural Signals, Hormones, and Neurohormones Carry Out Long-Distance Communication
176(1)
Cytokines May Act as Both Local and Long-Distance Signals
176(1)
Signal Pathways
177(9)
Receptor Proteins Are Located Inside the Cell or on the Cell Membrane
178(2)
Membrane Proteins Facilitate Signal Transduction
180(2)
Receptor-Enzymes Have Protein Kinase or Guanylyl Cyclase Activity
182(1)
Clinical Focus: Insulin's Signal Transduction Pathway
183(1)
Most Signal Transduction Uses G Proteins
183(1)
Adenylyl Cyclase-camp Is the Signal Transduction System for Many Lipophobic Hormones
183(1)
G Protein-Linked Receptors Also Use Lipid-Derived Second Messengers
184(1)
Integrin Receptors Transfer Information from the Extracellular Matrix
184(1)
The Most Rapid Signal Pathways Change Ion Flow Through Channels
185(1)
Novel Signal Molecules
186(3)
Calcium Is an Important Intracellular Signal
186(1)
Gases Are Ephemeral Signal Molecules
187(1)
Biotechnology: Measuring Calcium Signals
188(1)
Some Lipids Are Important Paracrine Signals
188(1)
Modulation of Signal Pathways
189(2)
Receptors Exhibit Saturation, Specificity, and Competition
189(1)
Up-Regulation and Down-Regulation Enable Cells to Modulate Responses
190(1)
Cells Must Be Able to Terminate Signal Pathways
191(1)
Many Diseases and Drugs Target the Proteins of Signal Transduction
191(1)
Control Pathways: Response and Feedback Loops
191(20)
Cannon's Postulates Describe Regulated Variables and Physiological Control System
192(2)
Homeostasis May Be Maintained by Local or Long-Distance Pathways
194(3)
Response Loops Begin with a Stimulus and End with a Response
197(1)
Setpoints Can Be Varied
198(1)
Feedback Loops Modulate the Response Loop
199(1)
Feedforward Control Allows the Body to Anticipate Change and Maintain Stability
200(1)
Biological Rhythms Result from Changes in a Setpoint
200(2)
Control Systems Vary in Their Speed and Specificity
202(1)
Complex Reflexes Have Several Integrating Centers
203(4)
Chapter Summary
207(1)
Questions
208(1)
Answers
209(2)
UNIT 2 HOMEOSTASIS AND CONTROL
Introduction to the Endocrine System
211(32)
Running Problem: Graves' Disease
212(1)
Hormones
212(5)
Hormones Have Been Known Since Ancient Times
212(1)
What Makes a Chemical a Hormone?
213(1)
Clinical Focus: The Discovery of Insulin
213(3)
Biotechnology: Immunocytochemistry
216(1)
Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors
217(1)
Hormone Action Must Be Terminated
217(1)
The Classification of Hormones
217(5)
Most Hormones Are Peptides or Proteins
217(2)
Steroid Hormones Are Derived from Cholesterol
219(3)
Amine Hormones Are Derived from One of Two Amino Acids
222(1)
Control of Hormone Release
222(8)
Hormones Can Be Classified by Their Reflex Pathways
222(1)
The Endocrine Cell Is the Sensor in the Simplest Endocrine Reflexes
223(2)
Many Endocrine Reflexes Involve the Nervous System
225(1)
Neurohormones Are Secreted into the Blood by Neurons
225(1)
The Pituitary Gland Is Actually Two Fused Glands
225(1)
The Posterior Pituitary Stores and Releases Two Neurohormones
226(1)
The Anterior Pituitary Secretes Six Hormones
226(1)
Feedback Loops Are Different in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Pathway
227(2)
The Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System Directs Trophic Hormone Delivery
229(1)
Anterior Pituitary Hormones Control Growth, Metabolism, and Reproduction
229(1)
Hormone Interactions
230(2)
In Synergism, the Effect of Interacting Hormones Is More Than Additive
230(1)
A Permissive Hormone Allows Another Hormone to Exert Its Full Effect
231(1)
Antagonistic Hormones Have Opposing Effects
232(1)
Endocrine Pathologies
232(3)
Hypersecretion Exaggerates a Hormone's Effects
232(1)
Hyposecretion Diminishes or Eliminates a Hormone's Effects
233(1)
Receptor or Second Messenger Problems Cause Abnormal Tissue Responsiveness
233(1)
Diagnosis of Endocrine Pathologies Depends on the Complexity of the Reflex
234(1)
Hormone Evolution
235(8)
Focus on ... the Pineal Gland
237(2)
Chapter Summary
239(1)
Questions
240(1)
Answers
241(2)
Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties
243(48)
Running Problem: Mysterious Paralysis
244(1)
Organization of the Nervous System
245(1)
Cells of the Nervous System
246(6)
Neurons Are Excitable Cells That Generate and Carry Electrical Signals
246(4)
Glial Cells Are the Support Cells of the Nervous System
250(2)
Electrical Signals in Neurons
252(18)
The Nernst Equation Predicts Membrane Potential for a Single Ion
252(1)
The GHK Equation Predicts Membrane Potential Using Multiple Ions
252(1)
Ion Movement Across the Cell Membrane Creates Electrical Signals
253(1)
Gated Channels Control the Ion Permeability of the Neuron
254(1)
Changes in the Channel Permeability Create Electrical Signals
254(1)
Clinical Focus: Channelopathies
254(1)
Graded Potentials Reflect the Strength of the Stimulus That Initiates Them
255(2)
Action Potentials Travel Long Distances Without Losing Strength
257(1)
Action Potentials Represent Movement of Na+ and K+ Across the Membrane
258(1)
Na+ Channels in the Axon Have Two Gates
259(1)
Action Potentials Will Not Fire During the Absolute Refractory Period
260(1)
Stimulus Intensity Is Coded by the Frequency of Action Potentials
261(1)
One Action Potential Does Not Alter Ion Concentration Gradients
261(2)
Action Potentials Are Conducted from the Trigger Zone to the Axon Terminal
263(3)
Larger Neurons Conduct Action Potentials Faster
266(1)
Conduction Is Faster in Myelinated Axons
266(2)
Biotechnology: Mutant Mouse Models
268(1)
Electrical Activity Can Be Altered by a Variety of Chemical Factors
269(1)
Biotechnology: Of Snakes, Snails, Spiders, and Sushi
270(1)
Cell-to-Cell Communication in the Nervous System
270(8)
Information Passes from Cell to Cell at the Synapse
270(1)
Calcium Is the Signal for Neurotransmitter Release at the Synapse
271(1)
Neurocrines Convey Information from Neurons to Other Cells
272(1)
Emerging Concepts: Synaptic Vesicles Kiss and Run
272(1)
The Nervous System Secretes a Variety of Neurocrines
272(2)
Clinical Focus: Myasthenia Gravis
274(1)
Multiple Receptor Types Amplify the Effects of Neurotransmitters
275(2)
Not All Postsynaptic Responses Are Rapid and of Short Duration
277(1)
Neurotransmitter Activity Is Rapidly Terminated
277(1)
Integration of Neural Information Transfer
278(13)
Neural Pathways May Involve Many Neurons Simultaneously
278(1)
Synaptic Activity Can Also Be Modulated at the Axon Terminal
279(2)
Long-Term Potentiation Alters Synaptic Communication
281(1)
Disorders of Synaptic Transmission Are Responsible for Many Diseases
282(1)
Development of the Nervous System Depends on Chemical Signals
283(1)
When Neurons Are Injured, Segments Separated from the Cell Body Die
283(3)
Chapter Summary
286(1)
Questions
287(2)
Answers
289(2)
The Central Nervous System
291(36)
Running Problem: Infantile Spasms
292(1)
Emergent Properties of Neural Networks
292(1)
Evolution of Nervous Systems
292(2)
Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
294(1)
Biotechnology: Tracing Neurons in a Network
294(1)
The Central Nervous System Develops from a Hollow Tube
295(1)
The Central Nervous System Is Divided into Gray Matter and White Matter
296(1)
Bone and Connective Tissue Support the Central Nervous System
296(1)
The Brain Floats in Cerebrospinal Fluid
296(5)
The Blood-Brain Barrier Protects the Brain from Harmful Substances in the Blood
299(1)
Neural Tissue Has Special Metabolic Requirements
300(1)
Clinical Focus: Hypoglycemia and the Brain
301(1)
The Spinal Cord
301(1)
The Brain
302(6)
The Brain Stem Is the Transition Between Spinal Cord and Midbrain
303(2)
The Brain Stem Consists of Medulla, Pons, and Midbrain
305(1)
The Cerebellum Coordinates Movement
305(1)
The Diencephalon Contains the Centers for Homeostasis
306(1)
The Cerebrum Is the Site of Higher Brain Functions
307(1)
The Cerebrum Has Distinct Regions of Gray Matter and White Matter
307(1)
Brain Function
308(19)
The Cerebral Cortex Is Organized into Functional Areas
309(1)
Sensory Information Is Integrated in the Spinal Cord and Brain
310(1)
Sensory Information Is Processed into Perception
311(1)
The Motor System Governs Output from the Central Nervous System
311(1)
The Behavioral State System Modulates Motor Output
312(1)
The Reticular Activating System Influences States of Arousal
312(1)
Why Do We Sleep?
313(2)
Emerging Concepts: Adenosine and That ``Java Jolt''
315(1)
Physiological Functions Exhibit Circadian Rhythms
315(1)
Emotion and Motivation Involve Complex Neural Pathways
315(1)
Moods Are Long-Lasting Emotional States
316(1)
Learning and Memory Change Synaptic Connections in the Brain
317(1)
Learning Is the Acquisition of Knowledge
317(1)
Memory Is the Ability to Retain and Recall Information
318(2)
Language Is the Most Elaborate Cognitive Behavior
320(1)
Personality Is a Combination of Experience and Inheritance
321(2)
Chapter Summary
323(1)
Questions
324(2)
Answers
326(1)
Sensory Physiology
327(49)
Running Problem: Meniere's Disease
328(1)
General Properties of Sensory Systems
328(9)
Receptors Are Sensitive to Particular Forms of Energy
329(1)
Sensory Transduction Converts Stimuli into Graded Potentials
330(1)
A Sensory Neuron Has a Receptive Field
330(1)
The Central Nervous System Integrates Sensory Information
331(1)
Coding and Processing Distinguish Stimulus Modality, Location, Intensity, and Duration
332(5)
Somatic Senses
337(6)
Pathways for Somatic Perception Project to the Somatosensory Cortex and Cerebellum
337(1)
Touch Receptors Respond to Many Different Stimuli
338(1)
Temperature Receptors Are Free Nerve Endings
339(1)
Nociceptors Initiate Protective Responses
340(1)
Pain and Itching Are Mediated by Nociceptors
340(3)
Clinical Focus: Natural Pain-Killers
343(1)
Chemoreception: Smell and Taste
343(4)
Olfaction Is One of the Oldest Senses
343(2)
Taste Is a Combination of Five Basic Sensations
345(2)
The Ear: Hearing
347(8)
Hearing Is Our Perception of Sound
349(1)
Sound Transduction Is a Multistep Process
349(1)
The Cochlea Is Filled with Fluid
350(3)
Sounds Are Processed First in the Cochlea
353(1)
Auditory Pathways Project to the Auditory Cortex
353(1)
Hearing Loss May Result from Mechanical or Neural Damage
354(1)
Biotechnology: Cochlear Implants
354(1)
The Ear: Equilibrium
355(3)
The Vestibular Apparatus Is Filled with Endolymph
355(1)
The Vestibular Apparatus Provides Information About Movement and Position in Space
355(1)
The Semicircular Canals Sense Rotational Acceleration
355(1)
The Otolith Organs Sense Linear Acceleration and Head Position
355(2)
Equilibrium Pathways Project Primarily to the Cerebellum
357(1)
The Eye and Vision
358(18)
Clinical Focus: Glaucoma
358(1)
The Eye Is Protected by the Skull
358(2)
Light Enters the Eye Through the Pupil
360(1)
The Lens Focuses Light on the Retina
361(3)
Phototransduction Occurs at the Retina
364(2)
Photoreceptors Transduce Light into Electrical Signals
366(3)
Signal Processing Begins in the Retina
369(1)
Emerging Concepts: Melanopsin---A New Photosensitive Pigment
370(2)
Chapter Summary
372(1)
Questions
373(1)
Answers
374(2)
Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control
376(20)
Running Problem: A Powerful Addiction
377(1)
The Autonomic Division
377(12)
Autonomic Reflexes Are Important for Homeostasis
378(1)
Antagonistic Control Is a Hallmark of the Autonomic Division
379(1)
Autonomic Pathways Have Two Efferent Neurons in Series
379(2)
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches Exit the Spinal Cord in Different Regions
381(1)
The Autonomic Nervous System Uses a Variety of Neurotransmitters and Modulators
382(1)
Autonomic Pathways Control Smooth and Cardiac Muscle, Glands, and Lymphoid and Adipose Tissues
382(1)
Autonomic Neurotransmitters Are Synthesized in the Axon
383(1)
Most Sympathetic Pathways Secrete Norepinephrine onto Adrenergic Receptors
383(2)
The Adrenal Medulla Secretes Catecholamines
385(1)
Parasympathetic Pathways Secrete Acetylcholine onto Muscarinic Receptors
386(1)
Autonomic Agonists and Antagonists Are Important Tools in Research and Medicine
386(1)
Primary Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System Are Relatively Uncommon
387(1)
Clinical Focus: Autonomic Neuropathy
387(1)
Summary of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches
387(2)
The Somatic Motor Division
389(7)
A Somatic Motor Pathway Consists of One Neuron
390(1)
The Neuromuscular Junction Contains Nicotinic Receptors
391(2)
Chapter Summary
393(1)
Questions
393(2)
Answers
395(1)
Muscles
396(39)
Running Problem: Periodic Paralysis
397(1)
Skeletal Muscle
398(19)
Skeletal Muscles Are Composed of Muscle Fibers
398(1)
Myofibrils Are the Contractile Structures of a Muscle Fiber
399(3)
Muscle Contraction Creates Force
402(1)
Muscles Shorten When They Contract
403(3)
Contraction Is Regulated by Troponin and Tropomyosin
406(1)
Acetylcholine Initiates Excitation-Contraction Coupling
407(1)
Biotechnology: The In Vitro Motility Assay
407(3)
Skeletal Muscle Contraction Requires a Steady Supply of ATP
410(1)
Muscle Fatigue Has Multiple Causes
411(1)
Skeletal Muscle Fibers Are Classified by Contraction Speed and Resistance to Fatigue
412(1)
Tension Developed by Individual Muscle Fibers Is a Function of Fiber Length
413(1)
Force of Contraction Increases with Summation of Muscle Twitches
413(2)
A Motor Unit Is One Somatic Motor Neuron and the Muscle Fibers It Innervates
415(1)
Contraction in Intact Muscles Depends on the Types and Numbers of Motor Units
416(1)
Mechanics of Body Movement
417(4)
Isotonic Contractions Move Loads, but Isometric Contractions Create Force Without Movement
417(1)
Bones and Muscles Around Joints Form Levers and Fulcrums
417(3)
Muscle Disorders Have Multiple Causes
420(1)
Smooth Muscle
421(8)
Smooth Muscles Are Much Smaller than Skeletal Muscle Fibers
422(1)
Clinical Focus: Smooth Muscle and Atherosclerosis
422(1)
Smooth Muscle Has Longer Actin and Myosin Filaments
423(1)
Smooth Muscle Contractile Filaments are Not Arranged in Sarcomeres
424(1)
Phosphorylation of Proteins Plays a Key Role in Smooth Muscle Contraction
425(1)
Relaxation in Smooth Muscle Has Several Steps
426(1)
Calcium Entry Is the Signal for Smooth Muscle Contraction
426(1)
Muscle Stretch Opens Ca2+ Channels
427(1)
Some Smooth Muscles Have Unstable Membrane Potentials
427(1)
Smooth Muscle Activity Is Regulated by Chemical Signals
428(1)
Cardiac Muscle
429(6)
Chapter Summary
430(2)
Questions
432(2)
Answers
434(1)
Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement
435(21)
Running Problem: Tetanus
436(1)
Neural Reflexes
436(1)
Neural Reflex Pathways Can Be Classified in Different Ways
436(1)
Autonomic Reflexes
437(2)
Emerging Concepts: Visualization Techniques in Sports
438(1)
Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
439(6)
Muscle Spindles Respond to Muscle Stretch
439(3)
Golgi Tendon Organs Respond to Muscle Tension
442(1)
Stretch Reflexes and Reciprocal Inhibition Control Movement Around a Joint
443(1)
Clinical Focus: Reflexes and Muscle Tone
443(1)
Flexion Reflexes Pull Limbs Away from Painful Stimuli
444(1)
The Integrated Control of Body Movement
445(6)
Movement Can Be Classified as Reflex, Voluntary, or Rhythmic
446(2)
Emerging Concepts: Central Pattern Generators and Spinal Cord Injuries
448(1)
The CNS Integrates Movement
448(2)
Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease Reflect the Functions of the Basal Ganglia
450(1)
Control of Movement in Visceral Muscles
451(5)
Chapter Summary
453(1)
Questions
454(1)
Answers
455(1)
UNIT 3 INTEGRATION OF FUNCTION
Cardiovascular Physiology
456(44)
Running Problem: Myocardial Infarction
457(1)
Overview of the Cardiovascular System
457(3)
The Cardiovascular System Transports Materials Throughout the Body
458(1)
The Cardiovascular System Consists of the Heart, Blood Vessels, and Blood
458(2)
Pressure, Volume, Flow, and Resistance
460(5)
The Pressure of Fluid in Motion Decreases over Distance
461(1)
Pressure Changes in Liquids Without a Change in Volume
462(1)
Blood Flows from an Area of Higher Pressure to One of Lower Pressure
462(1)
Resistance Opposes Flow
462(2)
Velocity of Flow Depends on the Flow Rate and the Cross-Sectional Area
464(1)
Cardiac Muscle and the Heart
465(12)
The Heart Has Four Chambers
465(3)
Heart Valves Ensure One-Way Flow in the Heart
468(2)
Cardiac Muscle Cells Contract Without Nervous Stimulation
470(1)
Cardiac EC Coupling Combines Features of Skeletal and Smooth Muscle
471(1)
Cardiac Muscle Contraction Can Be Graded
472(1)
When Cardiac Muscle Is Stretched, It Contracts More Forcefully
472(1)
Action Potentials in Myocardial Cells Vary According to Cell Type
472(3)
Autonomic Neurotransmitters Modulate Heart Rate
475(2)
The Heart as a Pump
477(23)
Electrical Conduction in the Heart Coordinates Contraction
477(2)
Pacemakers Set the Heart Rate
479(1)
Clinical Focus: Fibrillation
479(1)
The Electrocardiogram Reflects the Electrical Activity of the Heart
480(4)
The Heart Contracts and Relaxes Once During a Cardiac Cycle
484(2)
Pressure-Volume Curves Represent One Cardiac Cycle
486(1)
Clinical Focus: Gallops, Clicks, and Murmurs
486(1)
Stroke Volume Is the Volume of Blood Pumped by One Ventricle in One Contraction
487(2)
Cardiac Output Is a Measure of Cardiac Performance
489(1)
Heart Rate Is Modulated by Autonomic Neurons and Catecholamines
489(1)
Multiple Factors Influence Stroke Volume
490(1)
Contractility Is Controlled by the Nervous and Endocrine Systems
491(2)
Edv and Arterial Blood Pressure Determine Afterload
493(1)
Emerging Concepts: Stem Cells for Heart Disease
493(2)
Chapter Summary
495(2)
Questions
497(1)
Answers
498(2)
Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure
500(35)
Running Problem: Essential Hypertension
501(1)
The Blood Vessels
502(2)
Blood Vessels Contain Vascular Smooth Muscle
502(1)
Arteries and Arterioles Carry Blood Away from the Heart
502(1)
Exchange Between the Blood and Interstitial Fluid Takes Place in the Capillaries
503(1)
Blood Flow Converges in the Venules and Veins
503(1)
Angiogenesis Creates New Blood Vessels
503(1)
Blood Pressure
504(5)
Systemic Blood Pressure Is Highest in Arteries and Lowest in Veins
505(1)
Arterial Blood Pressure Reflects the Driving Pressure for Blood Flow
506(1)
Blood Pressure Is Estimated by Sphygmomanometry
506(1)
Cardiac Output and Peripheral Resistance Determine Mean Arterial Pressure
507(1)
Changes in Blood Volume Affect Blood Pressure
508(1)
Resistance in the Arterioles
509(5)
Myogenic Autoregulation Automatically Adjusts Blood Flow
510(1)
Clinical Focus: Shock
510(1)
Paracrines Alter Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction
511(1)
The Sympathetic Branch Controls Most Vascular Smooth Muscle
512(1)
Emerging Concepts: From Dynamite to Vasodilation
513(1)
Distribution of Blood to the Tissues
514(1)
Exchange at the Capillaries
514(5)
Velocity of Blood Flow Is Lowest in the Capillaries
516(1)
Most Capillary Exchange Takes Place by Diffusion and Transcytosis
517(1)
Capillary Filtration and Absorption Take Place by Bulk Flow
517(2)
The Lymphatic System
519(2)
Edema Is the Result of Alterations in Capillary Exchange
520(1)
Regulation of Blood Pressure
521(4)
The Baroreceptor Reflex Is the Primary Homeostatic Control for Blood Pressure
521(2)
Orthostatic Hypotension Triggers the Baroreceptor Reflex
523(2)
Cardiovascular Disease
525(10)
Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Include Smoking, Obesity, and Inheritable Factors
525(1)
Atherosclerosis Is an Inflammatory Process
525(1)
Clinical Focus: Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
526(1)
Emerging Concepts: Inflammatory Markers for Cardiovascular Disease
526(2)
Hypertension Represents a Failure of Homeostasis
528(1)
Chapter Summary
529(2)
Questions
531(2)
Answers
533(2)
Blood
535(23)
Running Problem: Blood Doping in Athletes
536(1)
Plasma and the Cellular Elements of Blood
536(2)
Plasma Is Composed of Water, Ions, Organic Molecules, and Dissolved Gases
536(2)
The Cellular Elements Include Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, and Platelets
538(1)
Blood Cell Production
538(4)
Blood Cells Are Produced in the Bone Marrow
539(1)
Hematopoiesis Is Controlled by Colony-Stimulating Factors, Interleukins, and Other Cytokines
540(1)
Colony-Stimulating Factors Regulate Leukopoiesis
540(1)
Thrombopoietin Regulates Platelet Production
541(1)
Erythropoietin Regulates Red Blood Cell Production
541(1)
Red Blood Cells
542(5)
Mature Red Blood Cells Lack a Nucleus
542(1)
Hemoglobin Synthesis Requires Iron
543(1)
Red Blood Cells Live About Four Months
544(1)
Clinical Focus: Hemoglobin and Hyperglycemia
545(1)
Red Blood Cell Disorders Decrease Oxygen Transport
546(1)
Platelets and Coagulation
547(11)
Platelets Are Small Fragments of Cells
547(1)
Hemostasis Prevents Blood Loss from Damaged Vessels
548(1)
Platelet Activation Begins the Clotting Process
549(2)
Coagulation Converts the Platelet Plug into a More Stable Clot
551(1)
Anticoagulants Prevent Coagulation
551(3)
Emerging Concepts: Clot Busters and Antiplatelet Agents
554(1)
Chapter Summary
555(1)
Questions
556(1)
Answers
557(1)
Mechanics of Breathing
558(29)
Running Problem: Emphysema
559(1)
The Respiratory System
559(6)
Bones and Muscles of the Thorax Surround the Lungs
560(1)
Pleural Sacs Enclose the Lungs
560(1)
Airways Connect Lungs to the External Environment
561(1)
Alveoli Are the Site of Gas Exchange
561(1)
The Pulmonary Circulation Is a High-Flow, Low-Pressure System
561(4)
Clinical Focus: Congestive Heart Failure
565(1)
Gas Laws
565(2)
Air Is a Mixture of Gases
565(1)
Gases Move from Areas of Higher Pressure to Areas of Lower Pressure
566(1)
Boyle's Law Describes Pressure-Volume Relationships of Gases
566(1)
Ventilation
567(8)
Lung Volumes Change During Ventilation
567(1)
The Airways Warm, Humidify, and Filter Inspired Air
568(1)
During Ventilation, Air Flows Because of Pressure Gradients
569(1)
Inspiration Occurs When Alveolar Pressure Decreases
570(2)
Expiration Occurs When Alveolar Pressure Exceeds Atmospheric Pressure
572(1)
Intrapleural Pressure Changes During Ventilation
572(2)
Lung Compliance and Elastance May Change in Disease States
574(1)
Clinical Focus: Fibrotic Lung Disease
574(1)
Surfactant Decreases the Work of Breathing
575(12)
Airway Diameter Is the Primary Determinant of Airway Resistance
576(1)
Rate and Depth of Breathing Determine the Efficiency of Breathing
577(1)
Gas Composition in the Alveoli Varies Little During Normal Breathing
578(1)
Ventilation and Alveolar Blood Flow Are Matched
579(1)
Auscultation and Spirometry Assess Pulmonary Function
580(3)
Chapter Summary
583(1)
Questions
584(2)
Answers
586(1)
Gas Exchange and Transport
587(26)
Running Problem: High Altitude
588(1)
Diffusion and Solubility of Gases
588(1)
The Solubility of Gases in Liquids Depends on Pressure, Solubility, and Temperature
589(1)
Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues
589(4)
A Decrease in Alveolar Po2 Decreases Oxygen Uptake at the Lungs
591(1)
Changes in the Alveolar Membrane Alter Gas Exchange
592(1)
Biotechnology: The Pulse Oximeter
593(1)
Gas Transport in the Blood
593(9)
Hemoglobin Transports Most Oxygen to the Tissues
593(1)
Emerging Concepts: Blood Substitutes
594(1)
One Hemoglobin Molecule Binds Up to Four Oxygen Molecules
595(1)
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Binding Obeys the Law of Mass Action
595(1)
Po2 Determines Oxygen-Hemoglobin Binding
596(1)
Oxygen Binding Is Expressed as a Percentage
596(2)
Temperature, pH, and Metabolites Affect Oxygen-Hemoglobin Binding
598(1)
Carbon Dioxide Is Transported in Three Ways
599(3)
Regulation of Ventilation
602(11)
Neurons in the Medulla Control Breathing
602(2)
Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen, and pH Influence Ventilation
604(3)
Protective Reflexes Guard the Lungs
607(1)
Higher Brain Centers Affect Patterns of Ventilation
607(2)
Chapter Summary
609(1)
Questions
609(2)
Answers
611(2)
The Kidneys
613(28)
Running Problem: Gout
614(1)
Functions of the Kidneys
614(1)
Anatomy of the Urinary System
615(3)
The Urinary System Consists of Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra
615(1)
Clinical Focus: Urinary Tract Infections
615(1)
The Nephron Is the Functional Unit of the Kidney
615(3)
Overview of Kidney Function
618(2)
The Three Processes of the Nephron Are Filtration, Reabsorption, and Secretion
618(1)
Volume and Osmolarity Change as Fluid Flows Through the Nephron
619(1)
Filtration
620(6)
The Renal Corpuscle Contains Three Filtration Barriers
620(1)
Filtration Occurs Because of Hydrostatic Pressure in the Capillaries
621(1)
Blood Pressure and Renal Blood Flow Influence GFR
622(1)
Emerging Concepts: Diabetic Nephropathy
623(1)
GFR Is Subject to Autoregulation
624(1)
Hormones and Autonomic Neurons Also Influence GFR
625(1)
Reabsorption
626(4)
Reabsorption May Be Active or Passive
626(2)
Saturation of Renal Transport Plays an Important Role in Kidney Function
628(1)
Biotechnology: Artificial Kidneys
628(1)
Peritubular Capillary Pressures Favor Reabsorption
629(1)
Secretion
630(1)
Competition Decreases Penicillin Secretion
631(1)
Excretion
631(4)
Clearance Is a Noninvasive Way to Measure GFR
632(1)
Clearance and GFR Help Us Determine Renal Handling of Solutes
633(2)
Micturition
635(6)
Chapter Summary
637(1)
Questions
638(1)
Answers
639(2)
Integrative Physiology II: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
641(35)
Running Problem: Hyponatremia
642(1)
Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis
642(1)
ECF Osmolarity Affects Cell Volume
642(1)
Emerging Concepts: Regulation of Cell Volume
642(1)
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Requires Integration of Multiple Systems
643(1)
Water Balance
643(9)
Daily Water Intake and Excretion Are Balanced
644(1)
The Kidneys Conserve Water
644(1)
Urine Concentration Is Determined in the Loop of Henle and Collecting Duct
645(1)
Clinical Focus: Osmotic Diuresis
646(1)
Vasopressin Controls Water Reabsorption
646(2)
Changes in Blood Pressure, Volume, and Osmolarity Trigger Water Balance Reflexes
648(1)
Clinical Focus: Bed-Wetting and Vasopressin
648(1)
The Loop of Henle Is a Countercurrent Multiplier
649(3)
Sodium Balance and ECF Volume
652(4)
Aldosterone Controls Sodium Balance
652(1)
Blood Pressure Is the Primary Stimulus for Aldosterone Secretion
653(1)
Angiotensin II Influences Blood Pressure Through Multiple Pathways
654(2)
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Promotes Na+ and Water Excretion
656(1)
Potassium Balance
656(2)
Behavioral Mechanisms in Salt and Water Balance
658(1)
Drinking Replaces Fluid Loss
658(1)
Low Na+ Stimulates Salt Appetite
658(1)
Avoidance Behaviors Help Prevent Dehydration
658(1)
Integrated Control of Volume and Osmolarity
659(4)
Osmolarity and Volume Can Change Independently
659(2)
Dehydration Triggers Renal and Cardiovascular Responses
661(2)
Acid-Base Balance
663(13)
Enzymes and the Nervous System Are Particularly Sensitive to Changes in pH
663(1)
Acids and Bases in the Body Come from Many Sources
664(1)
pH Homeostasis Depends on Buffers, the Lungs, and the Kidneys
664(1)
Buffer Systems Include Proteins, Phosphate Ions, and HCO3
665(1)
Ventilation Can Compensate for pH Disturbances
666(1)
Kidneys Use Ammonia and Phosphate Buffers
667(1)
The Proximal Tubule Secretes H+ and Reabsorbs HCO3
667(1)
The Distal Nephron Controls Acid Excretion
668(1)
Acid-Base Disturbances May Be Respiratory or Metabolic in Origin
669(3)
Summary
672(2)
Questions
674(1)
Answers
675(1)
UNIT 4 METABOLISM, GROWTH, AND AGING
The Digestive System
676(40)
Running Problem: Peptic Ulcers
677(1)
Function and Processes of the Digestive System
677(1)
Anatomy of the Digestive System
678(4)
The Digestive System Consists of Oral Cavity, GI Tract, and Accessory Glandular Organs
679(1)
The GI Tract Wall Has Four Layers
679(3)
Motility
682(2)
GI Smooth Muscle Contracts Spontaneously
682(1)
Emerging Concepts: Interstitial Cells of Cajal
683(1)
GI Smooth Muscle Exhibits Different Patterns of Contraction
683(1)
Secretion
684(5)
The Digestive System Secretes Ions and Water
685(2)
Digestive Enzymes Are Secreted into the Mouth, Stomach, and Intestine
687(1)
Specialized Cells Secrete Mucus
687(2)
Saliva Is an Exocrine Secretion
689(1)
The Liver Secretes Bile
689(1)
Regulation of GI Function
689(4)
The Enteric Nervous System Can Act Independently of the CNS
690(1)
GI Peptides Include Hormones, Neuropeptides, and Cytokines
691(2)
Digestion and Absorption
693(6)
Carbohydrates Are Absorbed as Monosaccharides
693(1)
Proteins Are Digested into Small Peptides and Amino Acids
694(1)
Some Larger Peptides Can Be Absorbed Intact
695(1)
Bile Salts Facilitate Fat Digestion
696(1)
Nucleic Acids Are Digested into Nitrogenous Bases and Monosaccharides
697(1)
The Intestine Absorbs Vitamins and Minerals
698(1)
Biotechnology: Olestra, the No-calorie Fat Substitute
698(1)
The Intestines Absorb Ions and Water
698(1)
The Cephalic Phase
699(1)
Chemical and Mechanical Digestion Begins in the Mouth
699(1)
Swallowing Moves Food from the Mouth to the Stomach
699(1)
The Gastric Phase
700(4)
The Stomach Stores Food
702(1)
The Stomach Secretes Acid, Enzymes, and Signal Molecules
702(1)
Clinical Focus: Delayed Gastric Emptying
702(1)
The Stomach Balances Digestion and Protection
703(1)
The Intestinal Phase
704(5)
Bicarbonate in the Small Intestine Neutralizes Gastric Acid
705(1)
Most Fluid Is Absorbed in the Small Intestine
706(1)
Most Digestion Occurs in the Small Intestine
706(1)
Clinical Focus: Lactose Intolerance
707(1)
The Large Intestine Concentrates Waste for Excretion
707(2)
Diarrhea Can Cause Dehydration
709(1)
Immune Functions of the GI Tract
709(7)
M Cells Sample the Contents of the Gut
709(1)
Vomiting Is a Protective Reflex
710(1)
Chapter Summary
711(2)
Questions
713(1)
Answers
714(2)
Metabolism and Energy Balance
716(34)
Running Problem: Eating Disorders
717(1)
The Brain Controls Food Intake
717(1)
Energy Balance
718(3)
Energy Input Equals Energy Output
718(1)
Biotechnology: Novel Approaches for Discovering Peptides
719(1)
Energy Use Is Reflected by an Individual's Oxygen Consumption
719(2)
Energy Is Stored in Fat and Glycogen
721(1)
Metabolism
721(7)
Energy from Ingested Nutrients May Be Used Immediately or Stored
722(1)
Hormones Control Metabolic Pathways by Changing Enzyme Activity
723(1)
Anabolic Metabolism Dominates in the Fed State
723(2)
Plasma Cholesterol Levels Are Predictors of Coronary Heart Disease
725(2)
Catabolic Metabolism Dominates in the Fasted State
727(1)
Homeostatic Control of Metabolism
728(11)
The Pancreas Secretes Insulin and Glucagon
728(1)
The Insulin-to-Glucagon Ratio Regulates Metabolism
729(1)
Clinical Focus: Ketogenic Diets
729(1)
Insulin Is the Dominant Hormone of the Fed State
729(2)
Insulin Promotes Anabolism
731(3)
Glucagon Is Dominant in the Fasted State
734(1)
Diabetes Mellitus Is a Family of Metabolic Disorders
734(1)
Type 1 Diabetics Are Prone to Ketoacidosis
735(1)
Type 2 Diabetics Often Have Elevated Insulin Levels
736(3)
Metabolic Syndrome Links Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
739(1)
Regulation of Body Temperature
739(11)
Body Temperature Is a Balance Between Heat Production, Gain, and Loss
740(1)
Body Temperature Is Homeostatically Regulated
741(2)
The Body Produces Heat Through Movement and Metabolism
743(1)
The Body's Thermostat Can Be Reset
743(3)
Chapter Summary
746(1)
Questions
747(1)
Answers
748(2)
Endocrine Control of Growth and Metabolism
750(26)
Running Problem: Hyperparathyroidism
751(1)
Review of Endocrine Principles
751(1)
Adrenal Glucocorticoids
751(5)
The Adrenal Cortex Secretes Steroid Hormones
751(2)
Cortisol Secretion Is Controlled by ACTH
753(1)
Cortisol Is Essential for Life
754(1)
Cortisol Is a Useful Therapeutic Drug
755(1)
Cortisol Pathologies Result from Too Much or Too Little Hormone
755(1)
CRH and ACTH Have Additional Physiological Functions
756(1)
Thyroid Hormones
756(5)
Thyroid Hormones Contain Iodine
757(1)
Emerging Concepts: Melanocortins and the Agouti Mouse
757(2)
Thyroid Hormones Affect Quality of Life
759(2)
TSH Controls the Thyroid Gland
761(1)
Growth Hormone
761(3)
Growth Hormone Is Anabolic
762(2)
Growth Hormone Is Essential for Normal Growth in Children
764(1)
Genetically Engineered Human Growth Hormone Raises Ethical Questions
764(1)
Tissue and Bone Growth
764(2)
Tissue Growth Requires Hormones and Paracrines
765(1)
Bone Growth Requires Adequate Dietary Calcium
765(1)
Calcium Balance
766(10)
Calcium Concentrations in the Blood Are Closely Regulated
767(1)
Three Hormones Control Calcium Balance
768(2)
Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis Are Linked
770(1)
Osteoporosis Is a Disease of Bone Loss
771(1)
Chapter Summary
772(1)
Questions
773(1)
Answers
774(2)
The Immune System
776(31)
Running Problem: Treatment for AIDS
777(1)
Overview of Immune System Function
777(1)
Pathogens of the Human Body
778(1)
Bacteria and Viruses Require Different Defense Mechanisms
778(1)
Viruses Can Replicate Only Inside Host Cells
778(1)
Emerging Concepts: Retroviruses
779(1)
The Immune Response
779(1)
Anatomy of the Immune System
780(4)
Focus on ... the Spleen
781(1)
Lymphoid Tissues Are Distributed Throughout the Body
781(1)
Leukocytes Are the Primary Cells of the Immune System
782(2)
Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Responses
784(3)
Physical and Chemical Barriers Are the Body's First Line of Defense
784(1)
Phagocytes Recognize and Ingest Foreign Material
784(1)
Natural Killer Lymphocytes Eliminate Virally Infected and Tumor Cells
785(1)
Chemical Mediators Create the Inflammatory Response
786(1)
Acquired Immunity: Antigen-Specific Responses
787(7)
Lymphocytes Are the Primary Cells Involved in the Acquired Immune Response
788(1)
B Lymphocytes Differentiate into Plasma Cells and Memory Cells
788(1)
Antibodies Are Proteins Secreted by Plasma Cells
789(2)
T Lymphocytes Must Make Direct Contact with Their Target Cells
791(1)
Focus on ... the Thymus
792(2)
Immune Response Pathways
794(6)
Inflammation Is the Typical Response to Bacterial Invasion
794(1)
Intracellular Defense Mechanisms Are Needed to Fight Viral Infections
795(2)
Allergic Responses Are Inflammatory Responses Triggered by Specific Antigens
797(1)
MHC Proteins Allow Recognition of Foreign Tissue
798(1)
Recognition of Self Is an Important Function of the Immune System
799(1)
Biotechnology: Engineered Antibodies
800(1)
Immune Surveillance Allows the Body to Remove Abnormal Cells
800(1)
Neuro-Endocrine-Immune Interactions
800(7)
Stress Alters Immune System Function
802(1)
Modern Medicine Incorporates Mind-Body Therapeutics
802(1)
Chapter Summary
803(2)
Questions
805(1)
Answers
806(1)
Integrative Physiology III: Exercise
807(14)
Running Problem: Heat Stroke
808(1)
Metabolism and Exercise
808(3)
Hormones Regulate Metabolism During Exercise
810(1)
Oxygen Consumption Is Related to Exercise Intensity
810(1)
Several Factors Limit Exercise
811(1)
Ventilatory Responses to Exercise
811(1)
Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise
812(3)
Cardiac Output Increases During Exercise
812(1)
Peripheral Blood Flow Redistributes to Muscle During Exercise
813(1)
Blood Pressure Rises Slightly During Exercise
813(1)
The Baroreceptor Reflex Adjusts to Exercise
814(1)
Feedforward Responses to Exercise
815(1)
Temperature Regulation During Exercise
815(1)
Exercise and Health
815(6)
Exercise Lowers the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
816(1)
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus May Improve with Exercise
816(1)
Stress and the Immune System May Be Influenced by Exercise
817(1)
Chapter Summary
818(1)
Questions
819(1)
Answers
820(1)
Reproduction and Development
821
Running Problem: Infertility
822(1)
Sex Determination
822(4)
The Sex Chromosomes Determine Genetic Sex
823(1)
Clinical Focus: X-Linked Inherited Disorders
823(2)
Sexual Differentiation Occurs in the Second Month of Development
825(1)
Basic Patterns of Reproduction
826(5)
Clinical Focus: Determining Gender
827(1)
Gametogenesis Begins in Utero and Resumes During Puberty
827(2)
The Brain Directs Reproduction
829(2)
Reproduction Is Influenced by Environmental Factors
831(1)
Male Reproduction
831(5)
The Testes Produce Sperm and Testosterone
833(2)
Spermatogenesis Requires Gonadotropins and Testosterone
835(1)
Male Accessory Glands Contribute Secretions to Semen
836(1)
Androgens Influence Secondary Sex Characteristics
836(1)
Female Reproduction
836(8)
The Female Reproductive Tract Includes Ovaries and Uterus
836(1)
The Ovary Produces Eggs and Hormones
837(1)
A Menstrual Cycle Lasts About One Month
837(4)
Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle Is Complex
841(2)
Estrogens and Androgens Influence Female Secondary Sex Characteristics
843(1)
Procreation
844(4)
The Human Sexual Response Has Four Phases
844(1)
The Male Sex Act Includes Erection and Ejaculation
844(1)
Sexual Dysfunction Affects Males and Females
845(1)
Contraceptives Are Designed to Prevent Pregnancy
846(1)
Infertility Is the Inability to Conceive
847(1)
Pregnancy and Parturition
848(6)
Fertilization Requires Capacitation
848(1)
The Developing Embryo Implants in the Endometrium
849(1)
The Placenta Secretes Hormones During Pregnancy
849(2)
Pregnancy Ends with Labor and Delivery
851(1)
The Mammary Glands Secrete Milk During Lactation
852(2)
Prolactin Has Other Physiological Roles
854(1)
Growth and Aging
854
Puberty Marks the Beginning of the Reproductive Years
854(1)
Menopause and Andropause are a Consequence of Aging
855(1)
Chapter Summary
856(2)
Questions
858(1)
Answers
859
Appendix A: Answers to End-of-Chapter Review Questions 1(30)
Appendix B: Physics and Math 31(3)
Appendix C: Genetics 34(5)
Appendix D: Anatomical Positions of the Body 39
Glossary/Index 1(1)
Credits 1


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...