9780534516109

Human Service Agencies An Orientation to Fieldwork

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780534516109

  • ISBN10:

    0534516106

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-07-26
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole

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Summary

Make the most of your agency experience with HUMAN SERVICE AGENCIES: AN ORIENTATION TO FIELDWORK! This practical and personal guide introduces you to the real-world issues of agency settings and helps you obtain the skills you need to become an effective helper. Case examples give you exposure to a variety of settings, client populations, and ethical and legal issues and user-friendly, hands-on exercises provide you with numerous opportunities to apply your knowledge and experience.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
About the Authors xvii
Our Background and Experiences xix
Introduction to Fieldwork in Human Services
1(39)
Aim of the Chapter
1(1)
Human Services Defined
1(2)
Human Service Workers
3(10)
Roles
5(4)
Mental Health Professionals
9(1)
Characteristics of Competent Practitioners
9(1)
Some Primary Characteristics of Human Service Workers
9(4)
The Importance of Values
13(11)
Values Defined
14(2)
The Role of Values in Work with Clients
16(1)
Value Conflicts
17(1)
Family Issues
17(1)
Gender Roles
18(1)
Religion
18(1)
Abortion
18(1)
Sexuality
18(1)
Sexual Orientation
19(1)
AIDS
19(1)
Cultural and Racial Identity
19(1)
Conflicts Between Worker and Agency
20(1)
The Challenge of Value Awareness
20(1)
Barriers
20(1)
Cultural Experience
21(1)
Manifestation of Values
21(1)
To Expose Rather Than Impose
21(2)
Value Assessment
23(1)
Personal Values Examination
23(1)
Identification with Professional Values
24(1)
Self-Awareness
24(16)
The Importance of Self-Awareness
24(5)
Unfinished Business and Family of Origin
29(1)
Self-Awareness and Self-Acceptance
29(1)
The Impact of Early Development on the Individual Helper
30(1)
Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Human Development
30(1)
The Role of Thoughts, Feelings, and Actions in Self-Awareness
30(4)
Examples of Feelings
34(1)
Understanding Our Motivations for Becoming Helpers
35(5)
Agency Systems and Policies
40(25)
Aim of the Chapter
40(1)
Understanding Your Social Service Agency
40(9)
Bureaucracies
40(3)
Organizations Defined
43(1)
Characteristics and Functions of Human Service Organizations
44(2)
Organizational Classifications
46(1)
Understanding the Background Information of Your Agency
47(2)
Systems Theory
49(4)
Eco-Maps
50(3)
Agency Policies and Practices
53(12)
Formal Organization
53(1)
Informal Agency Structure
54(3)
Cases in Point
57(1)
Sexual Harassment and Formal Organizational Policy
57(2)
Institutional Discrimination and Informal Agency Norms
59(6)
How to Make the Most of Your Agency Experience
65(59)
Aim of the Chapter
65(1)
Fieldwork
65(2)
The Value of Fieldwork
65(1)
Take Fieldwork Seriously
66(1)
Taking an Active Stance
67(15)
Effective Communication
68(1)
Active Listening
69(1)
Nonverbal Language
70(3)
Multicultural and Gender Issues and Communication
73(1)
Multicultural Differences
74(1)
Gender Differences
75(1)
The Value of Assertiveness
75(1)
What Is Assertiveness?
76(1)
Assertive, Nonassertive, and Aggressive Behavior
77(3)
Effective Time Management
80(1)
Journaling and Process Recordings
80(1)
Journaling
80(1)
Process Recordings
81(1)
Supervision
82(10)
The Importance of Supervision
82(1)
Supervisory Roles and Responsibilities
82(1)
Functions of Supervisors
83(1)
Supervisory Responsibilities
84(2)
Approaches and Styles of Supervision
86(1)
Aspects of the Supervisory Relationship
86(1)
Effective Involvement in Supervision
87(1)
Be Clear About What You Expect
87(1)
Be Assertive About Your Learning
88(1)
Take Advantage of Your Role as Learner
88(1)
A Certain Amount of Anxiety Is Appropriate
89(1)
Take an Active Stance
89(1)
Evaluation and Termination Process
90(1)
Challenges in Supervisory Relationships
91(1)
Pathways to a Human Service Position
92(3)
Pursuing an Excellent Fieldwork Experience
92(1)
Obtaining a Community Position
92(1)
Returning to Your Fieldwork Placement to Begin Your Career
93(1)
Obtaining a Position Through Fieldwork Experience and Contacts
93(2)
The Helping Process
Aim of the Chapter
95(1)
Helping
95(5)
Definition and Dimensions
95(1)
Dimensions of Helping
95(1)
Preconditions for Helping
96(1)
Essential Helping Characteristics
97(1)
Appropriate Self-Disclosure
97(1)
Intentionality
98(1)
Establishing Helping Relationships
98(1)
The Importance of Rapport and Trust
99(1)
The Process
100(1)
Therapeutic Factors
100(1)
Approaches to Working in Human Services
100(3)
``Micro'' Practice
100(1)
``Mezzo'' Practice
101(1)
Working with Families
101(1)
Group Work
101(1)
``Macro'' Practice
102(1)
Effective Helping Approaches
103(6)
The TFA Model
103(1)
The Biopsychosocial Approach
104(1)
Biological Systems
105(1)
Psychological or Emotional Systems
105(1)
Societal Systems
105(1)
The Strengths Perspective
106(1)
Assessment of Client's Strengths
107(1)
Use of the Strengths Perspective in Goal Setting and Intervention
108(1)
An Overview of Helping Models
109(1)
An Integrated Approach: The Agate Model
110(12)
Assessment of Strengths and Concerns
110(1)
Developing a Helping Relationship
110(1)
Structuring the Interview
111(1)
Determining Areas of Concern
111(1)
Client Strengths
112(1)
Client's History
112(1)
Sources of Information
113(1)
Use of Lazarus's BASIC I.D.
113(1)
Knowledge Needed in Making an Assessment
113(1)
Assessment Outlines and Forms
113(1)
Goal Setting: Reorienting, Shaping, and Prioritizing
113(1)
Reorienting Clients to the Helping Process
114(1)
Explaining General Benefits and Risks
114(1)
Shaping Goals
114(1)
Prioritizing
115(1)
Examining the Consequences of Goal Attainment
115(1)
Establishing a Contract
115(1)
Action: Planning and Intervention
116(1)
Identification of Existing Resources and Support
116(1)
Procedures for Goal Implementation
116(2)
Indications of Potential Difficulties
118(1)
Encouraging Active Participation
118(1)
Termination: Evaluation, Review, and Ending
119(1)
The Evaluation Process
119(1)
Review of the Process
120(1)
Ending
120(1)
Examination of the Process, Self, and Follow-Up
121(1)
Self-Evaluation
121(1)
Follow-Up
121(1)
Summary of the AGATE Model
122(1)
Develop Your Own Style and Approach
122(2)
The Diversity of Human Services
124(30)
Aim of the Chapter
124(1)
Views of Diversity
124(8)
Important Concepts
125(1)
Ethnicity
125(1)
Ethnocentrism
125(1)
Culture
125(1)
Cultural Tunnel Vision
126(1)
Cultural Pluralism
126(1)
Cultural Competence
126(1)
Culturally Biased Assumptions
127(1)
Characteristics of Culturally Skilled Helpers
127(1)
A Broader Definition of Diversity
128(1)
Elements of Diversity
128(1)
Diversification
129(1)
Diversity within the Profession
130(1)
Impact on Human Services
131(1)
Diversity: The Need for Self-Awareness
132(5)
Resistance to Diversity
134(1)
Avoidant Behavior
134(1)
``Color Blindness''
134(1)
The ``One for All'' Approach
134(1)
The Egocentric Style
135(1)
The ``Learned Helplessness'' Viewpoint
135(1)
Blaming Society
135(1)
Awareness of Belief Systems
136(1)
Developing A Solid Knowledge Base
137(13)
Understanding Worldviews
140(1)
Oppression
140(1)
Development of Group Identity
141(1)
Cultural Assessments
142(1)
Assessing One's Knowledge Base
142(1)
Ethnography
143(1)
Learning as an Ongoing Process
143(1)
Skill Application
144(1)
Competencies
145(1)
Effective Communication
146(2)
Alternative Approaches to Helping
148(1)
Practical Suggestions
149(1)
Diversity in Agencies
150(4)
Barriers
150(1)
Working in the Community
151(1)
The Risk of Encapsulation
151(3)
Ethical and Legal Issues
154(61)
Aim of the Chapter
154(1)
Ethical Decision Making
154(5)
Dimensions of Ethical Decision Making
155(1)
Principle Ethics and Virtue Ethics
155(1)
Ethical Dilemmas
156(1)
Ethical Decision-Making Models
156(2)
How to Handle Unethical Behavior
158(1)
Unethical Behavior in Oneself
158(1)
Unethical Behavior in Others
158(1)
Informed Consent
159(4)
Aspects of Informed Consent
160(1)
Informing the Client about Your Role, Qualifications, and Experience
160(1)
Informing Clients about Services
160(1)
Giving Information about Goals, Limitations, and Potential Risks of Treatment
160(1)
Clear Information about Confidentiality
161(1)
Sharing Exceptions to Confidentiality
161(1)
The Requirement of Written Consent to Release Records or Information
161(1)
Clients Right to Obtain Case Records
162(1)
Allowing Clients to Participate in the Treatment Plan
162(1)
Clients Right to Refuse any Recommended Services
162(1)
Benefits of Informed Consent
163(1)
Establishment of Trust
163(1)
Discovery of Possible Problem Areas
163(1)
Agency Responses to Informed Consent
163(1)
Confidentiality
163(29)
Release of Information
164(1)
Safeguarding Records
164(1)
Sharing Information with Colleagues
165(1)
Breach of Confidentiality
166(1)
Exceptions to Confidentiality
166(1)
Privileged Communication
167(1)
Technology and Issues of Privacy
168(3)
Supervision and Consultation
171(1)
Child Abuse
172(6)
Elder Abuse
178(1)
Helpful Interventions
179(1)
Abuse of Dependent Adults
180(1)
Suicide
181(6)
Homicidal Behavior
187(4)
Gravely Disabled Individuals
191(1)
Legal Proceedings
191(1)
Special Ethical Issues
192(23)
Emotional Abuse
192(1)
Spousal/Partner Abuse or ``Intimate Partner Violence''
193(3)
Patterns
196(1)
The Cycle of Violence
196(1)
Predictive Factors
196(2)
Reporting Responsibilities
198(1)
Treatment for the Battered Woman
199(1)
Treatment for the Batterer
200(1)
Treatment for Children
200(1)
AIDS
201(1)
Risk Factors
202(1)
The Plight of People Infected with HIV
202(1)
Role of Human Service Professionals
203(1)
Ethical and Legal Issues
203(2)
Ethnic-Sensitive Practice: A Multicultural Perspective
205(1)
An Integrated Approach
205(2)
Ethical Issues Related to Culture and Ethnicity
207(1)
Ethical Standards of Human Service Workers
207(3)
Dual Relationships
210(5)
The Challenges of Working in Human Services
215(30)
Aim of the Chapter
215(1)
Personal Challenges
215(20)
Fears Associated with Being a Student
215(1)
Challenges Faced by Beginning Professionals
216(2)
Balancing Family Life and Career
218(1)
Keeping Personal and Work Issues Separate
219(1)
Caretaking and Rescuing
220(1)
Wanting to Be Liked
221(1)
Transference and Countertransference
222(1)
Transference
222(1)
Examples of Transference
223(1)
Countertransference
224(1)
The Identification Process
225(1)
Positive and Negative Countertransference
225(2)
Resistance
227(1)
Reasons for Resistance
227(6)
Difficult Clients
233(1)
Examples of Difficult Clients
233(2)
Organizational Challenges
235(5)
Understanding the Organization
235(1)
Fitting in
235(1)
Working with Other Organizations
236(1)
Organizational Limitations
237(2)
Change in Organizational Life
239(1)
Environmental Challenges
240(3)
Fiscal Realities
240(1)
Political Realities
241(1)
New Technology
241(1)
Impact of the Internet on Human Services
242(1)
Coping Strategies
243(2)
Open Communication
243(1)
Flexibility and Patience
244(1)
Avoiding Negativity
244(1)
Interpersonal and Professional Relationships
245(22)
Aim of the Chapter
245(1)
Effective Communication and Conflict Resolution
245(6)
Effective Communication Skills
246(3)
Conflict Resolution Skills
249(1)
Types of Conflict
249(1)
Approaches to Conflict
250(1)
Personal Relationships
251(5)
The Effect of Helping Roles on Personal Life
252(1)
Impact on the Family
253(1)
Intimate Relationships
253(2)
Impact on Family Members
255(1)
Relationships with Colleagues
256(3)
Benefits
256(1)
Creating a Supportive and Cohesive Environment
256(1)
Creating Alliances and Friendships
257(1)
Problems with Colleagues
257(1)
Assertive Communication and Conflict Resolution with Colleagues
258(1)
Relationships With Administrators
259(2)
Conflict and the Role of Administrators
259(1)
Assertiveness and Conflict Resolution in Relationships with Administrators
260(1)
Relationships With Agency Staff
261(1)
Professional Relationships in the Community
262(3)
Collaborating with Professionals from Other Disciplines
262(1)
Representing the Agency and the Profession
263(1)
Community Change
264(1)
Consultation in the Community
264(1)
Cultivating Positive Relationships in the Community
265(1)
Considering Culture
265(2)
Keeping Alive in Agency Settings
267(20)
Aim of the Chapter
267(1)
Advantages of Working in Agencies
267(3)
Interaction with Others and Opportunity for Teamwork
267(2)
An Introspective Profession
269(1)
Major Sources of Stress
270(5)
Coping with Overwhelming Feelings
270(1)
Working with Difficult Clients
271(1)
Hostile Coworkers
271(1)
Self-Imposed Limitations
271(1)
Documentation and Paperwork
271(1)
Record Keeping
272(1)
For Statistical Purposes
272(1)
For Ethical Purposes
272(1)
Documentation for Legal Reasons
273(1)
Maintaining a Positive Attitude Toward Paperwork
273(1)
Budget Cuts, Realignment, and Layoffs
274(1)
Burnout
275(12)
Burnout Defined
276(1)
Compassion Fatigue and Vicarious Traumatization
276(1)
Symptoms of Burnout
276(1)
Behavioral
276(1)
Physical
276(1)
Interpersonal/Relational/Social
277(1)
Emotional/Attitudinal
277(1)
Intellectual
277(1)
Spiritual
277(1)
Stages of Burnout
278(1)
Causes of Burnout
278(3)
The Impact of Stress and Burnout
281(1)
Prevention and Intervention
281(6)
Epilogue 287(2)
Appendix A 289(2)
Appendix B 291(4)
Appendix C 295(2)
References 297(10)
Index 307

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