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Taking a macrosociological, global approach, Human Societies offers an introduction to sociology that is truly comparative, cross-cultural, and historical. It compares societies over time and across environments, emphasizing the dynamics of social change. Its clearly developed ecological-evolutionary perspective provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding the array of social arrangements found in human societies over the past 100,000 years. Since industrial societies are introduced only after this theoretical base has been firmly established and older, simpler, and smaller societies have been examined in detail, students see their own society (and other contemporary societies) in a broader and more meaningful way. By showing how social arrangements are related to the environmental and technological contexts that societies are situated in, HumanSocieties encourages students to look for the reasons why social arrangements are the way they are, and why they change over time.
Patrick Nolan is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of South Carolina. An NDEA Title IV Fellow at Temple University, he has been recognized several times by his students as "one who has made a difference." In addition, in November of 2002 he received the Excellence inTeaching Award from the Alpha Chapter of the Mortar Board (Honors College), and in May 2005 he received the student-nominated Two Thumbs Up Award from Disability Services.
Gerhard Lenski is Professor Emeritus at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and author of Ecological-Evolutionary Theory (2005), Power and Privilege (1966), and The Religious Factor (1961). He has been the recipient of the University of Michigan's Award for Teaching Excellence (1959), a Guggenheim Fellowship (1972-73), and the ASA's Career of Distinguished Scholarship Award (2002).
Table of Contents
Part One: Theoretical Foundations
1. The Human Condition Human Societies: Their Place in Nature Societies as Adaptive Mechanisms / A Definition of Human Societies Understanding Human Societies: Basic Assumptions Human Societies and the Environment / Human Societies: Their Genetic Heritage / Human Cultures: A New and Unique Mode of Adaptation and a New and Unique Kind of Heritage Human Societies: The Basic Model Excursus: A Brief History of Sociology
2. Human Societies as Sociocultural Systems Human Societies as Systems The Five Basic Components of Human Societies Population / Culture / Material Products / Social Organization / Social Institutions and Institutional Systems The World System of Societies
3. The Evolution of Human Societies Forces Promoting Social and Cultural Continuity Forces Promoting Social and Cultural Change Forms of Innovation / Causes of Innovation / Variations in the Rate of Innovation Forces of Selection Intrasocietal Selection / Intersocietal Selection Societal Growth and Development Subsistence Technology's Role in Sociocultural Evolution / Ideology's Role in Sociocultural Evolution A Model of the Evolution of the World System of Societies Excursus: A Comparison of Biological and Sociocultural Evolution
4. Types of Human Societies Classifying Human Societies Societal Types through History Historical Eras Differences among Types of Societies Size of Societies / Permanence of Settlements / Societal Complexity / Ideology Societal Types: What They Are and What They Are Not Technological Determinism Rejected
Part Two: Preindustrial Societies
5. Hunting and Gathering Societies The Emergence of Homo Sapiens prior to 100,000 BC: Establishing a Genetic Foundation for Cultural Evolution Hunting and Gathering Societies 100,000 BC to 8,000 BC: Cultural Evolution Takes Hunting and Gathering Societies of the Recent Past Population / Kinship / The Economy / The Polity / Stratification / Religion / Education / The Arts and Leisure / Tribal Ties: Links between Societies Hunting and Gathering Societies in Theoretical Perspective Archaeological and Ethnographic Evidence Compared / A Model of Limited Development / The Last Hunting and Gathering Societies
6. Horticultural Societies Causes of the Shift from Hunting and Gathering to Horticulture The Technology of Horticulture Simple Horticultural Societies in Prehistoric Asia and Europe The First Great Social Revolution Simple Horticultural Societies in the Modern Era Population and Economy / The Continuing Importance of Kinship / Developments in Polity, Stratification, and Warfare Advanced Horticultural Societies in Prehistoric Asia and Europe The Shift from Stone to Metals / Social Consequences of Metal Tools and Weapons Advanced Horticultural Societies in the Modern Era Increased Size and Complexity / Political Development / Horticultural Societies in Southeast Asia Horticultural Societies in Theoretical Perspective Excursus: Race, Environment, and Societal Development
7. Agrarian Societies Simple Agrarian Societies Technology / Religion and the Growth of the Economic Surplus / Population: Growth in Size of Communities and Societies / The Polity: Growth of the State / The Economy: The First Monetary Systems and the Growth of Trade / Stratification: Increasing Inequality / Slowdown in the Rate of TechnologicalInnovation Advanced Agrarian Societies Technology / Population: Continuing Trends / The Economy: Increasing Differentiation / The Polity: Continuing Development of the State / Religion: The Emergence of Universal Faiths / Kinship: Changing Significance in Society / The Role of Women in Agrarian Societies / Leisure and the Arts /Stratification: Increasing Complexity Variations on Agrarian Themes Agrarian Societies in Theoretical Perspective
8. Some Evolutionary Bypaths and a Brief Review Environmentally Specialized Societal Types Fishing Societies / Herding Societies / Maritime Societies A Brief Review: Sociocultural Evolution to the Eve of the Industrial Revolution Part Three: Industrial Societies and Industrializing Societies
9. The Industrial Revolution Causes of the Industrial Revolution The Accumulation of Information in the Agrarian Era / Advances in Water Transportation and the Conquest of the New World / The Printing Press and the Spread of Information / Advances in Agriculture / A Model of the Causes of the Industrial Revolution A Brief History of the Industrial Revolution First Phase: Steam Engines, Iron, Coal, Textile Machines, Factories / Second Phase: Railroads, Steamships, Steel, Rubber, Farm Machines / Third Phase: Automobiles, Airplanes, Telephones, Electricity, Petroleum, Radios, Movies / Fourth Phase: Television, Computers, Transistors, the Internet,Plastics, Globalization / Key Innovations: New Energy, New Machines, New Materials / A Caution: The Dark Side of the Industrial Revolution Causes of the Continuing Industrial Revolution Greater Informational Resources and a Larger Population / Changing Attitudes toward Innovation / The Rise of Modern Science / War / Environmental Feedback / The Desire for Ever Higher Standards of Living Varying Levels of Industrialization in the World System of Societies? Consequences of the Industrial Revolution Initial Consequences / Long-Run Consequences: An Overview
10. Industrial Societies: Technologies and Economies The Technological Foundation of Industrial Societies? The Economies of Industrial Societies The Urbanization of Production / Rise in Productivity and in the Standard of Living / The Shift from Labor-Intensive to Capital-Intensive Industries / Changes in the Labor Force / The Rise of Market Economies / Moves toward Mixed Economies / Evolution of the Modern Corporation Globalization: Increasing Economic Integration of the World Economy
11. Industrial Societies: Ideologies and Polities Ideologies in Industrial Societies Theistic Religions / New Secular Ideologies Differences among Industrial Societies The Polities of Industrial Societies? The Democratic Trend / Democracy as a Variable / Causes of the Democratic Trend / Mass Political Parties / Special Interest Groups / The Mass Media / Political Conflict and Stability / The Growth of Government / Governmental Bureaucracies: Their Expansion and Transformation Political Globalization and the Challenge to the New World Order?
12. Industrial Societies: Social Stratification Stratification in Industrial Societies Political Stratification / The Distribution of Income / The Distribution of Wealth / Occupational Stratification / Educational Stratification / Racial and Ethnic Stratification / Age and Sex Stratification Vertical Mobility Social Inequality: Two Basic Trends
13. Industrial Societies: Population, the Family, and Leisure Population Growth in Size of Societies / Trends in Health and Longevity / Declining Birthrates and Increasing Immigration / Population Distribution: The Growth of Urban Populations The Family Changing Structure of Households and Families/ Changing Functions of the Family / Causes of Change in the Family / The Nuclear Family in Industrial Societies / The Changing Role of Women / The Changing Role of Youth /The Generation Gap Leisure and the Arts Problems and Progress Industrial Societies in Theoretical Perspective
14. Industrializing Hybrid Societies Two Types of Industrializing Societies Economies and Population Growth Ideologies Polities and Conflicts Social Stratification Education Kinship The Status of Women Industrializing Societies in Theoretical Perspective Excursus: Marxist Societies as Natural Experiments
15. Retrospect and Prospect Looking Back The Divergent Path / The Question of Progress Looking Ahead Population / Natural Resources and the Biophysical Environment / Technology / Ideology / Polity / Economy / The World System / The Higher Goals
Glossary Appendix Notes Photo and Art Credits Index About the Authors Index