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The Human Species: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology,9780767411714
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The Human Species: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780767411714

ISBN10:
0767411714
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/16/1999
Publisher(s):
McGraw Hill College Div

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Summary

This general introduction to contemporary physical anthropology presents balanced coverage of the major components of the field: genetics and evolutionary theory, human variation, human evolution, and the biology, behavior, and evolution of primates.

Table of Contents

Preface v
PART I Evolution and Diversity in Human Populations 1(160)
The Study of Biological Anthropology
3(26)
What Is Anthropology?
4(6)
Biology and Culture
4(2)
Variation
6(1)
Evolution
6(1)
Adaptation
6(2)
The Subfields of Anthropology
8(2)
Special Topic: Biological Anthropologists at Work
10(2)
Science and Evolution
12(15)
Characteristics of Science
13(1)
The Development of Evolutionary Theory
14(8)
Evidence for Evolution
22(2)
Science and Religion
24(3)
Summary
27(1)
Supplemental Readings
27(2)
Human Genetics
29(35)
Molecular Genetics
30(8)
DNA: The Genetic Code
30(5)
Chromosomes and Genes
35(3)
Mendelian Genetics
38(13)
Genotypes and Phenotypes
40(3)
Predicting Offspring Distributions
43(2)
Chromosomes and Inheritance
45(2)
The Genetics of Complex Physical Traits
47(4)
Mutations
51(4)
Evolutionary Significance of Mutations
51(1)
Types of Mutations
52(2)
Rates of Mutations
54(1)
Special Topic: PCR and Ancient DNA
55(1)
Genetics and Behavior
56(1)
Summary
57(1)
Supplemental Readings
58(1)
Cell Biology: A Review
59(5)
Principles of Microevolution
64(29)
Population Genetics
64(5)
Definitions of Population
64(1)
Genotype and Allele Frequencies
65(2)
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
67(2)
Evolutionary Forces
69(21)
Mutation
69(1)
Natural Selection
70(8)
Genetic Drift
78(5)
Gene Flow
83(3)
Interaction of the Evolutionary Forces
86(4)
Special Topic: Tay-Sachs Disease: Genetic Drift or Natural Selection?
90(1)
Nonrandom Mating
90(1)
Summary
91(1)
Supplemental Readings
92(1)
The Study of Human Variation
93(23)
Measuring Human Variation
93(6)
Biochemical Variation
94(4)
Complex Trait Variation
98(1)
The Racial Approach to Variation
99(8)
The Biological Concept of Race
100(1)
Problems with the Concept of Race
100(7)
The Evolutionary Approach to Variation
107(6)
The Analysis of Gene Flow and Genetic Drift
108(2)
The Analysis of Natural Selection
110(3)
Special Topic: Genetics, Race, and IQ
113(2)
Summary
115(1)
Supplemental Readings
115(1)
Human Microevolution
116(26)
Case Studies of Gene Flow and Genetic Drift
116(4)
Social Organization and Genetics of South American Indians of the Rain Forest
117(1)
The Vikings and Irish Population History
118(2)
Special Topic: The Biological History of the Ancient Egyptians
120(1)
Case Studies of Natural Selection
120(20)
Hemoglobin, Sickle Cell, and Malaria
120(9)
Blood Groups and Natural Selection
129(5)
Lactase Deficiency
134(2)
Skin Color
136(4)
Summary
140(1)
Supplemental Readings
141(1)
Human Adaptation
142(19)
Types of Adaptation
143(1)
Physiologic, Genetic, and Cultural Adaptation
143(1)
Adaptation to Ultraviolet Radiation: An Example
143(1)
Special Topic: Cold Nights in Tierra Del Fuego
144(1)
Climate and Human Adaptation
144(10)
Physiologic Responses to Temperature Stress
145(1)
Climate and Morphological Variation
146(6)
Cultural Adaptations
152(2)
High-Altitude Adaptation
154(4)
High-Altitude Stresses
154(1)
Physiologic Responses to Hypoxia
155(1)
Physical Growth in High-Altitude Populations
156(2)
Summary
158(1)
Supplemental Readings
159(2)
PART II Our Place in Nature 161(148)
Primates in Nature
163(35)
Taxonomy
163(8)
Taxonomic Categories
164(1)
Definition of Species
165(1)
Methods of Classification
166(2)
Approaches to Classification
168(1)
The Vertebrates
169(2)
Characteristics of Mammals
171(7)
Reproduction
171(3)
Temperature Regulation
174(1)
Teeth
174(2)
Skeletal Structure
176(1)
Behavior
177(1)
Primate Characteristics
178(8)
The Skeleton
180(1)
Vision
181(1)
The Brain and Behavior
182(2)
Reproduction and Care of Offspring
184(2)
Special Topic: What Will Happen to the Primates?
186(4)
Social Structure
188(2)
Models of Primate Behavior
190(6)
Socioecology
191(1)
Sociobiology
192(4)
Summary
196(1)
Supplemental Readings
197(1)
The Biology and Behavior of the Living Primates
198(35)
Primate Suborders
198(5)
Prosimians
198(4)
Anthropoids
202(1)
Alternative Classifications
202(1)
The Monkeys
203(7)
New World Monkeys
203(4)
Old World Monkeys
207(3)
The Hominoids
210(7)
Hominoid Characteristics
211(2)
Classification of the Hominoids
213(4)
The Living Apes
217(9)
Gibbons
218(2)
Orangutans
220(2)
Gorillas
222(3)
Chimpanzees
225(1)
Special Topic: Social Structure and Testes Size in Primates
226(6)
Bonobos
229(3)
Summary
232(1)
Supplemental Readings
232(1)
The Human Species
233(26)
Characteristics of Living Humans
234(14)
Distribution and Environment
234(1)
Brain Size and Structure
234(3)
Bipedalism
237(3)
Canine Teeth
240(1)
Sex and Reproduction
241(1)
Human Growth
242(5)
Social Structure
247(1)
How Are Humans Unique?
248(1)
Tool Use and Manufacture
248(1)
Special Topic: Can Apes Make Stone Tools?
249(9)
Language Capabilities
253(1)
What Is Language?
254(4)
Summary
258(1)
Supplemental Readings
258(1)
Macroevolution and the Fossil Record
259(28)
Patterns of Macroevolution
260(7)
Speciation
262(2)
Adaptive Radiation
264(1)
The Tempo and Mode of Macroevolution
264(2)
Extinctions and Mass Extinctions
266(1)
Species Selection
267(1)
Misconceptions About Evolution
267(1)
The Nature of Selection
267(1)
Special Topic: Science Fiction and Orthogenesis
268(3)
Structure, Function, and Evolution
270(1)
The Study of the Fossil Record
271(8)
Relative Dating Methods
272(1)
Chronometric Dating Methods
273(4)
Reconstructing the Past
277(2)
Evolution Before the Primates
279(6)
Perspectives on Geologic Time
279(3)
The Origin of Life
282(1)
The Paleozoic Era
282(2)
The Mesozoic Era
284(1)
Summary
285(1)
Supplemental Readings
286(1)
Primate Origins and Evolution
287(22)
Early Primate Evolution
287(8)
Overview of Early Primate Evolution
288(1)
Primate Origins
288(5)
Anthropoid Origins
293(2)
Evolution of the Miocene Apes
295(1)
Special Topic: The Giant Ape
296(11)
The Diversity of Miocene Apes
297(1)
The Fossil Evidence
297(5)
Genetic Evidence
302(3)
Conclusions
305(2)
Summary
307(1)
Supplemental Readings
308(1)
PART III Human Evolution 309(133)
Human Origins
311(28)
Overview of Human Evolution
311(3)
The First Hominids
314(14)
Primitive Hominids
316(7)
Later Australopithecines
323(5)
Evolutionary Trends
328(1)
Special Topic: The Piltdown Hoax
329(9)
Evolutionary Relationships
330(4)
The Origin of Bipedalism
334(4)
Summary
338(1)
Supplemental Readings
338(1)
The Evolution of the Genus Homo
339(31)
The Origins of the Genus Homo
339(5)
Early Homo
340(4)
Evolutionary Relationships
344(1)
Homo erectus
344(12)
Distribution in Time and Space
344(3)
General Physical Characteristics
347(4)
Cultural Behavior
351(5)
Archaic Humans
356(3)
Anagenesis or Cladogenesis?
357(2)
Special Topic: Neandertals: Names and Images
359(10)
Distribution in Time and Space
359(2)
Early Archaics
361(3)
The Neandertals
364(5)
Summary
369(1)
Supplemental Readings
369(1)
The Origin of Modern Humans
370(28)
Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens
370(10)
Distribution in Time and Space
371(1)
Physical Characteristics
371(1)
Cultural Behavior
372(8)
The Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans
380(7)
Early Models
381(1)
Current Models and Debates
382(2)
The Fossil Evidence
384(3)
Special Topic: The Iceman
387(7)
The Genetic Evidence
387(4)
Consensus?
391(1)
Why Did Modern Humans Evolve?
391(3)
Recent Biological and Cultural Evolution in Homo sapiens
394(2)
Summary
396(1)
Supplemental Readings
397(1)
The Evolution of Human Health and Disease
398(29)
The Study of Epidemiology
399(7)
Types of Diseases
399(1)
Rates of Diseases
400(1)
Causes of Diseases
401(2)
Studying the Evolution of Human Disease
403(3)
The Evolution of Human Disease
406(14)
Disease in Hunting-Gathering Societies
406(3)
Agriculture and Disease
409(1)
Urbanization and Disease
410(2)
Culture Contact
412(1)
The Epidemiologic Transition
413(3)
Secular Changes in Human Growth
416(2)
Some Contemporary Issues
418(2)
Special Topic: The Coming Plague?
420(5)
Summary
425(1)
Supplemental Readings
426(1)
The Demographic Evolution of Human Populations
427(15)
The Study of Demography
427(8)
Demographic Measures
427(4)
Population Growth
431(2)
The Age-Sex Structure of Populations
433(2)
Demography and the Modern World
435(1)
The Demographic Transition
435(1)
Special Topic: The Baby Boom
436(5)
World Population Growth
438(1)
Implications of Changing Age Structure
439(2)
Summary
441(1)
Supplemental Readings
441(1)
Epilogue: The Future of Our Species 442(2)
Appendix 1 Mathematical Population Genetics 444(9)
Appendix 2 Classification of Living Primates 453(4)
Appendix 3 Conversion Factors 457(1)
Appendix 4 Comparative Primate Skeletal Anatomy 458(3)
Glossary 461(10)
References 471(12)
Index 483


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