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Immunohematology Principles and Practice,9780397554690

Immunohematology Principles and Practice

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Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780397554690

ISBN10:
0397554699
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/6/1998
Publisher(s):
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
List Price: $72.48

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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 2/6/1998.
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Summary

If your Med Tech and Med Lab Tech students buy one book this should be it! The second edition of this respected text provides a well-rounded introduction to immunohematology that includes superior explanations of procedures. Utilizing an easy-to-read, user-friendly format, the text successfully conveys the complex principles and practices of blood banking. Following a clear progression from basic to complex concepts, coverage more than meets the most current requirements of the AABB. Actual work experience references provide an accurate look at the field. New in this edition: 3 New Chapters -- Hemapheresis, Regulatory Overview, and Process Control; 2 New Sections -- Quality Assurance/Regulatory Issues, and Serologic Techniques; Two-Color Format; 40 New Illustrations; 8-Page, 4-Color Insert; includes Chapter Outlines, Summaries, Summary Boxes, Tables and Case Studies.

Table of Contents

UNIT 1 Blood and Blood Components 1(44)
1 BLOOD COLLECTION AND PROCESSING
3(19)
Donor Registration
4(1)
Educational Material Provided to the Prospective Donor
5(1)
Donor Selection
5(8)
Medical History
5(7)
Confidential Unit Exclusion
12(1)
Physical Examination
12(1)
Blood Collection
13(2)
Materials
13(1)
Blood Containers
14(1)
Identification
14(1)
Selection of Vein and Arm Preparation
14(1)
Phlebotomy and Collection of Samples
14(1)
Care of the Donor
15(1)
Donor Reactions
15(1)
Grade I and II Reactions
15(1)
Grade III Reactions
16(1)
Donor Unit Processing
16(2)
ABO
16(1)
Rh
16(1)
Detection of Unexpected Antibodies to Red Cell Antigens
16(1)
Serologic Test for Syphilis
16(1)
Viral Marker Testing
17(1)
Special Donations
18(1)
Autologous Donation
18(1)
Directed Donation
19(1)
Therapeutic Phlebotomy
19(1)
Summary
19(3)
2 HEMAPHERESIS
22(9)
Separation Devices
23(3)
Separation by Centrifugation
23(1)
Bowl Technology
23(1)
Continuous-Flow Technology
24(2)
Separation by Membrane Filtration
26(1)
Separation by Adsorption
26(1)
Component Collection
26(2)
Platelet Concentrates
27(1)
Plasma
27(1)
Granulocyte Concentrates
28(1)
Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells
28(1)
Therapeutic Applications of Apheresis
28(1)
Therapeutic Plasmapheresis
28(1)
Therapeutic Cytapheresis
28(1)
Use of Therapeutic Apheresis in Disease
29(1)
Summary
29(2)
3 BLOOD COMPONENTS: PREPARATION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION
31(14)
Anticoagulants
32(1)
Additive Solutions
32(1)
Rejuvenation
32(1)
Blood Collection Bags
33(1)
Whole Blood
34(1)
Red Blood Cells
34(2)
Leukocyte-Reduced Red Blood Cells
34(1)
Washed Red Blood Cells
35(1)
Frozen, Thawed, Deglycerolized Red Blood Cells
35(1)
Plasma Components
36(1)
Fresh Frozen Plasma
36(1)
Plasma
36(1)
Cryoprecipitated Antihemophilic Factor
37(1)
Platelets
37(1)
Leukocyte-Reduced Platelets
38(1)
Granulocytes
38(1)
Labels
38(1)
ISBT 128
39(1)
Irradiation of Blood Components
39(1)
Storage of Blood Components
40(1)
Transportation of Blood Components
41(1)
Whole Blood and Red Blood Cell Components
41(1)
Frozen Components
41(1)
Platelets and Granulocytes
41(1)
Shipping Containers
42(1)
Summary
42(3)
UNIT 2 Genetic and Immunologic Principles 45(44)
4 GENETICS
47(11)
Mitosis and Meiosis
48(3)
Phenotypes and Genotypes
51(1)
Inheritance Patterns
51(2)
Contribution of Blood Group Genetics to the Field of Human Genetics
53(1)
Population Genetics
53(1)
Linkage
53(1)
Crossing Over and Recombination
54(1)
Positional or Modifier Effects of Genes
54(1)
Gene Action
54(1)
Silent Genes
55(1)
Blood Group Nomenclature
55(1)
Public and Private Genes
56(1)
Blood Group Genes as Genetic Markers
56(1)
Summary
56(2)
5 BASIC IMMUNOLOGY
58(21)
Background and Early History of Immunology
59(1)
Cellular and Humoral Immunity
59(1)
Leukocytes: Cells of the Immune System
60(6)
Macrophages
60(1)
Lymphocytes and Specific Antigen Binding by Cell Surface Receptors
61(1)
T Lymphocytes
62(3)
B Lymphocytes
65(1)
Immunogens Versus Antigens
66(1)
Route of Administration
67(1)
Shape and Charge
67(1)
Antibodies
67(4)
Structure and Physiochemistry
68(2)
IgG Subclass and Function
70(1)
Hybridomas and Monoclonal Antibodies
71(1)
Antigen-Antibody Reactions
71(1)
The Zeta Potential
71(1)
Hydration and Surface Tension
72(1)
Immune Response to Blood Products and Subsequent Hemagglutination
72(2)
Mechanisms of Agglutination
72(2)
Complement
74(3)
Components of the Complement System
74(3)
Effects of Complement Activation
77(1)
Summary
77(2)
6 ANTIGLOBULIN TESTING
79(10)
History of Antiglobulin Testing
79(1)
Principle of the Antiglobulin Test
80(1)
Indirect Antiglobulin Test
81(1)
Factors Affecting the Indirect Antiglobulin Test
81(1)
Applications of the IAT
81(1)
Direct Antiglobulin Test
82(1)
Applications of the DAT
82(1)
Anti-Human Globulin Reagents
83(1)
Polyspecific Anti-Human Globulin Serum
84(1)
Monospecific Anti-Human Globulin Sera
84(1)
Traditional Antiglobulin Testing
84(1)
Indirect Antiglobulin Testing
84(1)
Direct Antiglobulin Testing
84(1)
Sources of Error in Antiglobulin Testing
85(1)
False-Positive Results
85(1)
False-Negative Results
85(1)
Nontraditional Antiglobulin Testing
85(4)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
86(1)
Solid-Phase Red Cell Adherence
86(1)
Gel Test
86(3)
UNIT 3 Red Blood Cell Groups 89(72)
7 THE ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM
91(20)
Inheritance
92(2)
Bombay Phenotype
94(1)
Inheritance of the Bombay Phenotype
95(1)
Cis-AB
95(1)
Antigen Development
95(2)
Antibodies of the ABO System
97(3)
Anti-A
97(1)
Anti-A(1)
98(1)
Anti-B
98(1)
Anti-A(1)B
98(1)
Anti-H
99(1)
Forward Grouping
99(1)
Microplate and Miscellaneous Testing
99(1)
Reverse Grouping
99(1)
ABH System in Disease
100(1)
Secretor Status
100(1)
Subgroups of A
101(1)
Subgroups of B
101(1)
Discrepancies in ABO Grouping
102(4)
Technical Errors
102(1)
Weak or Missing Antibodies
103(1)
Weak or Absent Antigens
103(1)
Unexpected Cold-Reactive Autoantibodies
104(1)
Unexpected Cold-Reactive Antibodies
104(1)
Rouleaux
104(1)
Miscellaneous
105(1)
Summary
106(5)
8 The Rh Blood Group System
111(13)
Nomenclature
112(2)
The Fisher-Race Terminology
112(1)
The Wiener Terminology
112(1)
The Rosenfield Terminology
113(1)
Most Probable Genotypes
113(1)
The RH(o) (D) Antigen
114(1)
The D mosaic
114(1)
Weakened Expression of the D Antigen
114(1)
Other Rh Antigens Encoded at the D Locus
115(1)
The C and C Antigens
115(6)
Other Antigens Encoded at the Cc Locus
115(1)
The E and e Antigens
115(1)
Other Antigens Encoded at the Ee Locus
115(1)
The e Mosaic
116(1)
The G Antigen
116(1)
Compound Antigens
116(1)
D Deletion
116(1)
Rh(null)
116(1)
The LW Antigens
117(1)
Rh System Antibodies' Characteristics and Reactivity
118(1)
Rh Immunoglobulin
119(1)
Detection of Rh Antigens
119(1)
Sources of Error
120(1)
Summary
121(3)
9 OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS
124(37)
Nomenclature and Classification
127(1)
The Lewis Blood Group System
128(4)
The Lewis System Phenotypes and Antigenic Expression
128(1)
Genetics and Biochemistry of the Lewis System
129(1)
Biochemistry of the Lewis Antigens
129(2)
Acquisition of Lewis Antigens by Red Blood Cells
131(1)
Other Lewis Antigens
131(1)
Lewis System Antibodies
131(1)
Clinical Significance of Lewis System Antibodies
132(1)
Reagents and Testing Methods
132(1)
Lewis Antibody Neutralization
132(1)
The I Blood Group System
132(2)
Biochemistry of the Ii Antigens
132(1)
Development of I and i Antigens
132(1)
Antibodies Defining the I System Antigens
133(1)
Clinical Significance of Anti-I and Anti-i
133(1)
I Blood Group System Disease Associations
134(1)
Reagents and Testing Methods
134(1)
The P Blood Group System
134(3)
P System Phenotypes and Antigen Expression
134(1)
Genetics and Biochemistry of the P Blood Group System
135(1)
Antibodies of the P Blood Group System
135(1)
Clinical Significance of P System Antibodies
136(1)
P Blood Group System Disease Associations
137(1)
Reagents and Testing Methods
137(1)
The MNSs Blood Group System
137(5)
Genetics and Biochemistry of the MNSs Blood Group System
137(3)
MNSs Blood Group Antigens in Paternity Testing
140(1)
Antibodies of the MNSs Blood Group System
140(1)
Clinical Significance of MNSs System Antibodies
141(1)
Reagents and Testing Methods
141(1)
The Kell Blood Group System
142(3)
Kell Blood Group System Antigens and Genetics
142(1)
The McLeod Syndrome and Chronic Granulomatous Disease
143(1)
Other Weak Kell Phenotypes
144(1)
Kell System Biochemistry
144(1)
Antibodies of the Kell Blood Group System
144(1)
Clinical Significance of Kell System Antibodies
145(1)
Reagents and Testing Methods
145(1)
The Duffy Blood Group System
145(2)
Antibodies Defining the Duffy System
145(1)
Genetics and Biochemistry of the Duffy System
146(1)
Clinical Significance of Duffy System Antibodies
147(1)
Reagents and Testing Methods
147(1)
Kidd Blood Group System
147(2)
Antibodies Defining the Kidd System
147(1)
Genetics and Biochemistry of the Kidd Blood Group System
148(1)
Clinical Significance of Kidd System Antibodies
148(1)
Reagents and Testing Methods
149(1)
The Lutheran Blood Group System
149(2)
Lutheran System Antigens and Genetics
149(1)
Antibodies Defining the Lutheran Blood Group System
150(1)
Biochemistry of the Lutheran System Antigens
150(1)
Clinical Significance of Lutheran System Antibodies
151(1)
Reagents and Testing Methods
151(1)
Miscellaneous Blood Group Systems
151(3)
Wright
151(1)
Xg
151(1)
Diego
151(1)
Cartwright (Yt)
152(1)
Dombrock
152(1)
Colton
153(1)
Scianna
153(1)
Cromer
153(1)
Gerbich
154(1)
Other Blood Group Antigens
154(7)
Sd(a)
154(1)
Bg
154(1)
Antigens Detected by High-Titer, Low-Avidity Antibodies
155(1)
Independent High-Frequency Antigens
155(1)
Independent Low-Frequency Antigens
155(6)
UNIT 4 Transfusion Practices 161(78)
10 ANTIBODY DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION
163(39)
Direct Antiglobulin Test
164(1)
Applications
164(1)
Indirect Antiglobulin Test
164(2)
Applications
164(1)
Phases of Testing
165(1)
Identification of Antibodies
166(6)
Antigrams
166(1)
Routine Panels
166(2)
Categoric Identification of Antibodies
168(4)
Selected Case Studies
172(1)
Case Study 1
172(5)
Medical History
172(1)
Discussion
172(5)
Case Study 2
177(1)
Medical History
177(1)
Discussion
177(1)
Case Study 3
178(1)
Medical History
178(1)
Discussion
178(1)
Case Study 4
178(3)
Medical History
178(1)
Discussion
178(3)
Case Study 5
181(3)
Medical History
181(1)
Discussion
182(2)
Case Study 6
184(2)
Medical History
184(1)
Discussion
184(2)
Case Study 7
186(3)
Medical History
186(1)
Discussion
186(3)
Case Study 8
189(2)
Medical History
189(1)
Discussion
189(2)
Case Study 9
191(1)
Medical History
191(1)
Discussion
191(1)
Summary
192(10)
11 PRETRANSFUSION TESTING
202(12)
Pretransfusion Testing
203(2)
The Requisition
204(1)
Request Forms
204(1)
Patient Identity
204(1)
The Patient Sample
204(1)
Type and Screen
205(2)
The ABO Blood Group
205(1)
The Rh Type
205(1)
Antibody Detection (Antibody Screen)
206(1)
Blood Selection Guidelines
207(1)
The Crossmatch
207(2)
The Immediate-Spin Crossmatch
208(1)
The Indirect Antiglobulin Test Crossmatch
208(1)
Additional Considerations for Patients with Antibodies
208(1)
Interpretation of Crossmatches
208(1)
Special Considerations for Infants Younger than 4 Months of Age
209(1)
ABO/Rh
209(1)
Antibody Screen
209(1)
Crossmatch
209(1)
The Electronic "Computer" Crossmatch
210(1)
Blood Requests for Surgery
210(1)
Exceptional Protocols
210(1)
Massive Transfusion
210(1)
Emergency Requests for Blood
211(1)
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
211(1)
Issuing Blood
211(1)
Summary
211(3)
12 TRANSFUSION THERAPY
214(25)
Red Blood Cell Component Transfusion
216(2)
Description of Components
216(1)
Red Blood Cell Component Indications
216(1)
Contraindications to Red Blood Cell Component Transfusion
216(1)
Administration of Red Blood Cell Components
217(1)
Platelet Transfusion Therapy
218(3)
Description of Platelet Components
218(1)
Platelet Transfusion and ABO Compatibility
218(1)
Indications for Platelet Transfusion
218(1)
Contraindications to Platelet Transfusion
219(1)
Administration of Platelet Components and Assessment of Response to Transfusion
220(1)
Prevention and Management of Platelet Refractoriness
220(1)
Granulocytes
221(1)
Description of Component
221(1)
Indications for Granulocyte Transfusions
221(1)
Contraindications to Granulocyte Transfusions
221(1)
Administration of Granulocytes
222(1)
Fresh Frozen Plasma
222(1)
Description of Component
222(1)
Indications for Fresh Frozen Plasma
223(1)
Contraindications to Fresh Frozen Plasma
223(1)
Administration of Fresh Frozen Plasma
223(1)
Assessment of Response to Transfusion
223(1)
Cryoprecipitated Antihemophilic Factor (Cryoprecipitate)
223(2)
Description of Component
223(1)
Indications for Transfusion
223(1)
Contraindications to Transfusion
223(1)
Administration of Cryoprecipitate
223(1)
Assessment of Response to Transfusion
224(1)
Clotting Factor Concentrates
224(1)
Other Plasma Components
225(1)
Guidelines for Pediatric Transfusion
225(2)
Whole Blood, Reconstituted Whole Blood, or Modified Whole Blood Transfusion
225(1)
Red Blood Cells
225(1)
Platelet Concentrate Transfusions
226(1)
Transfusion of Fresh Frozen Plasma
226(1)
Transfusion of Cryoprecipitate
227(1)
Granulocyte Transfusions
227(1)
Alternatives to Homologous Component Transfusions
227(7)
Autologous Transfusion Therapy
227(1)
Preoperative Autologous Blood Donation
228(1)
Donor Selection Criteria
228(1)
Limitations of Preoperative Autologous Donation
229(1)
Use of Autologous Components
229(1)
Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution
230(2)
Intraoperative Blood Salvage
232(1)
Postoperative Blood Salvage
233(1)
Summary
234(1)
Pharmacologic Agents Used in Transfusion Therapy
234(1)
DDAVP
234(1)
Administration of DDAVP
234(1)
Antifibrinolytic Agents
235(1)
Other Pharmacologic Agents
235(1)
Growth Factors
235(1)
Recombinant Human Erythropoietin
235(1)
Other Growth Factors
236(1)
Summary
236(3)
UNIT 5 Clinical Conditions Associated with Immunohematology 239(76)
13 ADVERSE EFFECTS OF TRANSFUSION
241(12)
Red Blood Cell Antigen-Antibody Reactions
242(1)
Immediate Intravascular Hemolysis
242(1)
Case Study 1
243(1)
Medical History
243(1)
Discussion
243(1)
Delayed Extravascular Hemolysis
244(1)
Case Study 2
244(1)
Medical History
244(1)
Discussion
244(1)
Pseudohemolytic Reactions
245(1)
Case Study 3
245(1)
Medical History
245(1)
Discussion
246(1)
White Blood Cell Antigen-Antibody Reactions
246(1)
Febrile Reactions
246(1)
Pulmonary Infiltration
246(1)
Case Study 4
246(1)
Medical History
246(1)
Discussion
247(1)
Bacterial Reactions
247(1)
Plasma Component Reactions
248(1)
Allergic
248(1)
Anaphylactic
248(1)
Graft-versus-Host Reactions
248(1)
Miscellaneous Reactions
248(1)
Hyperkalemia
248(1)
Transfusion Hemosiderosis
249(1)
Citrate Toxicity
249(1)
Hypothermia
249(1)
Circulatory Overload
249(1)
Posttransfusion Purpura
249(1)
Disease Transmission
249(1)
Cell-Mediated Alloimmunization
249(1)
Inhibition of Immune Response
250(1)
Transfusion of ABO-Incompatible Plasma
250(1)
Case Study 5
250(1)
Medical History
250(1)
Discussion
250(1)
Investigation of Adverse Reactions
250(1)
Specific Requirements
250(1)
Investigation of Disease Transmission
251(1)
Summary
251(2)
14 TRANSFUSION-TRANSMITTED DISEASES
253(29)
Viral Infections
254(19)
Hepatitis Viruses
254(10)
Retroviruses
264(6)
Herpesviruses
270(2)
Parvovirus
272(1)
Prions
273(1)
Bacterial Infections
273(2)
Syphilis
273(1)
Lyme Disease (Borreliosis)
274(1)
Parasitic Infections
275(3)
Malaria
275(1)
Chagas Disease
276(1)
Toxoplasmosis
277(1)
Babesiosis
277(1)
Leishmaniasis
278(1)
Summary
278(4)
15 HEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN
282(13)
Definition
283(1)
Etiology of HDN
283(1)
Historical Perspective
283(1)
Pathogenesis
283(1)
Red Blood Cell Antibodies That Cause HDN
284(1)
Rh HDN
284(1)
ABO Protection
284(1)
Other Rh Antibodies
284(1)
Antibodies Outside of the Rh System
284(1)
ABO HDN
285(1)
In Vitro Assays to Predict the Severity of HDN
285(2)
Prevention
287(1)
Laboratory Investigation
288(2)
Neonatal Studies
288(1)
Serologic Problems Seen in HDN
288(1)
ABO/Rh Testing
288(1)
Direct Antiglobulin Test
288(2)
Detecting and Quantifying Fetal-Maternal Hemorrhage
290(1)
Treatments for HDN
290(1)
In Utero
290(1)
Postpartum
290(1)
Maternal Intervention
291(1)
Plasma Exchange
291(1)
Intravenous Immune Globulin
292(1)
Maternal Immunization to Other Blood Proteins
292(1)
Summary
292(3)
16 AUTOIMMUNE HEMOLYTIC ANEMIAS AND DRUG-INDUCED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIAS
295(20)
Production of Autoantibodies
296(1)
Classification of Immune Hemolytic Anemias
296(1)
Pathophysiology of Immune Hemolysis
296(1)
Laboratory Investigation of Immune Hemolysis
297(2)
Direct Antiglobulin Test
298(1)
Elution
298(1)
Antibody Detection
298(1)
Adsorption
298(1)
Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
299(3)
Clinical Description
299(1)
Treatment
299(1)
Etiology of WAIHA
300(1)
Serologic Investigation
300(2)
Cold Hemagglutinin Syndrome and Cold Hemagglutinin Disease
302(2)
Clinical Description
302(1)
Treatment
303(1)
Etiology of Cold Hemagglutinin Syndrome
303(1)
Serologic Investigation
303(1)
Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria
304(1)
Clinical Description
304(1)
Treatment
304(1)
Serologic Investigation
304(1)
Drug-Induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia
305(1)
Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Hemolytic Anemia
306(5)
Drug Adsorption or Passive Agglutination
306(2)
Immune Complex or Drug-Dependent Antibody Mechanism
308(1)
Membrane Modification Mechanism
309(1)
"True" Drug-Induced Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
310(1)
Unified Mechanism
310(1)
Summary
311(4)
UNIT 6 Quality Assurance/Regulatory Issues 315(46)
17 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND SAFETY IN IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY
317(21)
Quality Assurance
318(12)
Quality Assurance Department
319(1)
Personnel
319(1)
Standard Operating Procedures
320(2)
Documentation and Records
322(1)
Nonconformance
323(1)
Peer Review
324(1)
Quality Assurance Audits
324(1)
Inspections
324(1)
Supplier Qualification
325(1)
Facilities, Equipment, and Process Activities
325(2)
Label Control
327(1)
Lot Release
327(1)
Problem-Solving
327(2)
Performance Indicators
329(1)
Prevention
329(1)
Summary
330(1)
Biosafety in the Blood Center and Transfusion Service
330(6)
Regulatory Agencies
330(1)
Classification of Work Activity
330(1)
Standard Operating Procedures and Training
331(1)
Universal Precautions
331(1)
Personal Protective Equipment
331(1)
Safety Practices
332(1)
Needle Precautions
333(1)
Storage
333(1)
Basic Safety Precautions
334(1)
Injuries and Exposures
334(1)
Waste Management
335(1)
Radiation
336(1)
Summary
336(2)
18 REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS
338(11)
American Association of Blood Banks
339(1)
Objectives
339(1)
AABB Quality Plan
340(1)
The Food and Drug Administration
340(2)
History
340(1)
Objective
340(2)
Health Care Finance Administration
342(4)
Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988
342(2)
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
344(1)
College of American Pathologists
345(1)
Other Agencies
346(1)
International Organization for Standardization
346(1)
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
346(1)
Department of Transportation
346(1)
Environmental Protection Agency
346(1)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
347(1)
Summary
347(2)
19 PROCESS CONTROL
349(12)
Understanding Processes
349(1)
Process Control Elements
350(1)
Standard Operating Procedures
350(1)
Training
350(1)
Instrument and Equipment Monitors
350(1)
Review
350(1)
Quality Control
351(1)
Internal Self-Assessment
351(1)
Statistical Process Control
351(1)
Data Collection
351(1)
Total Quality Tools
351(7)
Pareto Chart
352(1)
Flowchart
352(1)
Histograms
352(2)
Scatter Diagrams
354(1)
Run Charts
355(1)
Control Charts
355(1)
Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
356(2)
Supplier Qualification
358(1)
Supplier Impact
358(1)
Supplier Qualification
358(1)
Change Control
359(1)
Summary
359(2)
UNIT 7 Additional Topics to Consider 361(24)
20 HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGENS
363(22)
Nomenclature and Genetics
364(3)
Antigens and Antibodies
367(2)
Histocompatibility Typing Procedure
369(6)
Microlymphocytotoxicity Assay for HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C
369(1)
Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction for HLA-D
370(1)
HLA Typing by DNA Analysis
371(4)
Applications of HLA Testing
375(4)
Paternity Testing
375(1)
HLA in Platelet Transfusion
376(1)
HLA in Transplantation
377(1)
HLA Disease Association
378(1)
Summary
379(6)
Answers to Review Questions 385(2)
Glossary 387(10)
Appendix A/Study Aid 397(52)
Index 449


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