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Including Students with Special Needs: A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers,9780205331925
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Including Students with Special Needs: A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205331925

ISBN10:
0205331920
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $82.00
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Summary

Including Students with Special Needs takes a non-categorical approach to the topic of inclusionary practices, drawing on the authors' own INCLUDE model to help all students achieve success regardless of their specific category of exceptionality. The third edition continues to offer strategies for teaching students with disabilities in inclusive settings. By drawing on author Marilyn Friend's experience in elementary education and author William Bursuck's in secondary education, this book examines the needs of students with low-incidence and high-incidence disabilities at both the elementary and secondary levels. The text offers a useful organization that first lays a foundation in special education/inclusion and then helps the student apply that information in specific classroom situations.

Table of Contents

Features xvi
Preface xix
The Foundation for Educating Students with Special Needs
xxviii
Learner Objectives
1(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
1(1)
What Key Terms and Concepts Define Special Education?
2(3)
Least Restrictive Environment
2(1)
Mainstreaming
3(1)
Inclusion
4(1)
How Did Special Education Services Come to Exist?
5(8)
The Development of Education for Students with Disabilities
5(2)
The Impact of the Civil Rights Movement on Special Education
7(2)
The Legislative Basis for Least Restrictive Environment
9(4)
What Are the Issues Related to Inclusion?
13(4)
Inclusion and Students
14(1)
Parents and Inclusion
15(1)
General Education Teachers and Inclusion
15(2)
Administrators and Inclusion
17(1)
Putting the Pieces Together
17(1)
Who Receives Special Education and Other Special Services?
17(13)
Categories of Disability in Federal Law
18(6)
Cross-Categorical Approaches to Special Education
24(2)
Other Students with Special Needs
26(2)
Summary
28(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Understanding Contemporary Special Education Practices
28(2)
Special Education Procedures and Services
30(42)
Learner Objectives
31(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
31(1)
Who Are the Professionals in Special Education?
32(11)
General Education Teachers
32(2)
Special Education Teachers
34(2)
Other Specialists and Related Service Providers
36(7)
How Can You Decide Whether a Student Need Might Be a Disability?
43(5)
Analyze Unmet Needs
43(2)
Communicate Your Observations and Try Your Own Interventions
45(3)
How Do Students Obtain Special Services?
48(11)
Initial Consideration of Student Problems
48(3)
The Special Education Referral and Assessment Process
51(2)
Decision Making for Special Services
53(2)
Monitoring Special Education Services
55(4)
What Is an Individualized Education Program?
59(5)
Required Components of an IEP
59(5)
What Services Do Students with Disabilities Receive?
64(8)
Special Education and Related Services
64(1)
Student Placement
65(4)
Summary
69(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: A Visit to an MDT Meeting
69(3)
Professional Partnerships
72(38)
Learner Objectives
73(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
73(2)
What Are the Basics of Collaboration?
75(6)
Characteristics of Collaboration
75(2)
Prerequisites for Collaboration
77(4)
What Are Effective Applications of Collaboration in Schools that Foster Inclusion?
81(15)
Shared Problem Solving
82(5)
Co-Teaching
87(4)
Teaming
91(4)
Consulting
95(1)
How Can You Work Effectively with Parents?
96(6)
Understanding the Perspective of Family Members
96(1)
Parent Reactions to Their Child's Disability
97(2)
Collaborating with Parents
99(1)
Parent Conferences
100(2)
How Can You Work Effectively with Paraprofessionals?
102(8)
Understanding Your Working Relationship with Paraprofessionals
104(2)
Collaborating with Paraprofessionals
106(1)
Summary
107(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Collaboration at Lawrence Elementary School
107(3)
Planning Instruction by Analyzing Classroom and Student Needs
110(42)
Learner Objectives
111(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
111(1)
How Can the INCLUDE Strategy Help You Make Reasonable Accommodations for Students with Special Needs?
112(8)
Identify Classroom Demands
113(1)
Note Student Learning Strengths and Needs
114(2)
Check Potential Areas of Student Success
116(1)
Look for Potential Problem Areas
116(1)
Use Information to Brainstorm Adaptations
117(2)
Decide Which Accommodations to Implement
119(1)
Evaluate Student Progress
119(1)
How Is an Inclusive Classroom Organized?
120(8)
Physical Organization
120(3)
Routines for Classroom Business
123(1)
Classroom Climate
123(1)
Classroom Rules
124(1)
Monitoring
125(1)
Use of Time
125(3)
How Can You Group All Your Students for Instruction in Inclusive Classrooms?
128(2)
Whole-Class or Large-Group Instruction
128(1)
Small-Group Instruction
129(1)
One-to-One Instruction
130(1)
How Can You Evaluate Instructional Materials for Inclusive Classrooms?
130(9)
Textbooks
130(5)
Manipulatives and Models
135(1)
Technology
136(3)
How Can You Analyze Instructional Methods in Relation to Student Needs?
139(13)
Elements of Direct Instruction
139(2)
Nondirect Methods of Instruction
141(3)
Scaffolding
144(3)
Independent Student Practice
147(3)
Evaluation of Student Performance
150(1)
Summary
150(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Planning Adaptations in the Instructional Environment
151(1)
Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities
152(44)
Learner Objectives
153(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
153(1)
What Are Low-Incidence Disabilities?
154(2)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Moderate, Severe, or Multiple Disabilities?
156(12)
Students with Moderate to Severe Cognitive Disabilities
157(4)
Instructional Accommodations for Students with Moderate to Severe Cognitive Disabilities
161(3)
Multiple Disabilities
164(1)
Deaf-Blindness
165(3)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Sensory Impairments?
168(9)
Accommodations for Students with Visual Impairments
169(2)
Learning Tools for Students with Visual Impairments
171(1)
Accommodations for Students with Hearing Impairments
172(2)
Adaptive Devices for Students with Hearing Impairments
174(3)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Physical or Health Disabilities?
177(10)
Orthopedic Impairments
177(2)
Other Health Impairments
179(4)
Traumatic Brain Injury
183(4)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Autism?
187(9)
Supporting Appropriate Behavior
189(1)
Communicating with Students with Autism
190(2)
Summary
192(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Planning Adaptations for Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities
193(3)
Students with High-Incidence Disabilities
196(34)
Learner Objectives
197(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
197(1)
What Are High-Incidence Disabilities?
198(1)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Communication Disorders?
198(7)
Understanding Speech Problems
198(2)
Understanding Language Problems
200(1)
Accommodations for Students with Communication Disorders
201(4)
What Are the Learning Needs of Students with Learning and Behavior Disabilities?
205(10)
Reading Skills
206(1)
Written Language Skills
207(2)
Math Skills
209(1)
Learning Skills
210(5)
What Are the Social and Emotional Needs of Students with Learning and Behavior Disabilities?
215(8)
Interpersonal Skills
216(6)
Personal and Psychological Adjustment
222(1)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Learning and Behavior Disabilities?
223(7)
Addressing Academic Needs
223(1)
Addressing Social and Emotional Needs
224(4)
Summary
228(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Using the INCLUDE Strategy with Students with High-Incidence Disabilities
229(1)
Other Students with Special Needs
230(40)
Learner Objectives
231(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
231(2)
Which Students Are Protected by Section 504?
233(3)
How Can You Accommodate Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?
236(9)
Characteristics and Needs of Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
237(2)
Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit--Hyperactivity Disorder
239(5)
Families of Children with Attention Deficit--Hyperactivity Disorder
244(1)
How Can You Accommodate Students Who Are Gifted and Talented?
245(6)
Characteristics and Needs of Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
247(2)
Interventions for Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
249(2)
What Are the Needs of Students from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds?
251(7)
Cultural Awareness
252(3)
Families and Diversity
255(3)
Multicultural and Bilingual Education
258(1)
How Can You Meet the Needs of Students Who Are At Risk?
258(12)
Characteristics and Needs of Students at Risk
260(4)
Interventions for Students at Risk
264(3)
Summary
267(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Diversity in a High School Class
268(2)
Assessing Student Needs
270(38)
Learner Objectives
271(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
271(1)
How Do Your Student Assessments Contribute to Special Education Decisions?
272(3)
Screening
272(1)
Diagnosis
272(1)
Program Placement
273(1)
Curriculum Placement
274(1)
Instructional Evaluation
274(1)
Program Evaluation
274(1)
What Information Sources Are Used in Programming for Students with Special Needs?
275(8)
Standardized Achievement Tests
275(3)
Psychological Tests
278(1)
Alternative Assessments
279(4)
Curriculum-Based Assessments
283(1)
What Kinds of Curriculum-Based Assessments Can You Create for Your Students?
283(16)
Probes of Basic Academic Skills
284(5)
Content-Area Assessments
289(10)
How Are Learning Probes Used to Make Special Education Decisions?
299(9)
Peer Comparison in Screening
299(1)
Fluency and Accuracy in Diagnosis
300(1)
Skill Mastery and Curriculum Placement
301(1)
Monitoring Student Progress and Instructional Evaluation
301(3)
Summary
304(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Collecting and Using Assessment Information
305(3)
Instructional Adaptations
308(46)
Learner Objectives
309(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
309(1)
How Can You Adapt Basic-Skills Instruction for Students with Special Needs?
310(8)
Teaching Preskills
311(1)
Selecting and Sequencing Examples
311(3)
Deciding the Rate of Introduction of New Skills
314(1)
Providing Direct Instruction and Opportunities for Practice and Review
315(3)
How Can You Adapt the Instruction of Subject-Area Content for Students with Special Needs?
318(18)
Activating Background Knowledge
320(3)
Organizing Content
323(6)
Teaching Terms and Concepts
329(7)
How Can You Improve Clarity in Written and Oral Communication?
336(6)
Clarity in Written Communication
337(2)
Clarity in Oral Communication
339(3)
How Can You Involve Parents in Teaching Their Children?
342(1)
What Adaptations Can You Make to Help Students Succeed in Independent Practice?
343(11)
Adapting Seatwork Assignments
344(1)
Providing Feedback on Independent Practice Activities
345(2)
Adapting Homework Assignments
347(1)
Involving Parents in the Homework Process
348(2)
Adapting Materials for Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities
350(1)
Summary
350(2)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Developing a Repertoire of Instructional Adaptations
352(2)
Strategies for Independent Learning
354(36)
Learner Objectives
355(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
355(2)
How Can You Encourage Student Self-Awareness and Self-Advocacy?
357(1)
How Can You Effectively Teach Independent Learning Strategies in Class?
358(6)
Assessing Current Strategy Use
358(1)
Clarifying Expectations
359(1)
Demonstrating Strategy Use
360(1)
Encouraging Students to Memorize Strategy Steps
361(1)
Providing Guided and Independent Practice
361(3)
Administering Posttests
364(1)
What Are Some Examples of Successful Learning Strategies?
364(19)
Word Identification Strategies
364(1)
Reading Comprehension Strategies
364(3)
Note-Taking Strategies
367(2)
Writing Strategies
369(4)
Strategies for Using Technology to Improve Student Writing
373(4)
Strategies for Problem Solving in Math
377(3)
Strategies for Managing Time and Resources
380(3)
How Can Students Learn to Use Strategies Independently?
383(7)
Self-Instruction
384(1)
Self-Monitoring
384(1)
Self-Questioning
385(1)
Self-Reinforcement
385(2)
Summary
387(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Designing Strategies for Independence
388(2)
Evaluating Student Learning
390(36)
Learner Objectives
391(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
391(1)
How Can Classroom Tests Be Adapted for Students with Special Needs?
392(9)
Adaptations before the Test
393(4)
Adaptations in Test Construction
397(2)
Adaptations Involving Test Administration
399(1)
Alternative Test-Grading Procedures
400(1)
How Can Report Card Grades Be Adapted for Students with Special Needs?
401(11)
Changes in Grading Criteria
405(3)
Changes to Letter and Number Grades
408(2)
Alternatives to Letter and Number Grades
410(2)
How Can Performance-Based Assessment Benefit Students with Special Needs?
412(6)
Developing and Evaluating Tasks for Performance-Based Assessment
414(3)
Adapting Performance-Based Assessments for Students with Disabilities
417(1)
How Can Portfolio Assessment Benefit Students with Special Needs?
418(8)
Using Portfolios to Maximum Advantage
419(1)
Using Portfolios with Students with Special Needs
420(2)
Summary
422(2)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Adapting Evaluations for Students with Special Needs
424(2)
Responding to Student Behavior
426(40)
Learner Objectives
427(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
427(2)
How Can You Prevent Discipline Problems?
429(4)
Instructional Environments Conducive to Learning
430(1)
Effective Classroom Communication
430(3)
Effective Teaching Methods
433(1)
How Can You Promote Positive Group Behavior?
433(3)
Token Economy
433(2)
Other Peer-Mediated Approaches
435(1)
What Are Some Simple and Effective Responses to Individual Behavior?
436(2)
Minimum Interventions
436(1)
Managing Students' Surface Behaviors
437(1)
What Are Effective Strategies for Responding to Serious, Individual Student Behavior?
438(10)
Increasing Desirable Behaviors
438(4)
Decreasing Undesirable Behavior
442(4)
Using Behavior Contracts
446(2)
How Can You Help Students Manage Their Own Behavior?
448(2)
Cognitive Behavior Management Strategies
449(1)
Teaching CBM Strategies
449(1)
How Can Functional Behavior Assessment Help You Respond to Student Behavior?
450(16)
Verifying the Seriousness of the Problem
453(1)
Defining the Problem Behavior
453(1)
Collecting Data to Better Understand the Behavior
454(4)
Analyzing the Data and Creating Hypotheses
458(1)
Developing a Behavior Intervention Plan
459(1)
Implementing the Plan
459(1)
Monitoring the Plan
459(4)
Summary
463(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Developing Strategies for Responding to Individual Student Behavior
463(3)
Approaches for Building Social Relationships
466(35)
Learner Objectives
467(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
467(2)
What Is the Teacher's Role in Promoting Positive Social Interactions among Students with and without Disabilities?
469(6)
Creating Opportunities for Social Interactions
471(1)
Nurturing Support and Friendship
472(2)
Providing Positive Role Models
474(1)
How Can Teachers Provide Education about Individuals with Disabilities?
475(5)
Informing through Direct Instruction
475(2)
Using Video and Print Media
477(1)
Demonstrating and Using Adaptive Technology
478(1)
Arranging Simulation Activities
478(2)
How Can You Develop and Support Peer Tutoring?
480(6)
Developing Peer Tutoring Programs
482(3)
Supporting Peer Tutoring Programs
485(1)
How Can You Use Cooperative Learning Strategies to Facilitate Social Inclusion?
486(9)
Understanding the Rationale for Cooperative Learning
487(1)
Learning the Characteristics of Cooperative Learning Approaches
488(1)
Developing Cooperative Learning Programs
488(7)
How Can You Help Students with Disabilities Improve Their Social Skills?
495(6)
Using Informal Instruction
495(1)
Using Behavioral Interventions
496(1)
Using Social Skills Training Programs
497(1)
Summary
498(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Planning for Promoting Positive Peer Relations
499(2)
Glossary 501(11)
References 512(19)
Name Index 531(8)
Subject Index 539


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