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Including Students with Special Needs : A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers,9780321317742

Including Students with Special Needs : A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780321317742

ISBN10:
0321317742
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $112.00

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Summary

The most widely adopted text in Inclusion courses, Including Students with Special Needspresents information, suggestions, and practices for teaching students with diverse abilities that are effective and feasible for today's classroom teacher. The fourth edition continues to offer practical strategies for teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings. Its non-categorical approach helps teachers ensure all students success regardless of their specific category of exceptionality. Filled with examples and vignettes, the text illuminates teaching methods and shows how they affect students learning. By drawing on the authors expertise in elementary and secondary education, this book examines the needs of students with low-incidence and high-incidence disabilities at both education levels. The useful organization first lays a foundation in special education and the inclusion model, and then helps readers apply that information in specific classroom situations.

Table of Contents

Features xviii
Preface xxii
The Foundation for Educating Students with Special Needs
xxx
Learner Objectives
1(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
1(1)
What Key Terms and Concepts Define Special Education?
2(4)
Least Restrictive Environment
3(1)
Mainstreaming
4(1)
Inclusive Practices
4(2)
How Did Today's Special Education Services Come to Exist?
6(8)
The Development of Education for Students with Disabilities
6(1)
The Impact of the Civil Rights Movement on Special Education
7(3)
The Legislative Basis for Contemporary Special Education
10(4)
What Are Current Perspectives on Inclusive Practices?
14(6)
A Problem of Definition
14(2)
Perceptions of School Professionals
16(1)
Perceptions of Parents
17(1)
Student Outcomes
18(1)
Putting the Pieces Together
18(2)
Who Receives Special Education and Other Special Services?
20(8)
Categories of Disability in Federal Law
20(5)
Cross-Categorical Approaches to Special Education
25(1)
Other Students with Special Needs
26(2)
Summary
28(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Understanding Contemporary Special Education Practices
29(1)
Working the Standards
30(1)
Further Readings
31(1)
Special Education Procedures and Services
32(40)
Learner Objectives
33(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
33(1)
Who Are the Professionals in Special Education?
34(10)
General Education Teachers
34(2)
Special Education Teachers
36(1)
Other Specialists and Related Service Providers
37(7)
How Can You Decide Whether a Student Need Might Be a Disability?
44(3)
Analyze Unmet Needs
44(2)
Communicate Your Observations and Try Your Own Interventions
46(1)
How Do Students Obtain Special Services?
47(9)
Initial Consideration of Student Problems
49(1)
The Special Education Referral and Assessment Process
49(4)
Decision Making for Special Services
53(1)
Monitoring Special Education Services
53(3)
What Is an Individualized Education Program?
56(5)
Required Components of an IEP
56(4)
The Value of IEPs
60(1)
What Services Do Students with Disabilities Receive?
61(6)
Special Education and Related Services
61(1)
Student Placement
62(5)
Summary
67(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: A Visit to an MDT Meeting
67(2)
Working the Standards
69(2)
Further Readings
71(1)
Building Partnerships through Collaboration
72(34)
Learner Objectives
73(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
73(2)
What Are the Basics of Collaboration?
75(6)
Characteristics of Collaboration?
75(3)
Prerequisites for Collaboration
78(3)
What Are Effective Applications of Collaboration in Schools That Foster Inclusion?
81(13)
Shared Problem Solving
81(6)
Co-Teaching
87(3)
Working on a Team
90(2)
Consultation
92(2)
How Can You Work Effectively with Parents?
94(6)
Understanding the Perspective of Family Members
94(1)
Parents' Reactions to Their Child's Disability
95(1)
Family-Centered Practices
96(2)
Collaborating with Parents
98(2)
How Can You Work Effectively with Paraprofessionals?
100(2)
Understanding Your Working Relationship with Paraprofessionals
100(2)
Collaborating with Paraprofessionals
102(1)
Summary
102(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Collaboration in the Washington School District
103(1)
Working the Standards
104(1)
Further Readings
105(1)
Assessing Student Needs
106(38)
Learner Objectives
107(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
107(1)
How Do Your Student Assessments Contribute to Special Education Decisions?
108(4)
Screening
108(1)
Diagnosis
109(1)
Program Placement
110(1)
Curriculum Placement
111(1)
Instructional Evaluation
111(1)
Program Evaluation
112(1)
What Information Sources Are Used in Programming for Students with Special Needs?
112(10)
High-Stakes Achievement Tests
112(2)
Standardized Achievement Tests
114(2)
Psychological Tests
116(1)
Alternate Assessments
117(4)
Curriculum-Based Assessments
121(1)
What Kinds of Curriculum-Based Assessments Can You Create for Your Students?
122(11)
Probes of Basic Academic Skills
122(4)
Content-Area Assessments
126(7)
How Are Curriculum-Based Probes Used to Make Special Education Decisions?
133(6)
Peer Comparison in Screening
133(3)
Fluency and Accuracy in Diagnosis
136(2)
Skill Mastery and Curriculum Placement
138(1)
Monitoring Student Progress and Instructional Evaluation
138(1)
Summary
139(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Collecting and Using Assessment Information
139(2)
Working the Standards
141(2)
Further Readings
143(1)
Planning Instruction by Analyzing Classroom and Student Needs
144(42)
Learner Objectives
145(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
145(1)
How Can the INCLUDE Strategy Help You Make Reasonable Adaptations for Students with Special Needs?
146(10)
Step 1: Identify Classroom Demands
148(2)
Step 2: Note Student Learning Strengths and Needs
150(1)
Step 3: Check for Potential Areas of Student Success
151(1)
Step 4: Look for Potential Problem Areas
151(1)
Step 5: Use Information to Brainstorm Adaptations
152(3)
Step 6: Decide Which Adaptations to Implement
155(1)
Step 7: Evaluate Student Progress
156(1)
How Is an Inclusive Classroom Organized?
156(6)
Physical Organization
156(2)
Routines for Classroom Business
158(1)
Classroom Climate
159(1)
Classroom Rules
160(1)
Monitoring
160(1)
The Use of Time
161(1)
How Can You Group All Your Students for Instruction in Inclusive Classrooms?
162(3)
Whole-Class or Large-Group Instruction
163(1)
Small-Group Instruction
164(1)
One-to-One Instruction
164(1)
How Can You Evaluate Instructional Materials for Inclusive Classrooms?
165(6)
Textbooks
165(4)
Manipulatives and Models
169(1)
Technology
170(1)
How Can You Analyze Instructional Methods in Relation to Student Needs?
171(11)
Elements of Direct Instruction
173(3)
Indirect Methods of Instruction
176(1)
Scaffolding
177(3)
Independent Student Practice
180(1)
Evaluation of Student Performance
181(1)
Summary
182(2)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Planning Adaptations in the Instructional Environment
184(1)
Working the Standards
184(1)
Further Readings
185(1)
Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities
186(46)
Learner Objectives
187(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
187(1)
What Are Low-Incidence Disabilities?
188(2)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Moderate, Severe, or Multiple Disabilities?
190(10)
Students with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities
191(4)
Accommodations for Students with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities
195(3)
Students with Multiple Disabilities
198(2)
Deaf-Blindness
200(1)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Sensory Impairments?
200(12)
Students with Visual Impairments
201(1)
Students with Hearing Loss
201(2)
Accommodations for Students with Visual Impairments
203(2)
Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
205(7)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Physical, Medical, or Health Disabilities?
212(10)
Orthopedic Impairments
213(2)
Other Health Impairments
215(4)
Traumatic Brain Injury
219(3)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders?
222(4)
Characteristics of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
223(1)
Accommodations for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
224(2)
Summary
226(2)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Planning Adaptations for Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities
228(1)
Working the Standards
229(2)
Further Readings
231(1)
Students with High-Incidence Disabilities
232(32)
Learner Objectives
233(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
233(1)
What Are High-Incidence Disabilities?
234(1)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Communication Disorders?
234(7)
Understanding Speech Problems
234(2)
Understanding Language Problems
236(2)
Accommodations for Students with Communication Disorders
238(3)
What Are the Academic Needs of Students with Learning and Behavioral Disabilities?
241(8)
Reading Skills
243(1)
Written Language Skills
243(3)
Math Skills
246(2)
Learning Skills
248(1)
What Are the Social and Emotional Needs of Students with Learning and Behavioral Disabilities?
249(6)
Interpersonal Skills
252(2)
Personal and Psychological Adjustment
254(1)
What Accommodations Can You Make for Students with Learning and Behavioral Disabilities?
255(5)
Addressing Academic Needs
255(1)
Addressing Social and Emotional Needs
256(4)
Summary
260(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Using the INCLUDE Strategy with Students with High-Incidence Disabilities
261(1)
Working the Standards
261(1)
Further Readings
262(2)
Other Students with Special Needs
264(40)
Learner Objectives
265(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
265(2)
Which Students Are Protected by Section 504?
267(4)
Understanding Section 504
268(1)
Section 504 and Students with Medical and Health Needs
268(3)
How Can You Accommodate Students with Attention Deficit--Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?
271(7)
Characteristics and Needs of Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
272(2)
Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit--Hyperactivity Disorder
274(2)
Families of Children with Attention Deficit--Hyperactivity Disorder
276(2)
How Can You Accommodate Students Who Are Gifted and Talented?
278(5)
Characteristics and Needs of Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
279(1)
Cognitive Abilities and Academic Skills
280(1)
Interventions for Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
281(2)
What Are the Needs of Students from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds?
283(9)
Diversity and Special Education
285(1)
Cultural Awareness
286(4)
Families and Diversity
290(1)
Multicultural and Bilingual Education
291(1)
How Can You Meet the Needs of Students Who Are at Risk?
292(8)
Characteristics and Needs of Students at Risk
292(4)
Interventions for Students at Risk
296(4)
Summary
300(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Diversity in a High School Class
300(2)
Working the Standards
302(1)
Further Readings
303(1)
Instructional Adaptations
304(50)
Learner Objectives
305(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
305(2)
How Can You Make Accommodations for Students with Special Needs in Basic Skills Instruction?
307(9)
Teaching Preskills
307(1)
Selecting and Sequencing Examples
308(2)
Deciding the Rate of Introduction of New Skills
310(2)
Providing Direct Instruction and Opportunities for Practice and Review
312(4)
How Can You Make Accommodations for Students with Special Needs When Teaching Subject-Area Content?
316(18)
Activating Background Knowledge
317(5)
Organizing Content
322(6)
Teaching Terms and Concepts
328(6)
How Can You Improve Clarity in Written and Oral Communication?
334(6)
Clarity in Written Communication
335(2)
Clarity in Oral Communication
337(3)
How Can You Involve Parents in Teaching Their Children?
340(1)
What Adaptations Can You Make to Help Students Succeed in Independent Practice?
341(9)
Adapting Seatwork Assignments
341(1)
Providing Feedback on Independent Practice Activities
342(2)
Adapting Homework Assignments
344(2)
Involving Parents in the Homework Process
346(1)
Making Instructional Modifications for Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities
347(3)
Summary
350(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Developing a Repertoire of Instructional Adaptations
350(1)
Working the Standards
351(2)
Further Readings
353(1)
Strategies for Independent Learning
354(42)
Learner Objectives
355(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
355(2)
How Can You Encourage Student Self-Awareness and Self-Advocacy?
357(3)
How Can You Effectively Teach Independent Learning Strategies in Class?
360(5)
Assessing Current Strategy Use
360(1)
Clarifying Expectations
361(1)
Demonstrating Strategy Use
361(1)
Encouraging Students to Memorize Strategy Steps
362(1)
Providing Guided and Independent Practice
362(2)
Administering Posttests
364(1)
What Are Some Examples of Successful Learning Strategies?
365(24)
Word Identification and Reading Fluency Strategies
365(1)
Vocabulary Strategies
366(1)
Reading Comprehension Strategies
367(4)
Listening and Note-Taking Strategies
371(8)
Writing Strategies
379(3)
Strategies for Using Technology to Improve Student Writing
382(2)
Strategies for Problem Solving in Math
384(3)
Strategies for Managing Time and Resources
387(2)
How Can Students Learn to Use Strategies Independently?
389(4)
Self-Instruction
390(1)
Self-Monitoring
390(1)
Self-Questioning
391(1)
Self-Reinforcement
391(2)
Summary
393(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Designing Strategies for Independence
393(1)
Working the Standards
394(1)
Further Readings
395(1)
Evaluating Student Learning
396(34)
Learner Objectives
397(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
397(1)
How Can Classroom Tests Be Adapted for Students with Special Needs?
398(12)
Adaptations before the Test
399(5)
Adaptations during the Test
404(2)
Adaptations after the Test
406(4)
How Can Report Card Grades Be Adapted for Students with Special Needs?
410(12)
Changes to Letter and Number Grades
411(3)
Making Grading Adaptations for Students with Disabilities
414(8)
How Can Performance-Based Assessment Benefit Students with Special Needs?
422(2)
How Can Portfolio Assessment Benefit Students with Special Needs?
424(2)
Summary
426(2)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Adapting Evaluations for Students with Special Needs
428(1)
Working the Standards
428(1)
Further Readings
429(1)
Responding to Student Behavior
430(40)
Learner Objectives
431(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
431(3)
What Are Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports?
434(1)
How Can You Prevent Discipline Problems?
434(4)
Instructional Environments Conducive to Learning
435(1)
Effective Classroom Communication
435(2)
Effective Teaching Methods
437(1)
Schoolwide Strategies
437(1)
How Can You Promote Positive Group Behavior?
438(2)
Token Economy
438(1)
Other Peer-Mediated Approaches
439(1)
What Are Effective Strategies for Responding to Minor Individual Behaviors?
440(2)
Use Minimum Interventions
440(1)
Manage Students' Surface Behaviors
441(1)
How Can Functional Behavior Assessment Help You Respond to Serious Individual Behaviors?
442(13)
Rationale for Functional Behavior Assessment
442(4)
Verifying the Seriousness of the Problem
446(1)
Defining the Problem Behavior
447(1)
Collecting Data to Better Understand the Behavior
448(3)
Analyzing the Data and Forming Hypotheses
451(1)
Developing a Behavior Intervention Plan
451(2)
Implementing the Plan
453(1)
Monitoring the Plan's Effectiveness
454(1)
What Are Effective Strategies for Responding to Serious Individual Behaviors?
455(9)
Increasing Desirable Behaviors
455(3)
Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors
458(4)
Using Behavior Contracts
462(2)
How Can You Help Students Manage Their Own Behavior?
464(2)
Cognitive Behavior Management Strategies
464(1)
Teaching Cognitive Behavior Management Strategies
465(1)
Summary
466(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Developing Strategies for Responding to Individual Student Behavior
466(1)
Working the Standards
467(1)
Further Readings
468(2)
Building Social Relationships
470(35)
Learner Objectives
471(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
471(2)
What Is Your Role in Promoting Positive Social Interactions among Students with and without Disabilities?
473(8)
Creating Opportunities for Social Interactions
474(2)
Nurturing Support and Friendship
476(3)
Providing Positive Role Models
479(2)
How Can You Provide Education about Individuals with Disabilities?
481(2)
Informing through Direct Instruction
481(1)
Using Video and Print Media
482(1)
Demonstrating and Using Adaptive Technology
483(1)
How Can You Develop and Support Peer Tutoring?
483(6)
Developing Peer Tutoring Programs
485(3)
Supporting Peer Tutoring Programs
488(1)
How Can You Use Cooperative Learning Strategies to Facilitate Social Inclusion?
489(8)
The Rationale for Cooperative Learning
490(1)
Characteristics of Cooperative Learning Approaches
491(1)
Developing Cooperative Learning Programs
491(6)
How Can You Help Students with Disabilities Improve Their Social Skills?
497(3)
Using Informal Instruction
498(1)
Using Behavioral Interventions
498(1)
Using Social Skills Training Programs
499(1)
Final Thoughts About Inclusion and the INCLUDE Strategy
500(1)
Summary
500(1)
Applications in Teaching Practice: Planning for Promoting Positive Peer Relations
501(1)
Working the Standards
502(2)
Further Readings
504(1)
Glossary 505(14)
References 519(24)
Name Index 543(9)
Subject Index 552


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