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Infancy Development From Birth to Age 3



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  • Infancy: Development from Birth to Age 3
    Infancy: Development from Birth to Age 3


For courses in Infancy and Early Childhood Development, with a focus on birth to age 3. Infancy provides students with enough detail, without overwhelming them, in order to understand methodological issues, explore both practically and theoretically important topics, and encourage students in thinking critically about development from birth to age 3.

Author Biography

Dana Gross, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology and Affiliated Faculty of Asian Studies and Linguistic Studies at St. Olaf College, where she teaches an advanced seminar on Infant Development, as well as courses in Research Methods, Developmental Psychology, and Human Development in East Asia.  Dana Gross received her BA in Psychology from Smith College and her PhD in Child Psychology from the Institute of Child Development at the University of Minnesota. Dana’s research has been published in Child Development, Cognitive Development, and International Journal of Behavioural Development, among others. Most recently, she has been involved in field research in a high school-based parent education program for adolescent parents and their infant and toddler children. Dana has presented her work at numerous conferences, and served as consultant and co-author for several developmental textbooks.


Table of Contents

Preface    xi


Chapter 1: Beliefs About Babies: Historical Perspectives on Children and Childhood   


                Why Do We Study Infants?    

                                Development as Transformation    

                                Impact of Early Experience    

                                Research Methods and Tools    

                                Interdisciplinary Collaboration    

                Recurring Themes in the Study of Child Development    

                                The Path of Development: Stages versus Continuous Change    

                                Heredity and the Environment    

                                Active or Passive Development?    

                                Normal and Atypical Development    

                                Culture and Context    

                Historical Perspectives on Infancy and Early Childhood    

                                Historical Studies of Children and Childhood    

                                Views of Children    

                                                Ancient Greece and Rome

                                                Medieval Europe

                                                The Renaissance

                                                Colonial America

                                                Family Life    


                The Development of Child Development    

                                G. Stanley Hall    

                                James Mark Baldwin    

                                John B. Watson    

                               Arnold Gesell    

                               Child Research Institutes: Research and Dissemination

                                John Bowlby  

                               Sharing the Results    

                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion    

                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion    

                Key Words    


Chapter 2:  Research Methods   

                Research Settings    

                                Naturalistic Studies    

                                Laboratory Studies    

                Research Designs   

                                Case Studies and Single-Subject Research    

                                Quasi-Experimental Studies   

                                Experimental Studies    

                Research Designs for Studying Development    

                                Longitudinal Research    

                                Cross-Sectional Research    

                                Microgenetic Research    

                Research Measures    

                     Behavioral Responses    

                                Psychophysiological Measures

                                Measures of Visual Behavior

                                Conditioned Behavior

                     Parental Reports    

                     Archival Research    

                Issues in Research with Infants    

                                Behavioral State    

                                Inference and Interpretation    

                                Ethical Concerns    

                                Where Do Babies Come From?    

                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion    

                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion    

                Key Words    


Chapter 3:   Genetics, Conception, and Prenatal Development   

                Genetics and the Human Genome    

                                Genetics and Disease    

                                Genetics and Prenatal Development    


                                Twins and Other Multiples   

                                Sex Chromosome Abnormalities    

                                Infertility and Assisted Reproduction    

                Prenatal Development    

                                The Germinal Stage, Fertilization to 2 Weeks    

                                The Embryonic Stage, 2 to 8 Weeks   

                                The Fetal Stage, 8 Weeks to Birth (38 Weeks)   



                Birth Defects   

                                Neural Tube Defects    

                                Congenital Heart Defects    

                Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment    

                                Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)    


                                Maternal Blood Screening    

                                Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)    


                                Fetal Echocardiography    

                                Fetal Therapy    

                Prenatal Influences    


                                Alcohol and Drugs    


                                                Illicit Drugs





                                                HIV and Other Infections

                                                Preexisting Chronic Diseases

                                                Rh Disease


                                Environmental Hazards    

                                Paternal Influences    

                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion    

                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion    

                Key Words    


Chapter 4:  Birth and the Newborn    

                The Birth Process: Stages of Childbirth    

                                The First Stage: Contractions, Dilatation, and Effacement    

                                The Second Stage: Delivery of the Infant    

                                The Third Stage: Placental Expulsion    

                Complications of Childbirth    

                                Failure to Progress    

                                Breech Presentation    

                                Preterm Birth   

                                Low Birthweight    

                                Postdate Birth   

                                Twins and Other Multiple Births    

                Childbirth Options    

                                Medical Interventions    

                                                Induction of Labor

                                                Electronic Fetal Monitoring

                                                Pain Relief

                                                Forceps and Vacuum Extraction


                                                Cesarean Delivery

                                Hospital, Home, or Birth Center?    

                                                Birth Attendants and Settings

                                                Hospital Versus Home Birth

                                                Birth Centers

                Neonatal Assessment    

                                Assessment at Birth    


                                Sensory Abilities    

                                Adaptations during the Neonatal Period   

                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion    

                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion    

                Key Words    


Chapter 5: Physical Growth, Health, and Nutrition    

                Physical Growth    

                                Measuring and Predicting Growth    

                                Failure to Thrive    

                                Brain Development    

                                Maltreatment, the Brain, and Shaken Baby Syndrome    

                Health and Safety    

                                Newborn Screening    

                                Screening for Lead Poisoning    

                                Infant Mortality    

                                Common Illnesses and Immunizations   

                                Accidental Injuries    

                                Sudden Infant Death Syndrome    

                Nutrition and Feeding    

                                Nutritional Requirements in Infancy    

                                Breast Milk

                                Infant Formula

                                Nutritional Requirements in Toddlerhood

                                The Problem of Malnutrition    

                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion    

                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion    

                Key Words    


Chapter 6: Sensation, Perception, and Motor Development    

                Sensory Abilities and Perceptual Development    

                                Theories of Infant Perception    

                                                Empiricist Perspectives

                                                Nativist Perspectives

                                                Gestalt Perspectives

                                                Ecological Perspectives

                                                Dynamic Systems Perspectives


                                                Newborn Abilities

                                                Perceiving Objects

                                                Perceiving Depth


                                                Locating Sounds

                                                Perceiving Sounds





                                                Innate Preferences

                                                Effects of Experience


                                                Innate Preferences

                                                Effects of Experience

                                Other Senses

                                Intermodal and Cross-Modal Perception    

                                                Intermodal Abilities

                                                Cross-Modal Abilities

                Motor Development    

                                Reaching, Grasping, and Manipulating: Fine Motor Skills 

                                Crawling and Walking: Gross Motor Skills    

                                Implications for Parents and Caregivers    

                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion    

                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion    

                Key Words    


Chapter 7: Cognition, Learning, and Intelligence    

                The Development of Play    

                                Play with Objects    

                                Social Play    

                                Pretend/Symbolic Play    

                Piaget’s Theory: Constructing and Representing Knowledge    

                                Sensorimotor and Preoperational Intelligence    

                                Object Permanence

                                The A-not-B Error

                                Understanding and Using Representations of Space

                Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: Learning as a Social Activity    

                                The Zone of Proximal Development    

                                Guided Participation    

                Cognitive Science Perspectives  


                                Gaze Following, Joint Attention, and Theory of Mind



                Defining and Testing Intelligence in Infancy    

                                Traditional Tests    

                                Information Processing Assessments    

                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion    

                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion    

                Key Words    


Chapter 8: Language and Communication    

                Studying Language Development    

                                Why Language Matters

                                Systems of Language

                                Theoretical Foundations

                Prelinguistic Communication    

                                Receptivity to Language    

                                Speech Perception    

                                Early Production: Babbling    

                                Gestural Communication    

                Semantic Development    

                                Milestones in the Acquisition of Meaning    

                                One-Word Utterances    

                                Individual Differences in Language Experience    

                                Cultural and Linguistic Influences    

                                Explaining Early Word Learning    

                                                Social and Pragmatic Cues

                                                Constraints and Principles

                                                Grammatical Cues

                                                Contrasting Semantic Relations

                The Acquisition of Grammar    

                                Multiword Utterances   

                                Grammatical Morphemes    


                                Individual Differences in Early Grammar    

                                Cross-Linguistic Studies of the Acquisition of Grammar    

                Atypical Language Development    

                                Measuring Language Development    

                                Early Language Delay    

                                Language and Communication in Children with Autism    

                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion    

                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion    

                Key Words    


Chapter 9: Relationships and Social Development    

                Infant-Caregiver Relationships   

                                Patterns of Care and Interaction: Beliefs About Infants    

                                Cross-Cultural Differences in Mothers’ Involvement    

                                Father-Infant Caregiving and Interaction    

                                Cross-Cultural Differences in Fathers’ Involvement    

                Disturbances in Infant-Caregiver Relationships    

                                Postpartum Depression    

                                Maltreatment: Abuse and Neglect   

                                Early Institutionalization and Social Deprivation    

                Developing Trust, Becoming Attached    

                                Bowlby’s Theory of Infant-Caregiver Attachment    

                                Assessing Attachment Relationships    

                                                Attachment to Other Caregivers

                                                Infants’ Influence on Attachment

                                                Culture and Attachment

                                Attachment and Subsequent Development    

                Sibling Relationships    

                                Becoming a Sibling    

                                How Siblings Contribute to Development   

                Peer Relationships and Friendship    

                                Peer Interactions    


                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion    

                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion    

                Key Words    


Chapter 10: Temperament, Emotions, and the Self    


                                Defining and Measuring Temperament    

                                                Using Parental Reports

                                                Thomas and Chess’s Model

                                                Rothbart’s Framework

                                                Buss and Plomin’s Approach

                                                Goldsmith’s Model

                                Temperament and Biology    

                                                Heart Rate

                                                The Stress-Response System

                                                Reactivity and Inhibition

                                Temperament and Attachment    

                                Temperament and Personality    


                                Expressing Emotions   

                                Perceiving Emotions    

                                Communicating with Emotions    

                                Regulating Emotions    

                                Developing and Using Social Emotions    

                The Self    

                                Recognizing the Self    

                                Evaluating the Self    

                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion    

                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion    

                Key Words    


Chapter 11: Building Better Babies: Child Care and Early Intervention    

                Child Care    

                                Maternal Employment    

                                Parental Leave Policies    

                                                Policies in the United States

                                                Policies in Other Countries

                                Child Care Arrangements    

                                Effects of Child Care: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development    

                                                The Sample

                                                Patterns of Child Care Use

                                                Defining Quality Child Care

                                                Effects on the Infant-Parent Relationship

                                                Effects on Social Development

                                                Effects on Language and Cognitive Development

                                Including Children with Disabilities in Child Care    

                                Early Intervention    

                                                Poverty as a Risk Factor: Implications for Prevention and Intervention    

                                                Early Intervention through Child Care and Preschool    

                                                                The High/Scope Perry Preschool Project

                                                                The Abecedarian Project and Project CARE

                                                                The Infant Health and Development Project

                                                                The Chicago Longitudinal Study

                                                Early Head Start    

                                                Measuring the Impact of Early Childhood Intervention    

                                                Pre-Kindergarten and Early Childhood Education

                                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion    

                                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion   

                                Key Words    


Chapter 12:  Babies of Today and Tomorrow: Music, Media, and Computers    


                                Listening to Music    

                                                Music Perception

                                                Singing to Infants

                                Making Music    

                                                Learning to Sing

                                                Playing Instruments

                                The Mozart Effect    


                                Television for Infants and Toddlers    

                                                Infant Perception of Video Images

                                                Young Children’s Responses to Television

                                 Barney & Friends


                                Computers in the Home    

                                Computers in Early Childhood Classrooms    

                                Interactive Books and Toys    

                                                Interactive Books

                                                “Smart” Infant Toys

                Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusion   

                Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussion    

                Key Words    





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