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Instruction : A Models Approach

by ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780205508860

ISBN10:
0205508863
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $121.60
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Summary

Instruction: A Models Approach, 5/E Mary A. Gunter, University of Virginia Thomas H. Estes, University of Virginia Susan L. Mintz, University of Virginia ISBN: 0205508863 "I have found this text to be very helpful in its presentation of the strategies and the processes involvedhellip; I am a particular fan of the Cooperative Learning Models." -Carolynn Reynolds, California State University at Chico Now in its fifth edition, Instruction: A Models Approach identifies and explains more than a dozen instructional models, placing them within a process that is instructionally aligned and based on standards. Drawn from current research and the most effective practices, the models are closely linked to the preparation of objectives, differentiation practices, and assessment options. The user-friendly text is a valued resource among K-12 and preservice teachers. New features to this edition include: Chapters on Planning for Instruction that offer information about state standards, instructional alignment among objectives, assessment, and instruction, as well as strategies for planning and aligning instruction. Heavily revised chapters on Direct Instruction, Problem-Centered Inquiry Models, and the Socratic Seminar Model. New chapters on Eggen and Kauchakrs"s Integrative Model and Supporting Strategies for Instructional Models that include information on scaffolding, information recall strategies, nonlinguistic representations, identifying similarities and differences, thing-pair-shares, summarizing, and reciprocal teaching.

Table of Contents

PART ONE Planning for Instruction
1(61)
Educational Goals and Standards
3(20)
How Learning Happens
4(3)
Special Student Characteristics
6(1)
The Needs of Learners
7(6)
Acceptance and Safety
7(1)
Choice
8(1)
High Expectations and Appropriate Challenge
9(1)
Opportunity to Connect the New to the Known
9(1)
Meaningful Engagement
10(1)
Clarity
11(1)
Time to Reflect
11(1)
Evaluation That Tests What Was Taught
12(1)
The Needs of Society
13(7)
Learning Standards
13(3)
Moving from Standards to Instruction
16(4)
Summary
20(1)
Web Resources
20(1)
Notes
21(2)
Organizing Content
23(19)
Content
23(8)
School Curriculum
23(3)
Analyzing Content
26(4)
Ordering Content
30(1)
Instructional Planning
31(5)
Scope
32(1)
Focus
33(1)
Sequence
34(1)
Chunking Instruction
34(2)
Developing Lesson Plans
36(3)
Lesson Plan Elements
36(1)
Deductive and Inductive Organization
37(2)
Summary
39(1)
Web Resources
39(1)
Notes
40(2)
Instructional Objectives, Assessment, and Instruction
42(20)
Purpose of Instructional Objectives
43(2)
Formats for Instructional Objectives
45(10)
Students Will Know Instructional Objectives
45(3)
Students Will Understand Instructional Objectives
48(2)
Students Will Be Able to Instructional Objectives
50(5)
Instructional Alignment
55(2)
Assessing Instructional Objectives
57(2)
Formative Assessments
57(1)
Summative Assessments
58(1)
Summary
59(1)
Web Resources
59(1)
Notes
59(2)
Summary for Part One
61(1)
PART TWO Matching Objectives to Instruction: A Models Approach
62(234)
The Direct Instruction Model: Teaching Basic Skills, Facts, and Knowledge
69(19)
Basis for the Direct Instruction Model
70(1)
Big DI and the Direct Instruction Model
71(1)
Steps in the Direct Instructional Model
71(11)
Step 1: Review Previously Learned Material
72(1)
Step 2: State Objectives for the Lesson
72(1)
Step 3: Present New Material
73(3)
Step 4: Guide Practice, Assess Performance, and Provide Corrective Feedback
76(3)
Step 5: Assign Independent Practice, Assess Performance, and Provide Corrective Feedback
79(2)
Step 6: Review Periodically, Offering Corrective Feedback If Necessary
81(1)
Summary of Steps in the Direct Instruction Model
81(1)
Matching Objectives and Assessments to Direct Instruction
82(3)
Differentiation Possibilities
83(1)
Assessment Options
84(1)
Scenario
84(1)
Summary
85(1)
Web Resources
86(1)
Notes
86(2)
The Concept Attainment Model: Defining Concepts Inductively
88(16)
What Is a Concept?
89(1)
Basis for the Concept Attainment Model
90(1)
Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
91(7)
Step 1: Select and Define a Concept and Select the Attributes
92(1)
Step 2: Develop Positive and Negative Examples
93(1)
Step 3: Introduce the Process to the Students
94(1)
Step 4: Present the Examples and List the Attributes
94(2)
Step 5: Develop a Concept Definition
96(1)
Step 6: Give Additional Test Examples
96(1)
Step 7: Discuss the Process with the Class
97(1)
Step 8: Evaluate
97(1)
Summary of Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
97(1)
Variations on the Concept Attainment Model
98(2)
Differentiation Possibilities
100(1)
Assessment Options
101(1)
Scenario
101(1)
Summary
102(1)
Web Resources
103(1)
Notes
103(1)
The Concept Development Model: Analyzing the Relationships between Parts of a Concept
104(20)
Understanding Concepts
104(2)
What Is Concept Development?
105(1)
Concept Development Mirrors Our Natural Thought Processes
105(1)
Basis for the Concept Development Model
106(3)
Conceptual Thinking Is Learned
107(1)
Concepts Are Creative Ways of Structuring Reality
108(1)
Concepts Are the Building Blocks of Patterns
108(1)
Steps in the Concept Development Model
109(8)
Step 1: List as Many Items as Possible That Are Associated with the Subject
110(2)
Step 2: Group the Items Because They Are Alike in Some Way
112(1)
Step 3: Label the Groups by Defining the Reasons for Grouping
112(1)
Step 4: Regroup or Subsume Individual Items or Whole Groups under Other Groups
113(1)
Step 5: Synthesize the Information by Summarizing the Data and Forming Generalizations
114(1)
Step 6: Evaluate Students' Progress by Assessing Their Ability to Generate a Wide Variety of Items and to Group Those Items Flexibly
115(1)
Summary of Steps in the Concept Development Model
116(1)
Differentiation Opportunities
117(1)
Assessment Options
117(1)
Scenario
117(2)
Benefits of Using the Concept Development Model
119(3)
Summary
122(1)
Web Resources
122(1)
Notes
122(2)
Problem-Centered Inquiry Models: Teaching Problem Solving through Discovery and Questioning
124(22)
Basis for the Inquiry Approach to Instruction
125(2)
Model One: The Suchman Inquiry Model
127(5)
Steps in the Suchman Inquiry Model
127(1)
Step 1: Select a Problem and Conduct Research
127(1)
Step 2: Introduce the Process and Present the Problem
128(1)
Step 3: Gather Data
129(1)
Step 4: Develop a Theory and Verify
129(1)
Step 5: Explain the Theory and State the Rules Associated with It
130(1)
Step 6: Analyze the Process
130(1)
Step 7: Evaluate
130(1)
Summary of Steps in the Suchman Inquiry Model
130(2)
Model Two: The WebQuest Model of Inquiry
132(3)
Steps 1: The Teacher Selects a Problem and Conducts Preliminary Research
132(2)
Step 2: Present the Problem in the WebQuest Template
134(1)
Step 3: Students Gather Data and Information to Solve the Problem
135(1)
Step 4: Students Develop and Verify Their Solution
135(1)
Model Three: Problem-Based Learning
135(5)
Steps in the Problem-Based Learning Model
136(1)
Step 1: Explore the Problem
137(1)
Step 2: Use the Inquiry Chart to Map Learning
137(1)
Step 3: Share Different Solutions
138(1)
Step 4: Take Action
138(2)
Scenario
140(2)
Differentiation Opportunities
142(1)
Assessment Options
143(1)
Summary
143(1)
Web Resources
144(1)
Notes
145(1)
The Synectics Model: Developing Creative Thinking and Problem Solving
146(23)
Basis for Synectics
148(2)
Version One: Making the Familiar Strange
150(4)
Steps in Synectics: Making the Familiar Strange
150(1)
Step 1: Describe the Topic
150(1)
Step 2: Create Direct Analogies
150(1)
Step 3: Describe Personal Analogies
151(1)
Step 4: Identify Compressed Conflicts
152(1)
Step 5: Create a New Direct Analogy
152(1)
Step 6: Reexamine the Original Topic
152(1)
Step 7: Evaluate
153(1)
Summary of Steps in Making the Familiar Strange
153(1)
Version Two: Making the Strange Familiar
154(3)
Steps in Synectics: Making the Strange Familiar
154(1)
Step 1: Provide Information
155(1)
Step 2: Present the Analogy
155(1)
Step 3: Use Personal Analogy to Create Compressed Conflicts
155(1)
Step 4: Compare the Compressed Conflict with the Subject
155(1)
Step 5: Identify Differences
155(1)
Step 6: Reexamine the Original Subject
155(1)
Step 7: Create New Direct Analogies
156(1)
Step 8: Evaluate
156(1)
Summary of Steps in Making the Strange Familiar
156(1)
Version Three: The Synectics Excursion
157(3)
Steps in the Synectics Excursion
157(1)
Step 1: Present the Problem
157(1)
Step 2: Provide Expert Information
157(1)
Step 3: Question Obvious Solutions and Purge
157(1)
Step 4: Generate Individual Problem Statements
158(1)
Step 5: Choose One Problem Statement for Focus
158(1)
Step 6: Question through the Use of Analogies
158(1)
Step 7: Force Analogies to Fit the Problem
159(1)
Step 8: Determine a Solution from a New Viewpoint
159(1)
Step 9: Evaluate
159(1)
Summary of Steps in the Synectics Excursion
159(1)
Differentiation Possibilities
160(2)
Assessment Options
162(1)
Scenario for Making the Familiar Strange
162(5)
Step 1: Describe the Topic
162(1)
Step 2: Create Direct Analogies
163(1)
Step 3: Describe Personal Analogies
163(1)
Step 4: Identify Compressed Conflicts
164(1)
Step 5: Create a New Direct Analogy
164(1)
Step 6: Reexamine the Original Topic
165(1)
Step 7: Evaluate
166(1)
Summary
167(1)
Web Resources
167(1)
Notes
167(2)
The Cause-and-Effect Model: Influencing Events by Analyzing Causality
169(19)
Basis for the Cause-and-Effect Model
170(3)
Steps in the Cause-and-Effect Model
173(1)
Practice Sheet
173(1)
The Steps in More Detail
173(5)
Step 1: Choose the Data or Topic, Action, or Problem to Be Analyzed
176(1)
Step 2: Ask for Causes and Support for Those Causes
176(1)
Step 3: Ask for Effects and Support
176(1)
Step 4: Ask for Prior Causes and Support
176(1)
Step 5: Ask for Subsequent Effects and Support
176(1)
Step 6: Ask for Conclusions
177(1)
Step 7: Ask for Generalizations
178(1)
Step 8: Evaluate Students' Performances
178(1)
Summary of Steps in the Cause-and-Effect Model
178(1)
Comments on Conducting the Model
179(2)
Variations on the Cause-and-Effect Model
181(1)
Differentiation Possibilities
182(1)
Assessment Options
183(1)
Scenario
183(2)
Summary
185(1)
Web Resources
186(1)
Notes
186(2)
The Socratic Seminar Model: Analyzing Text
188(17)
Basis for the Socratic Seminar Model
191(1)
Questioning
192(1)
Examples of Question Types
193(2)
Revised Taxonomy Question Examples
194(1)
Steps in the Socratic Seminar Model
195(7)
Step 1: Choose the Text---Written, Visual, or Audio
195(1)
Step 2: Plan and Cluster Several Questions of Varying Cognitive Demand
196(1)
Step 3: Introduce the Model to the Students
196(2)
Step 4: Conduct the Discussion
198(1)
Step 5: Review and Summarize the Discussion
199(1)
Step 6: Evaluate the Discussion with the Students Based on Previously Stated Criteria
199(2)
Summary of Steps in the Socratic Seminar Model
201(1)
Differentiation Opportunities
202(1)
Assessment Options
202(1)
Summary
202(1)
Web Resources
203(1)
Notes
203(2)
The Vocabulary Acquisition Model: Learning the Spellings and Meanings of Words
205(21)
Basis for the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
207(4)
Steps in the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
211(7)
Step 1: Pretest Knowledge of Words Critical to Content
211(1)
Step 2: Elaborate on and Discuss Invented Spellings and Hypothesized Meanings
211(2)
Step 3: Explore Patterns of Meaning
213(3)
Step 4: Read and Study
216(1)
Step 5: Evaluate and Posttest
216(1)
Summary of Steps in the Vocabulary Acquisition Model
217(1)
Differentiation Possibilities
218(2)
Assessment Options
220(1)
Scenario
221(1)
Summary
222(1)
Essential Resources for Language Study
223(1)
Web Resources
223(2)
Notes
225(1)
The Resolution-of-Conflict Model: Reaching Solutions through Shared Perspectives
226(18)
Conflicts
227(1)
Basis for the Resolution-of-Conflict Model
228(2)
Steps in the Conflict-Resolution Model
230(1)
The Steps in More Detail
230(4)
Step 1: List All the Facts Pertinent to the Conflict
231(1)
Step 2: Identify the Reasons for the Actions, the Feelings of the Participants, and the Reasons for Those Feelings
231(1)
Step 3: Propose Solutions and Review Their Possible Effects
231(1)
Step 4: Decide on the Best Resolution and Hypothesize What the Consequences Would Be
232(1)
Step 5: Discuss Similar Situations
232(1)
Step 6: Evaluate the Decision and Look for Alternative Solutions
232(1)
Step 7: Arrive at Generalizations
232(1)
Step 8: Evaluate
233(1)
Summary of Steps in the Resolution-of-Conflict Model
233(1)
Differentiation Opportunities
234(1)
Assessment Options
235(1)
High School Scenario
236(3)
Elementary School Scenario
239(2)
Summary
241(1)
Web Resources
242(1)
Notes
242(2)
Eggen and Kauchak's Integrative Model: Generalizing from Data
244(18)
Basis for Eggen and Kauchak's Integrative Model
246(1)
Steps in the Eggen and Kauchak Integrative Model
247(1)
Planning for the Eggen and Kauchak Integrative Model
247(3)
The Steps in More Detail
250(2)
Step 1: Describe, Compare, and Search for Patterns in a Data Set
250(1)
Step 2: Explain the Identified Similarities and Differences
250(1)
Step 3: Hypothesize What Would Happen under Different Conditions
251(1)
Step 4: Make Broad Generalizations about the Topic and the Discussion
251(1)
An Elementary Integrative Example
252(2)
Summary of Steps in the Eggen and Kauchak Integrative Model
254(2)
Differentiation Opportunities
256(1)
Assessment Options
256(1)
Scenario
256(4)
Summary
260(1)
Web Resources
260(1)
Notes
260(2)
Cooperative Learning Models: Improving Student Learning Using Small Groups
262(20)
Cooperative Learning Explained
263(2)
Basis of Cooperative Learning Models
265(2)
Cooperative Learning Model: The Template
267(1)
Planning Steps
267(1)
Implementation Steps
267(1)
Summary of Cooperative Learning Template Model Steps
268(1)
Specific Cooperative Models
268(1)
The Graffiti Model
269(2)
Step 1: Prepare the Graffiti Questions and Group Number and Composition
269(1)
Step 2: Distribute Materials
269(1)
Step 3: Group Answers Questions
270(1)
Step 4: Exchange Questions
270(1)
Step 5: Return to the Original Question, Summarize, and Make Generalizations
270(1)
Step 6: Share Information
270(1)
Step 7: Evaluate the Group Process
270(1)
Summary of Graffiti Model Steps
270(1)
The Jigsaw Model
271(3)
Step 1: Introduce the Jigsaw
271(1)
Step 2: Assign Heterogeneously Grouped Students to Expert and Learning Groups and Review Behavior Norms
272(1)
Step 3: Explain the Task and Assemble Expert Groups
273(1)
Step 4: Allow Expert Groups to Process Information
273(1)
Step 5: Experts Teach in Their Learning Group
273(1)
Step 6: Hold Individuals Accountable
274(1)
Step 7: Evaluate the Jigsaw Process
274(1)
Summary of Jigsaw Model Steps
274(1)
Academic Controversy
274(3)
Step 1: Students Prepare Their Positions
276(1)
Step 2: Students Present and Advocate Their Positions
276(1)
Step 3: Open Discussion and Rebuttals
276(1)
Step 4: Reverse Positions
276(1)
Step 5: Synthesize and Integrate the Best Evidence into a Joint Position
276(1)
Step 6: Present the Group Synthesis
277(1)
Step 7: Group Processing of the Controversy and Participation of Members
277(1)
Summary of Academic Controversy Steps
277(1)
Differentiation Opportunities
277(1)
Assessment Options
278(1)
Scenario
278(1)
Summary
279(1)
Web Resources
279(1)
Notes
280(2)
Supporting Strategies: Using Instructional Strategies with Instructional Models
282(14)
Scaffolding
283(1)
Information Recall Strategies
284(2)
The Link Strategy
285(1)
The Loci Strategy
285(1)
Memory through Motion Strategy
286(1)
Nonlinguistic Representations
286(3)
Graphic Organizers
287(1)
Physical Models
287(1)
Mental Pictures
288(1)
Drawing Pictures
288(1)
Kinesthetic Activities
289(1)
Think, Pair, Share Strategies
289(1)
Identifying Similarities and Differences
290(1)
Summarizing
291(2)
Reciprocal Teaching
293(1)
Summary
293(1)
Web Resources
294(1)
Notes
295(1)
PART THREE Putting It All Together: Matching Objectives to Instructional Models
296(53)
A Kindergarten Case Study
299(10)
Miss Abbott's Plan
301(2)
Unit: Lines That Draw Us Together
303(3)
Opening Activity---Drawing in the Students
303(1)
Lesson One: Practicing the ``Line-Up''
303(1)
Lesson Two: Defining a Line
304(1)
Lesson Three: Refining the Concept of Line
305(1)
Activity: The Line Game
305(1)
Notes on Lessons One, Two, and Three
306(1)
Epilogue
307(1)
Summary
308(1)
A Middle School Case Study
309(10)
The Mumford Plan
312(2)
Unit: Perspective---It All Depends on Where You Were When
314(4)
Lesson One: Toward a Perspective on Point of View
315(1)
Lesson Two: Perception---It Depends on Where You Are Coming From
316(1)
Lesson Three: Relating Perception and Perspective
317(1)
Epilogue
318(1)
Summary
318(1)
Note
318(1)
A High School Case Study
319(11)
Mr. Samuels's Plan
320(5)
Unit: Macbeth---A Study in Ambition Turned to Avarice
325(2)
Sample Lesson Five: Ambition and the Power of Suggestion
325(2)
Epilogue
327(2)
Summary
329(1)
Note
329(1)
The Wisdom of Practice: Creating a Positive Learning Environment
330(19)
Good Teachers Are in Charge of Their Classrooms
331(1)
Good Teachers Create a Pleasant Physical Environment for Learning
332(2)
Relationship to Student Learning
333(1)
Furniture Arrangement/Seating
333(1)
Climate Control
333(1)
Equipment and Displays
334(1)
Good Teachers Manage Human Relations Effectively
334(1)
Good Teachers Engage Learners in the Process of Their Own Learning
335(2)
Good Teachers Teach Up
337(4)
They Recognize the Pygmalion Effect
337(2)
They Capitalize on What Students Know
339(11)
They Celebrate Differences among Students
350
They Realize That There is More Than One Right Answer to Important Questions
340(1)
They Recognize Achievement and Minimize the Importance of Error
340(1)
Good Teachers Are Good Learners
341(2)
They Serve as a Model for Learning
341(1)
They Recognize the Importance of Professional Knowledge
341(1)
They Act as Researchers
342(1)
Good Teachers Develop Instructional Objectives with Learners
343(1)
They Vest Students with an Interest in Learning
343(1)
They Provide Students with Quality Feedback
343(1)
Good Teachers Find Out Why a Plan Is Not Working
343(1)
Good Teachers Strive to Make Their Teaching Engaging
344(1)
Good Teachers Give Learners Access to Information and Opportunity to Practice
344(1)
Good Teachers Teach for Two Kinds of Knowledge
345(1)
Summary
346(1)
Web Resources
346(1)
Notes
347(2)
Summary for Part Three 349(2)
Index 351


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