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Instructional Leadership : A Research-Based Guide to Learning in Schools,9780205457212
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Instructional Leadership : A Research-Based Guide to Learning in Schools

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205457212

ISBN10:
0205457215
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $86.66
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Summary

This text goes beyond traditional leadership or supervision books and assumes that teachers and principals must work as colleagues to improve teaching and learning in schools. This is the first text of its kind, written for principals and other instructional leaders to help them understand current theories of teaching and learning as well as the practical curriculum applications of these perspectives. ";The greatest strength of the Woolfolk Hoy text is the focus on instruction and developing leaders devoted to nurturing learner-centered campuses and classrooms."; Dr. Steve Jenkins - University of Texas of the Permian Basin ";This text provides my students with a base of knowledge regarding exemplary instructional strategies as well as an illustration of what constitutes good teaching."; Robert J. Supku - Rider University New to this edition: bull; bull;New Feature-A Principalrs"s Perspective describes the experiences of an actual principal in dealing with a problem of practice related to the ideas and concepts of that particular chapter. bull;New Point/Counterpoints have been added to each chapter to illustrate the complexity of the issues facing instructional leaders. bull;New Research-over 200 new studies and analyses enrich the examination of the crucial topics in this text. bull;New Coverage of NCLB-the impact of recent legislation is discussed throughout the text. bull;New Standards Matrix connects chapter content with the ISLLC standards for easy reference. Please visit our Educational Leadership SuperSite at www.ablongman.com/edleadership for additional course materials!

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
1 Introduction to Teaching and Learning 1(24)
The Role of Instructional Leader
2(2)
Student Differences
4(2)
Learning
6(1)
Motivation
7(4)
Teaching
11(1)
Classroom Management
12(4)
Assessing Student Learning
16(2)
Assessing and Changing School Culture and Climate
18(3)
Summary
21(2)
Develop Your Portfolio
23(1)
Instructional Leader's Toolbox
23(2)
Readings
23(1)
Websites
24(1)
Organizations
24(1)
2 Students 25(49)
Preview: Key Points
25(1)
Leadership Challenge
26(1)
Today's Multicultural Classrooms
27(13)
Cultural Diversity
27(1)
Language Differences in the Classroom
28(5)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Dialects
29(4)
Creating Culturally Compatible Classrooms
33(1)
Social Organization
33(1)
Cognitive and Learning Styles
34(3)
Participation Structures
37(1)
Culturally Relevant Pedagogy
38(2)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Culturally Compatible Classrooms
39(1)
Gender Differences in the Classroom
40(3)
Gender Bias in the Curriculum
40(1)
Sex Discrimination in Classrooms
40(1)
Sex Differences in Mental Abilities
41(1)
Eliminating Gender Bias
42(1)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Avoiding Sexism
42(1)
Individual Differences in Intelligence
43(8)
What Is Intelligence? Single, Multiple, Emotional, Triarchic
43(5)
What Does an IQ Score Mean?
48(3)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Interpreting Intelligence Test Scores
47(4)
Ability Differences in Teaching
51(6)
Between-Class Ability Grouping
51(1)
Within-Class Ability Grouping
52(1)
Gifted and Talented
52(5)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Ability Grouping
54(3)
Students with Learning Challenges
57(11)
Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders
57(2)
Learning Disabilities
59(3)
Integration, Mainstreaming, and Inclusion
62(3)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Productive Family Conferences
65(1)
Section 504 Protections for Students
65(2)
Effective Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms
67(1)
Summary
68(3)
Key Terms
71(1)
Some Ideas for Your Portfolio
72(1)
Instructional Leader's Toolbox
72(2)
Readings
72(1)
Videos
72(1)
Websites
72(1)
Organizations
72(2)
3 Learning 74(51)
Preview: Key Points
75(1)
Leadership Challenge
75(1)
What Is Learning?
76(1)
Behavioral Views of Learning
77(7)
Types of Consequences
78(3)
Antecedents and Behavior Change
81(3)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Using Reinforcement and Punishment
83(1)
Teaching Applications of Behavioral Theories
84(1)
Contingency Contract Programs
84(1)
Homework
85(1)
Cognitive Views of Learning
85(13)
Knowledge and Learning
85(3)
An Information-Processing Model
88(1)
Sensory Memory
88(2)
Working Memory
90(2)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Capturing Attention
90(2)
Long-Term Memory
92(1)
Storing and Retrieving Information in Long-Term Memory
93(4)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Applying Information Processing
96(1)
Metacognition, Regulation, and Individual Differences
97(1)
Cognitive Contributions: Learning Strategies and Tactics
98(4)
Deciding What Is Important
98(1)
Visual Tools for Organizing
99(1)
Mnemonics
100(2)
Reading Strategies
102(1)
Constructivist Theories of Learning
102(6)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Learning Strategies
103(2)
Different Versions of Constructivism
105(2)
How Is Knowledge Constructed?
107(1)
Knowledge: Situated or General?
107(1)
Teaching Applications of Constructivist Perspectives
108(13)
Elements of Constructivist Teaching
108(3)
Inquiry Learning
111(1)
Problem-Based Learning
112(2)
Cognitive Apprenticeships
114(2)
Group Work and Cooperation in Learning
116(4)
An Integrated Constructivist Program: Fostering Communities of Learners
120(3)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Explaining Innovations
121(1)
Summary
121(1)
Key Terms
122(1)
Some Ideas for Your Portfolio
123(1)
Instructional Leader's Toolbox
123(2)
Readings
123(1)
Videos
123(1)
Websites
123(1)
Organizations
124(1)
4 Motivation 125(43)
Preview: Key Points
126(1)
Leadership Challenge
126(1)
Motivation: A Definition
127(5)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
127(2)
Five General Approaches to Motivation
129(2)
Motivation to Learn in School
131(1)
Goals and Motivation
132(3)
Types of Goals and Goal Orientations
132(2)
Goals: Lessons for Teachers and Principals
134(1)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships
135(1)
Needs and Motivation
135(5)
Maslow's Hierarchy
135(1)
Achievement Motivation
136(1)
The Need for Self-Determination
137(1)
The Need for Social Support
138(1)
Needs and Motivation: Lessons for Teachers and Principals
138(2)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Supporting Self-Determination
139(1)
Attributions, Beliefs, and Motivation
140(10)
Attribution Theory
140(3)
Beliefs about Ability
143(1)
Beliefs about Self-Efficacy
144(4)
Attributions, Achievement Motivation, and Self-Worth
148(2)
Attributions and Beliefs: Lessons for Teachers and Principals
150(1)
Interests and Emotions
150(7)
Tapping Interests
150(2)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Encouraging Self-Worth and Self-Efficacy
151(1)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Building on Students' Interests
152(1)
Arousal: Excitement and Anxiety in Learning
152(5)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Dealing with Anxiety
156(1)
Strategies to Encourage Motivation and Thoughtful Learning
157(6)
Necessary Conditions in Classrooms
157(1)
Can I Do It? Building Confidence and Positive Expectations
157(2)
Do I Want to Do It? Seeing the Value of Learning
159(2)
What Do I Need to Do to Succeed? Staying Focused on the Task
161(1)
How Do Beginning Teachers Motivate Students?
162(1)
Summary
163(2)
Key Terms
165(1)
Some Ideas for Your Portfolio
166(1)
Instructional Leader's Toolbox
166(2)
Readings
166(1)
Videos
167(1)
Websites
167(1)
C Organizations
167(1)
5 Teaching 168(38)
Preview: Key Points
168(1)
Leadership Challenge
169(1)
Do Teachers Make a Difference?
169(2)
Teacher-Student Relationships
170(1)
Teacher Preparation and Quality
170(1)
What Is a Good Teacher?
171(3)
Inside Four Classrooms
171(2)
Expert Teachers
173(1)
Concerns of Teachers
174(1)
The First Step: Planning
174(10)
Objectives for Learning
176(3)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Developing Objectives
178(1)
Flexible and Creative Plans: Using Taxonomies
179(3)
Another View: Planning from a Constructivist Perspective
182(2)
Successful Teaching: Focus on the Teacher
184(6)
Characteristics of Effective Teachers
185(3)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Characteristics of Good Teachers
187(1)
Teacher Effects
188(2)
Teaching for Understanding: Focus on the Subject
190(9)
Learning to Read and Write
190(2)
Learning and Teaching Mathematics
192(3)
Learning Science
195(1)
A Model for Good Subject Matter Teaching
196(2)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Conceptual Change Teaching
197(1)
Criticisms of Constructivist Approaches to Subject Teaching
198(1)
Beyond Models to Outstanding Teaching
199(2)
Cautions: Where's the Learning?
201(1)
Summary
202(2)
Key Terms
204(1)
Some Ideas for Your Portfolio
204(1)
Instructional Leader's Toolbox
204(2)
Readings
204(1)
Videos
205(1)
Websites
205(1)
Organizations
205(1)
6 Classroom Management 206(49)
Preview: Key Points
207(1)
Leadership Challenge
207(1)
Organizing the Learning Environment
208(3)
The Basic Task: Gain Their Cooperation
208(1)
Managing the Learning Environment
209(2)
Creating a Positive Learning Environment: Some Research Results
211(9)
Rules and Procedures
212(6)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Rules and Procedures
213(5)
Planning Spaces for Learning
218(2)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Designing Learning Spaces
219(1)
Getting Started: The First Weeks of Class
220(2)
Effective Classroom Managers for Elementary Students
221(1)
Effective Classroom Managers for Secondary Students
221(1)
Creating a Learning Community
222(2)
The Three Cs of Classroom Management
222(1)
Getting Started on Community
223(1)
Maintaining a Good Learning Environment
224(3)
Encouraging Engagement
224(1)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Encouraging Student Accountability
225(1)
Prevention Is the Best Medicine
225(2)
Dealing with Discipline Problems
227(7)
Special Problems with Secondary Students
228(3)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Penalties
229(2)
Special Programs for Classroom Management
231(3)
The Need for Communication
234(8)
Message Sent, Message Received
235(1)
Diagnosis: Whose Problem Is It?
235(1)
Counseling: The Student's Problem
236(1)
Confrontation and Assertive Discipline
237(3)
Student Conflicts and Confrontations
240(2)
Summing It Up: Learning Environments for All Students
242(3)
Research on Different Management Approaches
243(1)
Culturally Responsive Management
243(1)
Listening to Students and Teachers
244(1)
Communicating with Families about Classroom Management
244(1)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Working with Families
245(1)
Designing Motivating Learning Environments on TARGET for Learning
245(6)
Authentic Tasks
246(1)
Supporting Autonomy
246(3)
Recognizing Accomplishment
249(1)
Grouping
249(1)
Evaluation
250(1)
Time
251(1)
Summary
251(2)
Key Terms
253(1)
Some Ideas for Your Portfolio
253(1)
Instructional Leader's Toolbox
253(2)
Readings
253(1)
Videos
254(1)
Websites
254(1)
Organizations
254(1)
7 Assessing Student Learning 255(44)
Preview: Key Points
255(1)
Leadership Challenge
256(1)
Evaluation, Measurement, and Assessment
257(2)
Norm-Referenced Tests
257(1)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
258(1)
What Do Test Scores Mean?
259(8)
Basic Concepts
259(2)
Types of Scores
261(3)
Interpreting Test Scores
264(3)
Types of Standardized Tests
267(5)
Achievement Tests: What Has the Student Learned?
268(2)
Diagnostic Tests: What Are the Student's Strengths and Weaknesses?
270(1)
Aptitude Tests: How Well Will the Student Do in the Future?
271(1)
Issues in Standardized Testing
272(8)
How Widespread Is Standardized Testing?
272(2)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Family Partnerships for Using Test Results
273(1)
Accountability and High-Stakes Testing
274(2)
Advantages in Taking Tests-Fair and Unfair
276(4)
New Directions in Standardized Testing and Classroom Assessment
280(11)
Authentic Assessment
280(2)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Becoming an Expert Test-Taker
281(1)
Authentic Classroom Tests
282(1)
Performance in Context: Portfolios and Exhibitions
282(4)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Student Portfolios
285(1)
Evaluating Portfolios and Performances
286(4)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Developing a Rubric
288(2)
Getting the Most from Traditional Tests
290(1)
Effects of Grades and Grading on Students
291(4)
Effects of Failure
291(1)
Effects of Feedback
292(1)
Grades and Motivation
293(4)
THEORY INTO ACTION GUIDELINES: Grading
294(1)
Summary
295(1)
Key Terms
296(1)
Some Ideas for Your Portfolio
297(1)
Instructional Leader's Toolbox
297(2)
Readings
297(1)
Websites
297(1)
Organizations
298(1)
8 Assessing and Changing School Culture and Climate 299(42)
Preview: Key Points
299(1)
Leadership Challenge
300(1)
The School Workplace
301(1)
Organizational Culture
301(11)
Levels of Culture
302(4)
Functions of Culture
306(1)
Common Elements of Culture
307(1)
Some General Propositions about School Culture
307(1)
A School Culture of Efficacy
308(4)
Organizational Climate
312(9)
Organizational Climate: Open to Closed
313(1)
A Revised OCDQ
313(4)
Climate Types
317(1)
The OCDQ: Some Implications
318(3)
Organizational Climate: Healthy to Unhealthy
321(6)
Dimensions of Organizational Health
322(1)
Organizational Health Inventory (OHI-S)
323(3)
The OHI: Some Implications
326(1)
Changing School Climate
327(10)
Some Assumptions about Change in Schools
327(2)
A Problem
329(1)
An Organizational Development Model
330(1)
Back to Martin Luther King, Jr. High School
330(7)
Summary
337(1)
Key Terms
338(1)
Some Ideas for Your Portfolio
339(1)
Instructional Leader's Toolbox
339(2)
Readings
339(1)
Websites
339(1)
Organizations
340(1)
APPENDIX A Conducting a Job Interview 341(1)
APPENDIX B Guidelines for Helping Beginning Teachers 342(1)
APPENDIX C Guidelines for Observing Classroom Behavior 343(1)
APPENDIX D OCDQ-RE 344(2)
References 346(33)
Name Index 379(7)
Subject Index 386


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