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Designed to help students explore interactions in both personal and professional domains, and develop the specific skills necessary to creating and maintaining healthy relationships, Inter-Act: Interpersonal Communication Concepts, Skills, and Contexts, Fourteenth Edition, retains the features that have made this book so successful: a theory driven and skills-based focus, an accessible tone and presentation, and a multitude of useful pedagogical tools. For this edition, new coauthor Erina MacGeorge has brought her in-depth knowledge of current theory to bear on each chapter, thoroughly updating the material so that it reflects the current state of knowledge in the discipline.
Lively and well-written, Inter-Act features numerous activities that enable students to relate their everyday experiences to their studies in communication. It also addresses readers' experiences of communicating across differences in individual identity, gender, and culture. With a strong focus on the importance of ethics, this leading text encourages students to develop their analytic abilities as they think critically about key concepts in interpersonal communication.
Table of Contents
Part I: Understanding Interpersonal Communication
Chapter 1: An Orientation to Interpersonal Communication A MODEL OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Messages Message Production Message Interpretation Interaction Coordination Communication Context THE PURPOSES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION We Share Meaning We Meet Goals We Manage Our Personal Identities We Conduct Our Relationships CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Interpersonal Communication Is Transactional Interpersonal Communication Is Irreversible Interpersonal Communication Is Situated Interpersonal Communication Reveals Relationship Qualities Interpersonal Communication Is Continuous ETHICS AND INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION THE DARK SIDE OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION DIVERSITY AND INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Diverse Voices: Lessons from American Experience INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE AND YOU Acquire Interpersonal Communication Knowledge Increase Interpersonal Communication Skill Be Motivated to Demonstrate Competence Develop Behavioral Flexibility Create Interpersonal Communication Improvement Plans UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL MEDIA AND INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Traits of Social Media Technology A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Communication Improvement Plan
Chapter 2: Social Cognition: Understanding Others and Ourselves MAKING SENSE OF THE SOCIAL WORLD Social Cognition: Automatic and Controlled Attention Memory Judgement Impression Formation Making Attributions Stereotyping Diverse Voices: Just Walk on By SELF AND SOCIAL COGNITION: THINKING ABOUT YOURSELF Self-Concept and Self-Esteem Self-Concept Development Messages, Feedback, And Self-Concept Self-Concept Affects Our Attention and Judgement Messages Reflect and Maintain Our Self-Concept Self-Concept Affects Impression Management Strategies Improving Self-Concept and Self-Esteem SOCIAL COGNITION AND EMOTION Defining Emotion Types of Emotions IMPROVING SOCIAL COGNITION FORMING IMPRESSIONS ON SOCIAL MEDIA A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply
Chapter 3: Intercultural Communication CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION DOMINANT AND CO-CULTURES Gender Race Ethnicity Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Religion Social Class Generation Cultural Identity HOW CULTURES DIFFER Time Orientation The Importance of Context for Sharing Meaning The Value of the Individual vs. the Group Diverse Voices: Individualism and Collectivism Attitudes toward Predictability and Uncertainty Attitudes about Social Power Distribution Masculine vs. Feminine Orientation Norms About the Use of Emotions BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Anxiety Assumed Similarity or Difference Ethnocentrism Stereotyping Incompatible Communication Codes Incompatible Norms and Values THE PYRAMID MODE OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE Requisite Attitudes Developing Culture-Specific Knowledge and Skills Internal and External Outcomes SOCIAL MEDIA ACROSS CULTURES A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Skill Practice Communication Improvement Plan: Intercultural Communication
Chapter 4: Verbal Messages VERBAL MESSAGE FUNDAMENTALS What Is a Language? Diverse Voices: Mommy, Why Does Raj Talk Funny? Characteristics of Language MEANING IN THE LANGUAGE ITSELF Guidelines for Improving Message Semantics VERBAL MEANING WITHIN THE CONVERSATIONAL CONTEXT Speech Acts The Cooperative Principle Guidelines for Improving Pragmatic Understanding MEANING WITHIN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT Guidelines for Improving Sociolinguistic Understanding USING LANGUAGE TO RELATE ONLINE A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Skill Practice Communication Improvement Plan: Verbal Communication
Chapter 5: Nonverbal Messages CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONS OF NONVERBAL MESSAGES Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication Functions of Nonverbal Messages TYPES OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Body Language Paralanguage Use of Space Self-Presentation CULTURE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Cultural Differences Diverse Voices: Latin American and Anglo American Use of Personal Space in Public Gender Differences NONVERBAL EXPECTATIONS Interpreting a Violation GUIDELINES FOR IMPROVING NONVERBAL MESSAGES Sending Nonverbal Messages A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? Interpreting Nonverbal Messages NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN TEXT SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Skill Practice Communication Improvement Plan: Nonverbal Communication
Chapter 6: Communication in the Life Cycle of Relationships THE FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION IN A RELATIONSHIP The Constitutive Function The Instrumental Function The Indexical Function DESCRIBING RELATIONSHIPS HOW RELATIONSHIPS CHANGE: RELATIONSHIP LIFE CYCLES Diverse Voices: Modern Love: Close Enough to Touch Was Too Far Apart Stage One: Beginning Relationships Stage Two: Developing Relationships Choosing Which Relationships to Develop Communication in Developing Relationships Stage Three: Sustaining Relationships Communication Behaviors That Sustain Relationships Understanding and Managing Dialectical Tensions in Relationships Stage Four: Relationship Decline Self-Disclosure and Privacy in Relationships Guidelines for Self-Disclosure Guidelines for Privacy PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ONLINE A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Skill Practice Communication Improvement Plan: Relationships
Part II: Developing Interpersonal Communication Skills
Chapter 7: Listening Effectively CHALLENGES TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING Personal Styles of Listening Listening Apprehension Diverse Voices: How I Learned to Shut Up and Listen Dual Processes in Listening THE ACTIVE LISTENING PROCESS Attending Guidelines to Improve Attending Understanding Guidelines and Skills for Improving Understanding Remembering Guidelines for Improving Remembering Critically Evaluating Guidelines for Improving Critical Evaluation Responding Guidelines to Improve Responding DIGITAL LISTENING SKILLS Attending to and Understanding Digital Messages Critically Evaluating Digital Messages A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Skill Practice Communication Improvement Plan: Listening
Chapter 8: Holding Effective Conversations CONVERSATION: DEFINITION, STRUCTURE, AND VARIATION Characteristics of Conversation VARIATION IN CONVERSATION Conversational Type Purpose Sequence Tone Participants Setting GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE CONVERSATIONALISTS General Conversation Guidelines Skills for Conversing with Strangers Starting a Conversation Sustaining a Conversation Closing a Conversation CULTURAL VARIATION IN CONVERSATION Diverse Voices: Conversational Ballgames DIGITAL CONVERSATION SKILLS Awareness of Audience Multiplicity of Conversations Abruptness of Disengagement A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Skill Practice Communication Improvement Plan: Conversation
Chapter 9: Supporting Others EMPATHIZING Three Types of Empathy Guidelines for Improving Empathy SUPPORTIVE INTERACTIONS Diverse Voices: Which Is My Good Leg? SUPPORTIVE MESSAGES Creating a Supportive Climate Validating Emotions Encouraging Reappraisals Promoting Action with Advice Supporting Positive Feelings: Celebratory Support GENDER AND CULTURE IN SUPPORTIVE INTERACTIONS USING SOCIAL MEDIA TO OFFER EMPATHY AND SUPPORT Increased Social Distance Increased Presence of Others Benefits for Apprehensive Individuals Ease of Management Memorializing Others Through Digital Communication A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Skill Practice Communication Improvement Plan: Empathizing and Supporting
Chapter 10: Using Interpersonal Influence INTERPERSONAL POWER Sources of Power Principles of Power INTERPERSONAL PERSUASION Processing Persuasive Messages: The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Persuading Automatic Processors Persuading Extensive Processors ASSERTING RIGHTS AND EXPECTATIONS Approaches to Communicating Rights and Expectations The Passive Approach The Aggressive Approach The Assertive Approach Assertive Message Skills Making a Complaint Requesting Change in Problematic Behavior Refusing a Request Assertiveness in Cross-Cultural Relationships A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? ELECTRONIC INFLUENCE SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Skill Practice Communication Improvement Plan: Assertive Communication
Chapter 11: Managing Conflict TYPES OF INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT STYLES OF MANAGING INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT Withdrawing Accommodating Competing Compromising Collaborating Using Problem-Solving to Collaborate FACE NEGOTIATION IN CONFLICT Face Negotiation Theory Co-Cultures and Individual Differences in Conflict DESTRUCTIVE CONFLICT PATTERNS Serial Arguing Counterblaming Cross-complaining Demand-Withdrawal Mutual Hostility Pattern GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Breaking Patterns of Destructive Conflict Creating a Collaborative Conflict Conversation Guidelines for Initiating a Collaborative Conflict Conversation Guidelines for Collaborative Response to Conflict Initiation Diverse Voices: The Power of Wastah in Lebanese Speech Guidelines for Mediating a Conflict Conversation Forgiveness: Repairing Relationships Damaged by Conflict CONFLICT ONLINE Flaming Cyberbullying A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Skill Practice Communication Improvement Plan: Conflict Management
Part III: Using Communication Skills to Improve Relationships
Chapter 12: Communicating in Intimate Relationships: Long-Term Romantic Relationships, Family, and Friends INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS AND INTERACTIONS LONG-TERM ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS Characteristics of Successful Long-Term Romantic Relationships Challenges in Long-Term Romantic Relationships Maintaining Intimacy Managing Life Transitions Negotiating Equitable Distribution of Work Sustaining Affection and Desire FAMILIES Diverse Voices: Performing Commitment Parent-Child Communication Effects of Early Attachment Parenting Styles Family Communication Patterns Modeling Communication in Other Types of Family Relationships Guidelines for Improving Family Communication FRIENDSHIPS Gender Differences in Same-Sex Friendships Friendship and Sex THE DARK SIDE OF INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS: INFIDELITY, JEALOUSY, AND POSSESSIVENESS Infidelity Jealousy USING DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS TO IMPROVE RELATIONSHIPS Digital Communication Skills in Personal Relationships A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Communication Improvement Plan: Intimate Relationships
Chapter 13: Communication in Workplace Relationships COMMUNICATING IN FORMAL WORKPLACE RELATIONSHIPS Communicating in Managerial Relationships Understanding Manager-Employee Relationships Guidelines for Effectively Communicating with Your Manager Communicating in Co-worker Relationships Types and Functions of Co-worker Relationships Guidelines for Communicating in Co-worker Relationships Communicating in Customer and Vendor Relationships Guidelines for Communicating in Boundary-Spanning Relationships Communicating in Informal Workplace Relationships Mentoring Relationships Workplace Friendships Romantic Relationships at Work COMMUNICATING IN A DIVERSE WORKPLACE Culture-Based Work Style Diverse Voices: Kaigi: Japanese Style Business Meetings Gendered Linguistic Style in the Workplace Intergenerational Communication Issues IMPROVING WORKPLACE PERFORMANCE THROUGH FEEDBACK Asking for Feedback Constructively Criticizing Responding to Negative Feedback (Criticism) THE DARK SIDE OF WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION Aggression at Work Sexual Harassment DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS Using Social Media Responsibly and Effectively Using Social Media Strategically and Wisely Using Social Media Professionally Visibility and Persistence Editability Association A Question of Ethics: What Would You Do? SUMMARY CHAPTER RESOURCES Key Words Rewind/Rewrite Analyze and Apply Skill Practice Communication Improvement Plan: Workplace Communication