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Preface | p. VII |
How to Make a Decision with Statistics | p. 1 |
Introduction--Statistics and the Scientific Method | p. 1 |
Decisions, Decisions | p. 2 |
The Language of Statistical Decision Making | p. 3 |
What's in the Bag? | p. 12 |
Significant versus Important | p. 36 |
Producing Data | p. 59 |
Introduction | p. 59 |
Why Sample? | p. 60 |
The Language of Sampling | p. 60 |
Good Data? | p. 63 |
Simple Random Sampling | p. 68 |
Stratified Random Sampling | p. 75 |
Systematic Sampling | p. 81 |
Cluster Sampling | p. 85 |
Multistage Sampling | p. 89 |
Observational Studies and Experiments | p. 105 |
Introduction | p. 105 |
Why Study Studies? | p. 105 |
The Language of Studies | p. 106 |
Understanding Observational Studies | p. 113 |
Understanding Experiments | p. 118 |
Reading with a Critical Eye | p. 130 |
What about Ethics? | p. 134 |
Summarizing Data Graphically | p. 147 |
Introduction | p. 147 |
What Are We Summarizing? | p. 148 |
Displaying Distributions--Qualitative Variables | p. 157 |
Displaying Distributions--Quantitative Variables | p. 163 |
Guidelines for Plots, Graphs, and Pictures | p. 181 |
Summarizing Data Numerically | p. 193 |
Introduction | p. 193 |
Measuring Center | p. 194 |
Measuring Variation or Spread | p. 203 |
Linear Transformations and Standardization | p. 220 |
Using Models to Make Decisions | p. 235 |
Introduction | p. 235 |
Why Do We Need to Know Models? | p. 236 |
Modeling Continuous Variables | p. 237 |
Modeling Discrete Variables | p. 257 |
Is There a Relationship? | p. 277 |
Introduction | p. 277 |
Two Quantitative Variables | p. 278 |
When Scatterplots Don't Work: Two Qualitative Variables | p. 322 |
How to Measure Uncertainty with Probability | p. 349 |
Introduction | p. 349 |
What Is Probability? | p. 350 |
Simulating Probabilities | p. 351 |
The Language of Probability | p. 358 |
Random Variables | p. 383 |
Sampling Distributions: Measuring the Accuracy of Sample Results | p. 415 |
Introduction | p. 415 |
Sampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion | p. 416 |
Bias and Variability | p. 422 |
Sampling Distribution of a Sample Mean | p. 438 |
Making Decisions with Confidence | p. 455 |
Introduction | p. 455 |
Making Decisions about a Population Proportion | p. 456 |
Making Decisions about a Population Mean | p. 470 |
Confidence Interval Estimation: For a Proportion | p. 488 |
Confidence Interval Estimation: For a Mean | p. 499 |
Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing | p. 507 |
Comparing Two Treatments | p. 527 |
Introduction | p. 527 |
Paired Samples versus Independent Samples | p. 529 |
Paired Samples | p. 534 |
Independent Samples: Comparing Means | p. 543 |
Independent Samples: Comparing Proportions | p. 559 |
Comparing Many Treatments | p. 577 |
Introduction | p. 577 |
Analysis of Variance | p. 580 |
The F-Test Statistic and the F-distribution | p. 585 |
ANOVA: Letting the Computer Do the Work! | p. 590 |
How Do We Get the Mean Squares? | p. 593 |
What Does Reject H[subscript 0] in ANOVA Mean? (And What Doesn't It Mean?) | p. 600 |
Analysis of Count Data | p. 613 |
Introduction | p. 613 |
The Chi-Square Statistic | p. 614 |
Test of Goodness of Fit | p. 617 |
Test of Homogeneity | p. 625 |
Test of Independence | p. 634 |
Appendix | p. 653 |
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises | p. 663 |
Index | p. 674 |
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