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International Business : Environments and Operations

by ; ;
Edition:
11th
ISBN13:

9780131869424

ISBN10:
0131869426
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $196.00
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Summary

For undergraduate and graduate courses in International Business.This exciting revision of the classic best-seller provides the most panoramic, authoritative and current review of international business. The world has changed and so has the book.

Table of Contents

Preface xxvii
About the Authors xxxvii
Part I BACKGROUND FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
2(42)
Globalization and International Business
2(42)
Case: The Globalization of Professional Sports
3(3)
Why Are Globalization and International Business Important?
6(2)
The Forces Behind Globalization
8(6)
Increase in and Expansion of Technology
9(1)
Liberalization of Cross-Border Trade and Resource Movements
10(1)
Development of Services That Support International Business
11(1)
Growing Consumer Pressures
11(1)
Increased Global Competition
11(1)
Changing Political Situations
12(1)
Expanded Cross-National Cooperation
12(2)
Criticisms of Globalization
14(2)
Threats to National Sovereignty
14(1)
Economic Growth
15(1)
Growing Income Inequality
15(1)
Why Companies Engage in International Business
16(1)
To Expand Sales
16(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Is Offshoring Good or Bad?
17(1)
Acquire Resources
18(1)
Minimize Risk
18(1)
Modes of International Business
18(3)
Merchandise Exports and Imports
18(1)
Service Exports and Imports
19(1)
Investments
20(1)
International Companies and Terms to Describe Them
21(1)
Why International Business Differs from Domestic Business
21(4)
Physical and Societal Factors
22(2)
The Competitive Environment
24(1)
Looking to the Future: Is Globalization Inevitable?
25(1)
Summary
26(1)
Case: Carnival Cruise Lines
27(3)
Chapter Notes
30(2)
An Atlas
32(8)
Map Index
40(4)
Part II COMPARATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL FRAMEWORKS
44(156)
The Cultural Environments Facing Business
44(42)
Case: The Java Lounge---Adjusting to Saudi Arabian Culture
45(3)
Introduction
48(1)
Cultural Awareness
49(1)
Identification and Dynamics of Cultures
50(5)
The Nation as a Point of Reference
50(2)
Cultural Formation and Dynamics
52(1)
Language as a Cultural Stabilizer
53(2)
Religion as a Cultural Stabilizer
55(1)
Does Geography Matter? Birds of a Feather Flock Together
55(3)
Behavioral Practices Affecting Business
58(11)
Social Stratification Systems
58(2)
Work Motivation
60(3)
Relationship Preferences
63(1)
Risk-Taking Behavior
64(1)
Information and Task Processing
65(1)
Communications
66(3)
Dealing with Cultural Differences
69(4)
Accommodation to Foreigners
70(1)
Cultural Distance: Usefulness and Limitations
71(1)
Culture Shock
72(1)
Company and Management Orientations
72(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Does International Business Lead to Cultural Imperialism?
73(4)
Strategies for Instituting Change
75(2)
Looking to the Future: What Will Happen to National Cultures?
77(1)
Summary
78(1)
Case: Charles Martin in Uganda
79(3)
Chapter Notes
82(4)
The Political and Legal Environments Facing Business
86(32)
Case: China's Business Environment
87(4)
Introduction
91(1)
The Political Environment
91(8)
Individualism and Collectivism
92(1)
Political Ideology
93(1)
Democracy
93(2)
Totalitarianism
95(1)
Trends in Political Systems
96(3)
Looking to the Future: Will Democracy Survive?
99(2)
Political Risk
99(2)
Point---Counterpoint: Political Risk Management
101(1)
The Legal Environment
102(2)
Diffusion of Legal Systems
103(1)
Legal Issues in International Business
104(7)
Operational Concerns
105(3)
Strategic Concerns
108(1)
Intellectual Property Rights
108(3)
Summary
111(1)
Case: Global Software Piracy
112(4)
Chapter Notes
116(2)
The Economic Environment
118(42)
Case: McDonald's and Russia's Economic Transition
119(3)
Introduction
122(1)
International Economic Analysis
123(1)
Elements of the Economic Environment
124(7)
Gross National Income
125(1)
Improving the Power of GNI
126(5)
Features of an Economy
131(7)
Inflation
131(2)
Unemployment
133(1)
Debt
134(1)
Income Distribution
135(1)
Poverty
136(1)
The Balance of Payments
137(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Trade Deficits--Advantage or Crisis
138(1)
Integrating Economic Analysis
139(11)
Types of Economic Systems
140(3)
Freedom, Markets, and Transition
143(1)
Economic Freedom: Idea, Performance, and Trends
143(3)
Transition to a Market Economy
146(2)
The Means of Transition
148(2)
Looking to the Future: The Future of Transition
150(1)
Summary
151(1)
Case: Meet the BRICs
152(3)
Chapter Notes
155(5)
Globalization and Society
160(40)
Case: Environmental Challenges for Newmont Mining in Indonesia
161(3)
Introduction
164(1)
Evaluating the Impact of FDI
165(2)
Trade-offs Among Constituencies
166(1)
Cause-Effect Relationships
166(1)
Individual and Aggregate Effects
166(1)
Potential Contributions of MNEs
167(1)
Economic Impact of the MNE
167(4)
Balance-of-Payments Effects
167(3)
Growth and Employment Effects
170(1)
Foundations of Ethical Behavior
171(3)
Cultural Foundations for Ethical Behavior
172(1)
Legal Foundations for Ethical Behavior
173(1)
Ethics and Bribery
174(4)
Point---Counterpoint: Is Bribery Ever Justified?
178(2)
Ethical Behavior and Environmental Issues
180(2)
Global Warming
180(2)
Does Geography Matter? The Amazon
182(1)
Ethical Dilemmas and Pharmaceutical Sales
183(3)
Ethical Dimensions of Labor Conditions
186(3)
Corporate Codes of Ethics
189(2)
Looking to the Future: Will FDI Be Welcome and Will Foreign Investors Act More Responsibly as the Twenty-First Century Progresses?
191(1)
Summary
191(1)
Case: Anglo American in South Africa
192(4)
Chapter Notes
196(4)
Part III THEORIES AND INSTITUTIONS; TRADE AND INVESTMENT
200(104)
International Trade and Factor Mobility Theory
200(38)
Case: Costa Rican Trade, Foreign Investment, and Economic Transformation
201(3)
Introduction
204(1)
Interventionist Theories
205(1)
Mercantilism
205(1)
Neomercantilism
206(1)
Free Trade Theories
206(7)
Theory of Absolute Advantage
207(2)
Comparative Advantage
209(2)
Some Assumptions and Limitations of the Theories of Specialization
211(2)
Theories Explaining Trade Patterns
213(5)
How Much Does a Country Trade?
213(1)
What Types of Products Does a Country Trade?
213(4)
With Whom Do Countries Trade?
217(1)
Does Geography Matter? Variety Is the Spice of Life
218(1)
The Dynamics of Trade
219(4)
Product Life Cycle (PLC) Theory
219(2)
The Porter Diamond
221(2)
Point---Counterpoint: Should Countries Follow Strategic Trade Policies?
223(1)
Factor Mobility
224(5)
Why Production Factors Move
225(1)
Effects of Factor Movements
226(1)
The Relationship of Trade and Factor Mobility
227(2)
Looking to the Future: Will Conditions for Trade Change?
229(1)
Summary
230(1)
Case: LUKoil
231(4)
Chapter Notes
235(3)
Governmental Influence on Trade
238(28)
Case: Textile and Clothing Trade
239(2)
Introduction
241(1)
Conflicting Results of Trade Policies
241(2)
Economic Rationales for Governmental Intervention
243(7)
Unemployment
243(1)
Infant-Industry Argument
244(2)
Industrialization Argument
246(2)
Economic Relationships with Other Countries
248(2)
Noneconomic Rationales for Government Intervention
250(1)
Maintenance of Essential Industries
250(1)
Prevention of Shipments to ``Unfriendly'' Countries
251(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Should Countries Eliminate the Use of Trade Sanctions?
251(2)
Maintenance or Extension of Spheres of Influence
252(1)
Protecting Activities that Help Preserve the National Identity
253(1)
Instruments of Trade Control
253(6)
Tariffs
253(2)
Nontariff Barriers: Direct Price Influences
255(1)
Nontariff Barriers: Quantity Controls
256(3)
Dealing with Governmental Trade Influences
259(1)
Looking to the Future: The Battle of Different Interests
260(1)
Summary
261(1)
Case: U.S.--Cuban Trade
261(3)
Chapter Notes
264(2)
Cross-National Cooperation and Agreements
266(38)
Case: Toyota in Europe
267(2)
Introduction
269(1)
The World Trade Organization (WTO)
269(3)
GATT: The Predecessor
269(2)
The WTO
271(1)
The Rise of Bilateral Agreements
272(1)
Regional Economic Integration
272(2)
The Effects of Integration
273(1)
Major Regional Trading Groups
274(1)
The European Union
274(9)
The EU's Organizational Structure
274(3)
The Single European Act
277(2)
EU Expansion
279(1)
Trade Disputes Between the EU and the U.S.
280(1)
Implications of the EU for Corporate Strategy
280(1)
Main Challenges Facing the EU
281(2)
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
283(4)
Rules of Origin and Regional Content
284(1)
Special Provisions of NAFTA
284(1)
Impact of NAFTA
285(1)
NAFTA Expansion
286(1)
Implications of NAFTA for Corporate Strategy
286(1)
Regional Economic Integration in the Americas
287(3)
Point---Counterpoint: Is CAFTA a Good Idea?
290(1)
Regional Economic Integration in Asia
291(2)
Regional Economic Integration in Africa
293(1)
Commodity Agreements
294(3)
Producers' Alliances and ICCAs
294(2)
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
296(1)
Looking to the Future: Will the WTO Overcome Bilateral and Regional Integration Efforts?
297(1)
Summary
297(1)
Case: Wal-Mart de Mexico
298(3)
Chapter Notes
301(3)
Part IV WORLD FINANCIAL ENVIRONMENT
304(66)
Global Foreign Exchange and Capital Markets
304(36)
Case: Western Union
305(1)
Introduction
306(1)
Major Characteristics of the Foreign-Exchange Market
307(3)
Brief Description of Foreign-Exchange Instruments
307(1)
The Size, Composition, and Location of the Foreign-Exchange Market
308(2)
Does Geography Matter? Foreign Exchange Trades
310(1)
Major Foreign-Exchange Instruments
311(7)
The Spot Market
311(2)
The Forward Market
313(3)
Options
316(1)
Futures
316(1)
Foreign-Exchange Convertibility
316(2)
How Companies Use Foreign Exchange
318(1)
The Foreign-Exchange Trading Process
319(4)
Commercial and Investment Banks
321(2)
Global Capital Markets
323(8)
Eurocurrencies
323(1)
International Bonds: Foreign, Euro, and Global
324(2)
Equity Securities and the Euroequity Market
326(5)
Point---Counterpoint: Speculation in Capital Markets
331(1)
Looking to the Future: The Future of Foreign Exchange and Global Capital Markets
332(1)
Summary
332(1)
Case: HSBC and the Peso Crisis in Argentina
333(4)
Chapter Notes
337(3)
The Determination of Exchange Rates
340(30)
Case: El Salvador and the U.S. Dollar
341(2)
Introduction
343(1)
The International Monetary Fund
343(2)
IMF Assistance
344(1)
Special Drawing Rights (SDRs)
344(1)
Evolution to Floating Exchange Rate
345(1)
Exchange-Rate Arrangements
345(5)
From Pegged to Floating Currencies
345(2)
The Euro
347(3)
Point---Counterpoint: Should Africa Develop a Common Currency?
350(3)
Black Markets
351(1)
The Role of Central Banks
351(2)
The Determination of Exchange Rates
353(6)
Floating Rate Regimes
353(1)
Managed Fixed Rate Regime
354(2)
Purchasing-Power Parity
356(1)
Interest Rates
357(1)
Other Factors in Exchange-Rate Determination
358(1)
Forecasting Exchange-Rate Movements
359(2)
Fundamental and Technical Forecasting
359(1)
Factors to Monitor
360(1)
Business Implications of Exchange-Rate Changes
361(2)
Marketing Decisions
361(1)
Production Decisions
362(1)
Financial Decisions
362(1)
Looking to the Future: Changing Times Will Bring Greater Exchange-Rate Flexibility
363(1)
Summary
363(1)
Case: The Chinese Yuan---To Revalue or Not to Revalue, That Is the Question
364(4)
Chapter Notes
368(2)
Part V GLOBAL STRATEGY STRUCTURE AND IMPLEMENTATION
370(188)
The Strategy of International Business
370(40)
Case: Zara---Value Creation in the Global Apparel Industry
371(4)
Introduction
375(2)
Industry, Strategy, and Firm Performance
377(4)
The Idea of Industry Structure
378(1)
Industry Change
379(1)
Strategy and Value
380(1)
Creating Value
380(1)
The Firm as a Value Chain
381(4)
Using the Value Chain
383(1)
Configuration
383(2)
Does Geography Matter? Labor Costs and Location Decisions
385(6)
Coordination
386(4)
Value Chains and Change
390(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Value Chains--Real or Virtual?
391(1)
Global Integration versus Local Responsiveness
392(4)
Pressures for Global Integration
392(1)
Globalization of Markets
392(1)
Efficiency Gains of Standardization
393(1)
Pressures for Local Responsiveness
393(2)
Interaction
395(1)
Strategy Types
396(5)
International Strategy
396(1)
Multidomestic Strategy
397(1)
Global Strategy
398(1)
Transnational Strategy
399(2)
Looking to the Future: New Strategy Types?
401(1)
Summary
402(1)
Case: The Globalization of eBay
402(5)
Chapter Notes
407(3)
Country Evaluation and Selection
410(40)
Case: Carrefour
411(4)
Introduction
415(1)
Scanning and Detailed Examination Compared
416(2)
What Information Is Important?
418(11)
Opportunities
418(5)
Risks
423(6)
Does Geography Matter? Don't Fool with Mother Nature
429(1)
Collect and Analyze Data
430(3)
Problems with Research Results and Data
430(1)
External Sources of Information
431(2)
Internal Generation of Data
433(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Should Companies Forego Direct Investments in Violent Areas?
433(1)
Country Comparison Tools
434(3)
Grids
435(1)
Matrices
436(1)
Allocating Among Locations
437(3)
Reinvestment versus Harvesting
437(1)
Interdependence of Locations
438(1)
Geographic Diversification versus Concentration
438(2)
Noncomparative Decision Making
440(1)
Making Final Country Selections
441(1)
Looking to the Future: Will the Prime Locations Change?
441(1)
Summary
442(1)
Case: FDI in South Africa
443(3)
Chapter Notes
446(4)
Export and Import Strategies
450(32)
Case: Grieve---A Small-Business Export Strategy
451(3)
Introduction
454(1)
Export Strategy
455(6)
Strategic Advantages of Exports
456(1)
Characteristics of Exporters
456(1)
Stages of Export Development
457(1)
Pitfalls of Exporting
458(1)
Designing an Export Strategy
459(2)
Import Strategy
461(4)
Strategic Advantages of Imports
461(2)
The Role of Customs Agencies
463(1)
Import Documentation
464(1)
Point---Counterpoint: A Dirty Dilemma: Exporting Hazardous Waste
465(1)
The Export Process
466(6)
Indirect Selling
466(1)
Export Management Companies
467(1)
Export Trading Companies
468(1)
Foreign Trading Companies
468(1)
Direct Selling
469(1)
Direct Selling Through the Internet
470(1)
Export Documentation
470(1)
Foreign Freight Forwarders
471(1)
Looking to the Future: The Technology of Trade
472(2)
Sources of Assistance
473(1)
Countertrade
474(2)
Barter
475(1)
Buybacks
475(1)
Offset Trade
475(1)
Summary
476(1)
Case: Alibaba.com
477(2)
Chapter Notes
479(3)
Direct Investment and Collaborative Strategies
482(36)
Case: Cisco Systems
483(2)
Introduction
485(1)
Why Exporting May Not Be Feasible
486(2)
Cheaper to Produce Abroad
486(1)
Transportation Costs
487(1)
Lack of Domestic Capacity
487(1)
Need to Alter Products and Services
487(1)
Trade Restrictions
488(1)
Country of Origin Effects
488(1)
Noncollaborative Foreign Equity Arrangements
488(3)
Foreign Direct Investment and Control
489(1)
Methods for Making FDI
490(1)
Motives for Collaborative Arrangements
491(3)
General Motives for Collaborative Arrangements
492(1)
International Motives for Collaborative Arrangements
493(1)
Types of Collaborative Arrangements
494(1)
Some Considerations in Collaborative Arrangements
495(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Should Countries Limit Foreign Control of Key Industries?
495(8)
Licensing
497(1)
Franchising
498(2)
Management Contracts
500(1)
Turnkey Operations
500(1)
Joint Ventures
501(2)
Equity Alliances
503(1)
Problems of Collaborative Arrangements
503(2)
Collaboration's Importance to Partners
504(1)
Differing Objectives
504(1)
Control Problems
504(1)
Partners' Contributions and Appropriations
505(1)
Differences in Culture
505(1)
Managing Foreign Arrangements
505(4)
Dynamics of Collaborative Arrangements
506(1)
Finding Compatible Partners
507(1)
Negotiating Process
508(1)
Contractual Provisions
508(1)
Performance Assessment
508(1)
Looking to the Future: Why Innovation Breeds Collaboration
509(1)
Summary
509(1)
Case: International Airline Alliances
510(4)
Chapter Notes
514(4)
The Organization of International Business
518(40)
Case: Johnson & Johnson
519(3)
Introduction
522(1)
The Causes of Change
523(2)
Organization in the International Business
525(1)
Organizational Structure
526(10)
Vertical Differentiation: Centralization versus Decentralization
526(2)
Horizontal Differentiation: The Design of the Formal Structure
528(1)
Functional Structure
528(1)
Divisional Structures
528(3)
Matrix Structure
531(1)
Mixed Structure
532(1)
Contemporary Structures
532(1)
Network Structure
533(2)
Virtual Organization
535(1)
Project Structure
535(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Hierarchies or Hyperarchies?
536(1)
Coordination and Control Systems
537(6)
Coordination Systems
537(3)
Control Systems
540(1)
Control Mechanisms
540(3)
Organization Culture
543(4)
The Growing Importance of Culture
543(2)
Challenges and Pitfalls
545(1)
Strategy and Organization Culture
545(2)
Looking to the Future: The Role and Rise of Corporate Universities
547(1)
Organization in Special Situations
547(1)
Acquisitions
547(1)
Shared Ownership
548(1)
Dynamic Nature of Performance
548(1)
The Role of Legal Structures
548(1)
Branch and Subsidiary Organizations
549(1)
Types of Subsidiaries and Operating Form
549(1)
Summary
549(1)
Case: GE Hungary
550(5)
Chapter Notes
555(3)
Part VI MANAGING INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS
558(187)
Marketing Globally
558(40)
Case: Avon
559(4)
Filling Global Needs and Wants
563(1)
Marketing Strategies
564(3)
Marketing Orientations
564(2)
Targeting and Segmenting Markets
566(1)
Product Policy
567(1)
Reasons for Making Product Alterations
567(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Should First World Governments Regulate Their Companies' Marketing in Third World Countries?
568(4)
Alteration Costs
571(1)
Extent and Mix of the Product Line
571(1)
Product Life-Cycle Considerations
571(1)
Pricing
572(5)
Governmental Intervention
572(1)
Greater Market Diversity
573(1)
Price Escalation in Exporting
573(1)
Currency Value and Price Changes
574(1)
Fixed versus Variable Pricing
575(2)
Company to Company Pricing
577(1)
Promotion
577(2)
The Push-Pull Mix
577(1)
Standardization of Advertising Programs
578(1)
Branding
579(3)
Language Factors
580(1)
Brand Acquisitions
581(1)
Country-of-Origin Images
581(1)
Generic and Near-Generic Names
582(1)
Distribution
582(1)
Does Geography Matter? Is Necessity the Mother of Invention?
582(5)
Difficulty of Standardization
583(1)
Choosing Distributors and Channels
584(1)
Hidden Costs in Distribution
585(1)
The Internet and Electronic Commerce
586(1)
Managing the Marketing Mix
587(2)
Looking to the Future; Will the ``Haves'' and the ``Have-Nots'' Meet the ``Have Somes''?
589(1)
Summary
590(1)
Case: NeoPets
591(3)
Chapter Notes
594(4)
Global Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management
598(32)
Case: Samsonite's Global Supply Chain
599(2)
Introduction
601(2)
Global Manufacturing Strategies
603(4)
Manufacturing Compatibility
604(2)
Manufacturing Configuration
606(1)
Coordination and Control
606(1)
Information Technology and Global Supply Chain Management
607(1)
Quality
608(3)
Total Quality Management
609(1)
Quality Standards
610(1)
Supplier Networks
611(4)
Make or Buy Decision
614(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Should Firms Outsource Innovation?
615(3)
Supplier Relations
616(1)
The Purchasing Function
617(1)
Inventory Management
618(4)
Just-in-Time Systems
618(2)
Foreign Trade Zones
620(1)
Transportation Networks
621(1)
Looking to the Future: The Role of China in the Supply Chain
622(1)
Summary
622(1)
Case: Denso Corporation and Global Supplier Relations
623(4)
Chapter Notes
627(3)
International Accounting Issues
630(40)
Case: Parmalat---Europe's Enron
631(3)
Introduction
634(1)
Factors Influencing the Development of Accounting Worldwide
635(13)
Accounting Objectives
639(2)
Cultural Differences in Accounting
641(1)
Classification of Accounting Systems
642(3)
International Accounting Standards and Global Convergence
645(3)
Looking to the Future: Will IASB GAAP Become the Global Accounting Standard?
648(1)
Transactions in Foreign Currencies
649(2)
Recording of Transactions
649(1)
Correct Procedures for U.S. Companies
650(1)
Translation of Foreign Currency Financial Statements
651(2)
Translation Methods
651(2)
Disclosure of Foreign-Exchange Gains and Losses
653(1)
Environmental Reports
653(1)
Performance Evaluation and Control
654(3)
Foreign Exchange in the Budget Process
654(2)
Budgeting and Currency Practices
656(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Should Local Subsidiary Management Be Held Responsible for Exchange Rate Changes?
657(1)
Transfer Pricing and Performance Evaluation
657(2)
The Balanced Scorecard
659(1)
Summary
660(1)
Case: Vivendi Universal
661(6)
Chapter Notes
667(3)
The Multinational Finance Function
670(34)
Case: Nu Skin Enterprises in Asia
671(2)
Introduction
673(1)
The Treasury and Finance Functions
673(2)
Capital Structure
675(1)
Offshore Financial Centers
676(3)
Point---Counterpoint: Offshore Financial Centers Should Be Shut Down
679(1)
Capital Budgeting in a Global Context
680(1)
Internal Sources of Funds
681(3)
Global Cash Management
682(1)
Multilateral Netting
683(1)
Cash Flow Aspects of Imports and Exports
684(1)
Foreign-Exchange Risk Management
685(5)
Translation Exposure
686(1)
Transaction Exposure
686(1)
Economic Exposure
686(1)
Exposure-Management Strategy
687(3)
Taxation of Foreign Source Income
690(7)
Foreign Branch
691(1)
Foreign Subsidiary
691(2)
Transfer Prices
693(1)
Tax Credit
694(1)
Non-U.S. Tax Practices
694(2)
Value-Added Tax
696(1)
Tax Treaties: The Elimination of Double Taxation
696(1)
Looking to the Future: Technology and Cash Flows
697(1)
Summary
698(1)
Case: Dell Mercosur
699(3)
Chapter Notes
702(2)
Human Resource Management
704(41)
Case: A Career in International Business
705(1)
Introduction
706(2)
The Strategic Function of International HRM
708(2)
Staffing Policies
710(6)
The Ethnocentric Approach
711(1)
The Polycentric Approach
712(2)
The Geocentric Approach
714(1)
Summary
715(1)
Expatriate Selection
716(2)
Technical Competence
716(1)
Adaptiveness
717(1)
Leadership Ability
718(1)
Expatriate Failure
718(1)
Expatriate Preparation and Development
719(2)
General Country Understanding
719(1)
Cultural Sensitivity
720(1)
Practical Skills
720(1)
Training Gaps and Trends
720(1)
Point---Counterpoint: Learning a Foreign Language--Still Useful?
721(1)
Expatriate Compensation
722(5)
Types of Compensation Plans
722(1)
Key Aspects of Expatriate Compensation
723(2)
Complications Posed by Nationality Differences
725(2)
Expatriate Repatriation
727(2)
Managing Repatriation
729(1)
International Labor Relations
729(3)
Labor's Concerns About MNEs
730(1)
Product and Resource Flows
731(1)
Value Activity Switching
731(1)
Scale and Complexity of MNEs
731(1)
Labor's Actions Toward MNEs
732(2)
Labor's Success and Struggle
733(1)
Looking to the Future: Which Countries Will Have the Jobs of the Future?
734(2)
Trends in the Relationship Between MNEs and Labor
735(1)
Summary
736(1)
Case: Tel-Comm-Tek (TCT)
737(3)
Chapter Notes
740(5)
Glossary 745(16)
Photo Credits 761(2)
Company Index and Trademarks 763(5)
Name Index 768(9)
Subject Index 777


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