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International Business Law and Its Environment

by ; ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780324261028

ISBN10:
0324261020
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
5/3/2004
Publisher(s):
South-Western College/West

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Summary

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS LAW AND IT'S ENVIRONMENT, 4th Edition employs a comparative approach that emphasizes private law and facilitates effective managerial decision-making. The authors balance the legal challenges of doing business in developing and non-market-economy countries with the economic and political issues that commonly arise.

Table of Contents

Table of Cases
xxi
Table of Statutes
xxv
List of Frequently Used Acronyms
xxvii
Preface xxix
Part One The Legal Environment of International Business
2(100)
Introduction to International Business
4(43)
Economic Interdependence
4(1)
The Global Marketplace
5(1)
The U.S. Experience
5(1)
The Education of U.S. Managers
6(1)
Forms of International Business
6(13)
Trade
7(1)
Comparative Advantage
7(1)
Recent Trends in U.S. Trade
8(1)
Trade in Services
9(1)
Exporting
9(1)
Direct Exporting
10(1)
Indirect Exporting
10(1)
Importing and Global Sourcing
11(1)
Government Controls over Trade: Tariffs and Nontariff Barriers
11(1)
Nontariff Barriers to Trade
11(1)
Trade Liberalization and the World Trade Organization
12(1)
Export Controls
12(1)
Intellectual Property Rights and International Licensing Agreements
12(1)
Protecting Intellectual Property Rights
13(1)
Technology Transfer
13(1)
International Franchising
13(2)
Some Legal Aspects of Franchising
15(1)
Foreign Direct Investment
15(2)
Multinational Corporations
17(1)
UNCTAD's World Investment Report
17(1)
The Impact of Multinational Corporations
18(1)
Subsidiaries, Joint Ventures, Mergers, and Acquisitions
18(1)
United States Foreign Direct Investment
19(1)
Conducting Business in Developing Countries
19(8)
The Developing Countries
19(1)
The Economic Environment in Developing Countries
20(1)
Availability of Foreign Exchange in Developing Countries
21(1)
Controls on Trade and Licensing in Developing Countries
21(1)
Controls on Investment in Developing Countries
22(1)
The Road to Free Markets, Consumer-Based Economics, and Private Ownership
22(2)
Capital Investment
24(1)
Privatization
25(1)
The Results of Reform
25(1)
The People's Republic of China
25(1)
The Newly Industrialized Countries
26(1)
The Less-Developed Countries
26(1)
The Business Environment in Eastern Europe, Russia, and the Newly Independent Republics of the Former Soviet Union
27(1)
The Transition from Communism to Free Markets and Private Enterprise
27(1)
Managing the Risks of International Business
28(19)
Risk Assessment and the Firm's Foreign Market Entry Strategy
31(1)
Managing Distance and Communications
32(1)
Selling Face-to-Face
32(1)
Attendance at International Trade Shows
33(1)
Language and Cultural Differences
33(1)
Managing Currency and Exchange Rate Risks
33(1)
Exchange Rate Risk
33(2)
Floating and Fixed Exchange Rates
35(1)
Methods of Managing Exchange Rate Risk
35(1)
Currency Control Risk
35(1)
Special Transaction Risks in Contracts for the Sale of Goods
35(1)
Payment or Credit Risk
36(1)
Delivery Risk
36(1)
Property or Marine Risk
36(1)
Pilferage and Containerized Freight
36(1)
Managing Political Risk
37(1)
Causes of Political Risk
37(1)
The Impact on Trade Relations
37(1)
The Risk of International Hostilities
38(1)
Handling Political Risk
38(1)
Risks of Foreign Laws and Courts
38(2)
Ethical Issues in International Business
40(1)
Receiving Professional Assistance in Going International
41(1)
The International Attorney
41(3)
Freight Forwarder/Customs Broker
44(1)
The International Banker
44(3)
International Law and Organizations
47(27)
Public International Law
47(8)
The Law of Treaties
49(1)
The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
49(1)
Pacta sunt servanda
49(1)
Jus cogens
49(1)
The Impact of Treaties on Business
50(2)
International Court of Justice
52(1)
Problems of Jurisdiction
53(2)
Developments Since the Nicaragua Case
55(1)
The Role of the United Nations in the Public International Law
55(1)
The General Assembly and the Security Council
55(1)
The UN Security Council and Iraq
56(1)
International Law and the World of Business
56(1)
Private International Law
56(8)
Comparison of National Legal Systems
57(1)
Common and Civil Law
58(1)
Socialist Law
58(1)
Islamic Law
59(1)
Comparative Law
59(3)
Foreign Investment Codes
62(2)
International Organizations
64(4)
Organizations Affiliated with the United Nations
64(1)
History and Development of the ``Bretton Woods'' Institutions
65(1)
International Monetary Fund
66(1)
The IMF and the World Bank
66(1)
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
66(1)
GATT and WTO
67(1)
OECD
67(1)
International Chamber of Commerce
67(1)
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
68(1)
Other Organizations
68(1)
Human Rights, Ethics, and Business' Response
68(6)
Cultural and Ethical Environment
71(3)
Resolving International Commercial Disputes
74(28)
Avoiding Business Disputes
74(1)
Cultural Attitudes Toward Disputes
74(1)
Methods of Resolution
75(1)
Alternate Dispute Resolution
75(4)
Mediation
75(1)
Arbitration
76(1)
National Arbitral Laws
76(1)
Arbitration Bodies
77(1)
Arbitration Clauses
77(1)
Enforcement of Arbitration Awards
77(2)
Litigation
79(13)
Jurisdiction
79(1)
In Personam Jurisdiction
80(1)
Requirement for In Personam Jurisdiction: Minimum Contacts
80(2)
Jurisdiction in the Internet Age
82(3)
Obtaining Jurisdiction by Service of Process
85(1)
Venue
86(1)
Forum Non Conveniens
87(1)
Forum Shopping
88(1)
In re Union Carbide Gas Plant Disaster at Bhopal
89(1)
Forum Selection Clauses
90(2)
Conflicts of Law
92(4)
The Restatement (Second) of the Conflict of Laws
92(1)
Contracts
92(1)
Torts
93(1)
Choice of Law Clauses
93(1)
The Application of Foreign Law in American Courts
93(1)
Judicial Assistance: Discovery and the Collection of Evidence
93(2)
Letters Rogatory
95(1)
Antisuit Injunctions
96(1)
Enforcement of Foreign Judgments
96(1)
Uniform Foreign Money Claims Act
97(1)
Commercial Disputes with Nations
97(5)
Part Two International Sales, Credits, and the Commercial Transaction
102(142)
Sales Contracts and Excuses for Non-Performance
104(45)
The Development of International Sales Law
104(5)
Modern Sales Law in the United States: The UCC and CISG
104(1)
Conflicts of Law
105(1)
Choice of Law Clauses
106(1)
Development of the CISG
106(1)
Contract Law in the Developing Countries
106(1)
Contract Law in Socialist Countries
107(1)
Contract Law in the People's Republic of China: An Illustration
108(1)
The 1999 Contract Law of China
109(1)
The Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods
109(4)
Applicability of the CISG to International Transactions
110(1)
Place of Business Requirement
110(2)
Sales Excluded from the CISG
112(1)
Validity and Formation of International Sales Contracts
113(14)
Enforcement of Illegal Contracts
113(1)
The Writing Requirement
114(1)
Digital Signatures in Electronic Commerce
115(1)
Problems of Interpretation
115(1)
The Parol Evidence Rule
115(1)
Customs, Practices, and Trade Usages
116(1)
Trade Usages under the CISG
116(1)
Entering the Agreement: The Offer
116(1)
The Intention to Be Bound
116(1)
Public Offers
117(1)
Open Price Terms
117(1)
Firm Offers
117(1)
Entering the Agreement: The Acceptance
118(1)
Silence as Acceptance
118(1)
Time of Acceptance
118(2)
The Mirror Image Rule
120(1)
The Manner of Offer and Acceptance: Buyer's and Seller's Forms
120(1)
The Pro Forma Invoice
121(1)
Contract Terms and Conditions and the ``Battle of the Forms''
121(3)
The Battle of the Forms under the Common Law and Civil Law
124(1)
The Battle of the Forms and Mirror Image Rule under the UCC
124(1)
Confirmation Notices---German Law and the CISG
125(1)
The Battle of the Forms under the CISG
125(1)
The Validity of Standard Contract Terms: A Comparison
126(1)
Express and Implied Warranties
127(4)
Implied Warranties
127(2)
Disclaiming Implied Warranties
129(1)
Notice of Nonconforming Goods
130(1)
Remedies for Breach of Contract
131(7)
Avoidance and the Fundamental Breach
131(1)
Fundamental Breach
131(1)
Buyer's Right to Avoidance
131(1)
Notice of Avoidance
131(2)
Seller's Right to Remedy
133(1)
Seller's Additional Time to Perform
133(1)
Seller's Avoidance
134(1)
Price Reduction
134(1)
Money Damages
134(3)
Foreign Money Judgments
137(1)
Specific Performance in Common Law and Civil Law Systems
137(1)
Specific Performance under the CISG
137(1)
Anticipatory Breach
138(1)
Right to Suspend Performance
138(1)
Right to Avoidance
138(1)
Avoidance of Installment Contracts
138(1)
Events Beyond the Control of the Parties: Excuses for Nonperformance
138(4)
Impossibility of Performance
139(1)
Supervening Illegality
139(1)
Frustration of Purpose
139(1)
Commercial Impracticability
140(1)
Extreme Hardship, Difficulty, or an Unreasonable Expense
140(1)
Unforeseen Events
140(1)
Shortages and Market Price Fluctuations
141(1)
The CISG Exemptions for Impediments Beyond Control
141(1)
Force Majeure Clauses
141(1)
Cultural Influences on Contract Negotiations
142(7)
Negotiating Contracts in Japan
142(7)
The Documentary Sale and Terms of Trade
149(29)
Payment and Delivery Risk
149(1)
The Documentary Sale
150(14)
The Document of Title
150(1)
The Bill of Lading
150(1)
Order and Bearer Documents
150(3)
Importance of Negotiability to Trade
153(1)
Documentary Collections
153(2)
Rights of Purchasers of Bills of Lading
155(1)
Good-Faith Purchasers of Bills of Lading
155(1)
Carrier's Misdelivery
155(1)
Shipside Bonds
155(1)
Carrier's Lien
156(1)
Responsibilities of Buyer and Seller in a Documentary Sale
157(1)
Seller's Duty to Tender Documents
158(1)
Seller's Additional Risk of Nonpayment
159(1)
Certificates of Inspection or Analysis
159(1)
Measuring Damages for Breach of the Documentary Sale
159(1)
Types of Ocean Bills of Lading
160(1)
Clean Bills of Lading
160(1)
Onboard Bills of Lading
160(1)
Received-for-Shipment Bills of Lading
161(1)
Straight Bills of Lading
162(1)
Other Types of Transport Documents
162(1)
Air Waybills
162(1)
Forwarder's Bill of Lading
162(1)
Multimodal Transport Documents
162(2)
Electronic Data Interchange
164(1)
Shipping Terms and the Risk of Loss
164(14)
Allocating the Risk of Loss
164(1)
Destination Contracts
165(1)
Shipment Contracts
165(1)
The Risk of Loss in International Sales under the CISG
165(1)
Freight and Transportation Charges
166(1)
Trade Terms
166(1)
International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms
167(1)
``E'' Terms
167(5)
``F'' Terms
172(1)
``C'' Terms
172(1)
``D'' Terms
173(1)
Modification of Trade Terms
173(5)
The Carriage of Goods and the Liability of Air and Sea Carriers
178(33)
Carrier's Liability for Misdelivery of Cargo
178(1)
Bailments and Common Carriers
178(2)
The Liability of International Air Carriers: From Warsaw to Montreal
180(6)
The Warsaw and Montreal Conventions
181(1)
Limitations on Air Carrier Liability and Special Drawing Rights
181(1)
Liability for Death or Bodily Injury
182(1)
Limitations on Liability for Death or Bodily Injuries
182(3)
Jurisdiction
185(1)
Time Limitations
185(1)
Liability for Air Cargo and Baggage Losses
185(1)
Cargo Losses
185(1)
Baggage Losses
185(1)
Delay
185(1)
The U.S. Death on the High Seas Act
185(1)
Liability for the Carriage of Goods by Sea
186(12)
History of Carrier Liability
186(1)
The Harter Act
187(1)
The Hague Rules
187(1)
The Carriage of Goods by Sea Act
187(1)
Limitations of Liability under COGSA
187(1)
Forum Selection Clauses
187(1)
Nautical Liability of the Carrier
187(1)
Establishing the Carrier's Liability
188(1)
Carrier's Due Diligence
188(1)
Seaworthiness of the Ship
188(1)
Errors in Navigation or Mismanagement of the Ship
189(1)
Damage from Fire Aboard Ship
189(1)
Perils of the Sea
190(1)
The Q-Clause Defense
191(1)
Shipper's Liability for Hazardous Cargo
192(1)
Carrier's Liability for Cargo Shortages
193(2)
The Per Package Limitation
195(2)
Liability for a Material Deviation
197(1)
Himalaya Clauses
198(1)
The Hamburg Rules
198(1)
The Visby Amendments
198(1)
The Liability of Ocean Transportation Intermediaries
198(3)
Freight Forwarders
199(1)
Non-Vessel Operating Common Carriers
199(1)
The Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998
199(2)
Marine Cargo Insurance
201(10)
Marine Insurance Policies and Certificates
201(1)
General Average and FPA Losses
202(1)
The York-Antwerp Rules
202(1)
General Average Claims by the Carrier
202(1)
Real and Substantial Danger
202(1)
Particular Average Losses
203(1)
Types of Coverage
203(1)
The Perils Clause
203(1)
All Risks Coverage
203(5)
War Risk
208(3)
Bank Collections, Trade Finance, and Letters of Credit
211(33)
The Bill of Exchange
211(2)
The Origin of Bills of Exchange
211(1)
Brief Requirements of a Bill of Exchange
212(1)
Negotiation and Transfer of Negotiable Instruments
212(1)
The Documentary Draft and the Bank Collection Process
212(1)
The SWIFT System
213(1)
Trade Finance
213(3)
The Use of Time Drafts and Acceptances
213(2)
Banker's Acceptances and Acceptance Financing
215(1)
Credit Risk in Trade Finance Programs
215(1)
Credit Risk in Acceptance Financing: Rights of the Holder in Due Course
215(1)
Credit Risks in Factoring Accounts Receivable: The Rights of the Assignee
216(1)
The Documentary Letter of Credit
216(22)
The Letter of Credit Defined
218(2)
Law Applicable to Letters of Credit
220(1)
The Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits
220(1)
Legal Effect of the UCP
220(1)
Letters of Credit Are Independent of the Underlying Transaction
220(1)
Rights of the Account Party in Cases of Fraud
220(2)
A Letter of Credit Transaction
222(3)
Irrevocability of Letters of Credit
225(1)
Advising the Letter of Credit
225(1)
Seller's Compliance with the Credit
225(2)
Collecting on the Credit
227(1)
Examination of the Documents Under the UCP
227(1)
The Rule of Strict Compliance
228(3)
Other Views on Strict Compliance
231(1)
Avoiding and Handling Discrepancies
231(1)
An Ethical Issue in Handling Letters of Credit
231(1)
Procedures for Dishonor
232(1)
Issuer Preclusion
232(1)
Confirmed Letters of Credit
232(2)
Liability of Confirming Bank
234(1)
Standby Letters of Credit
234(1)
Standby Credit as Performance Guaranty
234(1)
Middle East Politics and Standby Letters of Credit: The Iranian Claims
235(1)
Other Specialized Uses for Letters of Credit
236(1)
Transferable Credits
237(1)
Red Clauses in Credits
237(1)
Revolving and Evergreen Credits
237(1)
Back-to-Back Letter of Credit Financing
237(1)
Electronic Data Interchange and the ``eUCP''
237(1)
Letters of Credit in Trade Finance Programs
238(1)
AID Financing
238(1)
Eximbank Financing
238(1)
Commodity Credit Corporation
238(1)
Foreign Credit Insurance Association
238(1)
Countertrade
238(6)
What Is Countertrade?
239(1)
Counterpurchase
239(1)
Barter
239(1)
Buy-Back
240(4)
Part Three International and U.S. Trade Law
244(256)
National Lawmaking Powers and the Regulation of U.S. Trade
246(35)
U.S. Trade Law and American Foreign Policy
246(1)
The Separation of Powers
247(3)
The Executive--Legislative Debate
249(1)
The Congress
249(1)
The President
250(1)
The Treaty Power
250(3)
Treaty Powers and the Constitution
251(1)
Treaties of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation
251(2)
The Equal-Dignity Rule
253(1)
Executive Agreements
253(3)
Sole-Executive Agreements and the President's Inherent Power
254(1)
Congressional--Executive Agreements
255(1)
Trade Agreements
256(6)
The Smoot--Hawley Tariff Act of 1930
256(1)
The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934
256(2)
More Recent U.S. Trade Legislation
258(1)
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
259(1)
The Legal Status of GATT 1947
259(1)
Presidential Authority for GATT Multilateral Trade Negotiations
259(1)
Trade Promotion Authority
259(1)
Trade Negotiating Objectives
259(3)
Expanded Powers
262(1)
The President's Emergency Powers
262(7)
Trading with the Enemy Act
262(1)
National Emergencies Act
263(1)
International Emergency Economic Powers Act
263(1)
Economic Sanctions under IEEPA
263(1)
USA Patriot Act
264(1)
IEEPA and U.N. Sanctions Against Iraq
265(1)
Court Challenges to IEEPA
265(1)
IEEPA and the 1979 Iranian Revolution
265(1)
The Case of the ``American Taliban''
266(2)
U.S. Sanctions on Trade with Cuba
268(1)
The Helms--Burton Act
268(1)
The Effectiveness of Trade Sanctions
269(1)
Federal-State Relations
269(7)
The Supremacy Clause
269(1)
Burma, Human Rights, and Federal Preemption
269(1)
Economic Sanctions against Burma
270(1)
The Import--Export Clause
271(2)
The Commerce Clause
273(1)
The Commerce Clause and Multiple Taxation
273(2)
State Income Taxation of Multinational Corporations
275(1)
State Restrictions on Exports
275(1)
State Restrictions on Imports
276(1)
Federal Agencies Affecting Trade
276(5)
United States Department of Commerce
276(1)
United States Department of Homeland Security
276(1)
Border and Transportation Security
276(1)
The Impact of Homeland Security on American Importers and Exporters
277(1)
United States Trade Representative
277(1)
International Trade Commission
277(1)
The U.S. Court of International Trade
277(4)
Gatt Law and the World Trade Organization: Basic Principles
281(34)
Import Barriers to Trade
281(7)
Anatomy of a Trade War: Auto Parts to Japan
282(1)
The U.S. Position
282(1)
The Japanese Position
283(1)
A Breakdown in Negotiations
283(1)
An ``Eleventh Hour'' Settlement
283(1)
Reasons for Regulating Imports
284(1)
Tariffs
285(1)
Nontariff Barriers to Trade
285(1)
Embargoes
285(1)
Quotas
285(1)
Auctioned Quotas
286(1)
Tariff-Rate Quotas
286(1)
Indirect Nontariff Barriers
286(1)
The Japanese Large-Scale Retail Stores Law
287(1)
Import Licensing Schemes and Customs Procedures as Trade Barriers
288(1)
Transparency
288(1)
Impact of Trade Barriers on Managerial Decisions
288(1)
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
288(3)
The GATT Framework
289(1)
GATT and U.S. Law
290(1)
GATT Agreements as a Basis for Interpreting U.S. Trade Statutes
290(1)
Scope and Coverage of GATT 1947
290(1)
Scope and Coverage of GATT 1994
291(1)
The World Trade Organization
291(2)
Organization of the WTO
292(1)
GATT/WTO Dispute-Settlement Procedures
293(3)
WTO Dispute-Settlement Procedures
293(3)
WTO Reports as Legal Precedent
296(1)
GATT 1994: Major Principles of Trade Law
296(2)
Multilateral Trade Negotiations
297(1)
The Kennedy Round
297(1)
The Tokyo Round
297(1)
The Uruguay Round
297(1)
The Doha Development Agenda
297(1)
The Seattle and Cancun Meetings
298(1)
Tariffication
298(1)
Zero-for-Zero Tariff Elimination
298(1)
Tariff Concessions, Bound Rates, and Tariff Schedules
298(1)
Nondiscrimination, Most Favored Nation Trade, and National Treatment
298(7)
Most Favored Nation Trade
300(1)
Unconditional MFN Trade
300(1)
Normalization of U.S. Trade Relations with Russia and Vietnam
301(1)
NTR and Human Rights
301(1)
Normalization of Trade Relations with China
302(2)
Other Exceptions to Normal Trade Status
304(1)
National Treatment
305(2)
GATT and the Elimination of Quotas
307(8)
Quantitative Restrictions: The Balance-of-Payments Exception and Developing Countries
308(7)
Laws Governing Access to Foreign Markets
315(33)
The General Principle of Least Restrictive Trade
315(2)
Technical Barriers to Trade
317(9)
The Protection of Public Health, Safety, or Welfare
318(1)
Restrictions on Sale and Distribution: Testing and Inspections
318(1)
Why Technical Regulations and Standards Are Barriers to Trade
319(1)
Technical Barriers in the European Union
319(1)
Technical Barriers in Japan
320(2)
International Organization for Standardization
322(1)
The GATT 1994 Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
322(4)
Import Licensing Procedures
326(1)
The GATT 1994 Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures
326(1)
Trade Facilitation
326(1)
Government Procurement
326(2)
The GATT 1994 Agreement on Government Procurement
327(1)
Agencies Excluded from the Procurement Rules
327(1)
Procurement Rules
327(1)
Transparency in Procurement Procedures
328(1)
Administering Government Procurement Rules in the United States
328(1)
Other Procurement Agreements
328(1)
Trade in Services
328(2)
The GATT 1994 General Agreement on Trade in Services
329(1)
Recognition of Licensing and Professional Qualifications
330(1)
The GATS Agreement on Trade in Financial Services
330(1)
The GATS Agreement on Basic Telecommunications
330(1)
Trade in Agriculture
330(5)
The GATT 1994 Agreement on Agriculture
332(1)
Domestic Support Programs
332(1)
Agricultural Export Subsidies
332(1)
Making Export Markets Accessible
332(1)
Food, Animal, and Plant Safety
333(1)
Codex Alimentarius
333(2)
Trade in Textiles and Clothing
335(1)
The GATT 1994 Agreement on Textiles and Clothing
336(1)
Other WTO Trade Agreements
336(2)
Trade-Related Investment Measures
336(1)
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
337(1)
Information Technology Agreement
338(1)
Trade Sanctions and U.S. Section 301: The Threat of Retaliation
338(10)
Basic Section 301
338(1)
Section 301 Procedures
338(2)
Sanctions and Retaliatory Measures
340(1)
The Trade and Development Act of 2000: The Carousel Law
340(1)
Special 301
340(1)
Telecommunications 301
341(1)
Super 301
341(1)
Assessing the Impact of Unilateral Action
342(6)
Regulating Import Competition and Unfair Trade
348(26)
The Double-Edged Sword of Import Regulation
348(1)
Safeguards Against Injury
349(8)
The GATT Escape Clause
349(1)
The GATT 1994 Agreement on Safeguards
349(1)
Limits on the Use of Safeguards
350(1)
Trade Compensation
350(1)
The WTO Committee on Safeguards
350(1)
Safeguards Against Injury under U.S. Law
350(1)
Standard for Import Relief
350(1)
ITC Safeguard Investigations
350(3)
Available Remedies under U.S. Law
353(1)
Trade Adjustment Assistance
353(1)
Federal Assistance to Firms
354(1)
The U.S. Steel Industry: A Case Study in Protectionism
354(3)
Unfair Import Laws: Dumping and Antidumping Duties
357(8)
The Economics of Dumping
357(1)
The GATT 1994 Antidumping Agreement
358(1)
Calculating the Dumping Margin
358(1)
Calculating the Export Price
359(1)
Calculating the Normal Value of Like Products in the Exporting or Producing Country
359(1)
What Is a ``Like Product''?
359(2)
Adjustments to Value and Price
361(1)
Market Viability Test and Constructed Value
361(1)
Sales Below Cost
362(1)
The Level-of-Trade Problem
362(1)
GATT Dispute Settlement in Dumping Cases
362(1)
Dumping and Non-market Economy Countries in Transition
363(1)
Market-Oriented Industries
363(2)
Unfair Import Laws: Subsidies and Countervailing Duties
365(6)
GATT 1994 Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures
366(1)
Definition of a Subsidy
366(1)
Prohibited Subsidies
366(1)
Domestic Subsidies
367(1)
Remedies for Adverse Effects of Domestic Subsidies
367(1)
What Makes a Subsidy Specific?
367(1)
Upstream Subsidies
367(1)
Nonactionable or Socially Beneficial Subsidies
368(1)
Subsidies and State Owned Enterprises
368(1)
Exports from Newly Privatized Enterprises
368(1)
When a Remedy Becomes a Subsidy: The Controversy over the Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act of 2000
368(2)
Material Injury in U.S. Unfair Import Cases
370(1)
Judicial Review in International Trade Cases
371(3)
Imports, Customs, and Tariff Law
374(44)
The Administration of Customs and Tariff Laws
374(14)
Locating Customs and Tariff Laws
375(1)
The Formal Entry Process
375(1)
Required Documentation
375(3)
The Commercial Invoice
378(1)
The Entry Summary and Immediate Delivery Forms
378(1)
Payment of Duties
378(1)
Informal Entries
378(1)
Electronic Entry Processing
378(1)
Remote Location Filing
379(1)
Liquidation and Protest
379(1)
Time Limits on Liquidation
379(1)
Protesting Liquidations
379(1)
Judicial Review of Protests
379(1)
Enforcement and Penalties
379(1)
Making Materially False Statements to Customs
380(1)
Negligent Violations
380(1)
Gross Negligence
380(1)
Civil Fraud
380(2)
Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances
382(1)
Informed Compliance and Shared Responsibility
382(1)
The Reasonable Care Checklist
383(1)
Reporting Errors to Customs Before an Investigation
383(1)
The Statute of Limitations
384(1)
Record Keeping Requirements
384(1)
Judicial Enforcement of Penalty Actions
385(1)
Binding Rulings
385(1)
Judicial Review
385(1)
Judicial Review of Formal Rulemaking
386(1)
Judicial Review of Binding Rulings
386(1)
Pre-Importation Judicial Review in Emergency Circumstances
386(2)
Dutiable Status of Goods
388(20)
The Harmonized Tariff Schedule
388(1)
Using the Harmonized Tariff Schedule
388(1)
The Classification of Goods
389(2)
Understanding Tariff Descriptions: The Common Meaning Rule
391(2)
Determining the Classification of Products: Questions of Law and Fact
393(1)
Classification by Actual or Principal Use
393(1)
Using the General Rules of Interpretation
393(2)
The Rule of Relative Specificity
395(1)
Classification by Essential Character
395(1)
Classification of Items Packaged for Retail Sale as a Set
395(2)
Classification at the Subheading Level
397(1)
Tariff Engineering
397(1)
Customs Valuation
398(1)
Agency Commissions
398(1)
Assists
399(1)
Other Methods of Calculating Dutiable Value
399(1)
Currency Exchange Rates
400(1)
Country-of-Origin
400(1)
Rules of Origin
400(1)
The Substantial-Transformation Test
400(2)
Substantial Transformation: The ``Name, Character, or Use'' Test
402(3)
GATT 1994 Agreement on Rules of Origin
405(1)
Special Rules of Origin for Textiles and Apparel
405(1)
Opportunities for Business Planning
406(1)
Marking and Labeling of Imports
406(1)
Customs Marking Rules
407(1)
Items Not Requiring Marks
407(1)
Federal Trade Commission ``Made in U.S.A.'' Rules
407(1)
Partly Made in the U.S.A.?
408(1)
U.S. Trade Preferences for Developing Countries
408(3)
The Generalized System of Preferences
408(1)
Eligibility of GSP Status
408(1)
GSP Rules of Origin
409(1)
Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act
409(1)
CBERA Rules of Origin
410(1)
The 2000 Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act
410(1)
Africa Growth and Opportunity Act of 2000
411(1)
Andean Trade Program
411(1)
Other Customs Laws Affecting U.S. Imports
411(7)
Drawbacks
411(1)
Returns of U.S. Exports
412(1)
Foreign Trade Zones
412(6)
North American Free Trade Law
418(34)
The North American Free Trade Area
418(2)
Canada--U.S. Trade
419(1)
Mexico--U.S. Trade
419(1)
What Is NAFTA?
420(3)
Survey of NAFTA's Coverage
420(1)
How NAFTA Came into Being
420(1)
Regional versus Global Trade Liberalization
420(1)
Free Trade Area of the Americas
421(1)
Survey of Trade and Tariff Provisions
421(1)
National Treatment
421(1)
Tariff Elimination
422(1)
Elimination of Nontariff Barriers
422(1)
Continuing Nontariff Barriers
422(1)
Rules of Origin
423(7)
Goods Wholly Produced or Obtained in North America
423(1)
Annex 401 Tariff-Shift Rule of Origin
423(1)
Changes in Tariff Classification
423(1)
Regional Value Content Requirement
424(1)
Goods with Minimal Amounts of Non-North American Materials
425(1)
Understanding the Mexican Tariff Schedules
426(1)
The NAFTA Certificate of Origin
427(1)
Standards and Technical Barriers to Trade
427(2)
Marking and Labeling Rules
429(1)
Items Not Requiring Marks
430(1)
Trade in Goods: Sectoral Issues
430(2)
Trade in Motor Vehicles and Parts
430(1)
Special Rules of Origin for Automobiles
430(1)
Trade in Textiles and Apparel
431(1)
Trade in Agriculture
431(1)
Government Procurement
431(1)
Emergency Action to Protect Domestic Industry (NAFTA Safeguards)
431(1)
Trade in Services
432(3)
Financial Services
432(1)
Transportation
432(3)
The Trucking Environmental Snafu
435(1)
Telecommunications
435(1)
Cross-Border Investment
435(4)
NAFTA's Investment Provisions
435(1)
NAFTA's Open Investment Policies
436(1)
Environmental Measures Applicable to Investments
436(1)
Exceptions to the Investment Agreement
436(1)
Protecting Investors from Expropriation
436(2)
Investor Claims and Dispute Settlement Procedures
438(1)
Other NAFTA Provisions
439(2)
Intellectual Property Rights
439(1)
Trademarks
439(1)
Copyrights
439(1)
Patents
439(1)
Enforcement and Penalties
439(1)
Environmental Cooperation and Enforcement
439(1)
Labor Cooperation and Worker Rights
440(1)
Antitrust and Competition Policy
441(1)
Rights to Temporary Entry
441(1)
Administration and Dispute Settlement
441(3)
NAFTA Fair Trade Commission
441(1)
Arbitral Panels
441(1)
Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Cases
442(2)
Extraordinary Challenge Committees
444(1)
Assembly Plants and the Mexican Maquiladora
444(8)
Mexican Customs Rules
445(1)
Assembly Plant Tariff Treatment in the United States
445(1)
The Mexican Maquiladora Industry
445(2)
The Social Responsibility of U.S. Firms in the Maquiladora Industry
447(5)
The European Union and Other Regional Trade Areas
452(28)
The Philosophy of Economic Integration
452(5)
Federal Model
452(1)
Free Trade Area
453(1)
Customs Union
453(1)
Common Market
453(1)
Compatibility of Trade Areas with the WTO and GATT
454(3)
European Union
457(15)
History
457(1)
Treaty of Rome
458(1)
1992 and the Single European Act
458(1)
The Euro and Monetary Union: Maastrich Treaty
459(2)
Treaty of Amsterdam (1999)
461(1)
Treaty of Nice (2000)
461(1)
Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe
461(1)
Structure of the European Union
462(1)
The Council
462(1)
The Commission
462(1)
The Court of Justice
463(1)
The Parliament
464(1)
European Central Bank
464(1)
Distinction between Institutions
465(1)
Harmonization: Directives and Regulations
465(1)
Privacy
465(3)
The Common Agricultural Policy
468(3)
The Business Implications of the European Union
471(1)
Other Regional Trade Areas
472(8)
MERCOSUR: Southern Common Market
472(1)
Caribbean Response to NAFTA
473(1)
Andean Community of Nations
473(1)
Free Trade in the Americas Area (FTAA)
473(1)
Central American Common Market
474(1)
African Trade Areas
474(1)
African Economic Community
474(1)
COMESA: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
474(1)
Southern African Development Community
474(1)
U.S.--Israel Free Trade Agreement
474(1)
APEC: Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Group
475(1)
CARICOM
475(1)
Asean
475(1)
Commonwealth of Independent States
475(1)
Gulf Cooperation Council
476(1)
Arab League
476(1)
The Cotonou Agreement: Europe's Future Partnership with Developing Countries
476(1)
The EU Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)
476(1)
Europe and the African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries (ACP)
476(1)
African Development Groups
477(3)
The Regulation of Exports
480(20)
History of Export Controls
481(7)
The Development of the Legal Framework
481(1)
The Export Control Act
481(1)
The Export Administration Act
482(1)
The USA Patriot Act
482(2)
Multilateral Export Control
484(1)
The Australia Group
484(1)
The Purpose of Export Regulation
484(1)
Antiboycott Provisions
485(3)
Developments in the Law
488(1)
Mechanics of the Law
489(5)
License
492(1)
Extraterritorial Application
492(1)
Licensing Review Process
493(1)
Deemed Exports
493(1)
Foreign Availability
493(1)
Export Management System
494(1)
Diversion
494(1)
Enforcement
495(5)
Current Issues
497(3)
Part Four Regulation of the International Marketplace
500(211)
International Marketing Law: Sales Representatives, Advertising, and Ethical Issues
502(21)
Regulation of Relationships with Representatives
502(4)
Supersession of Agreement with Representative
503(2)
Tax and Labor Regulation and Principal Liability: The Dependent--Independent Distinction
505(1)
Regulation of Advertising Abroad
506(6)
Truth in Advertising
506(2)
Content-Specific Regulations
508(4)
Marketing Considerations: The Nestle Infant Formula Case
512(1)
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
512(11)
Origins of the FCPA and Other Antibribery Measures
513(1)
Structure of the FCPA
514(1)
The Antibribery Provisions
514(1)
The Accounting and Recordkeeping Requirements
515(1)
The Department of Justice Review Process
515(1)
Prudent Behavior for the U.S. Businessperson
516(7)
Licensing Agreements and the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights
523(28)
Reasons for Intellectual Property Transfer Arrangements
523(1)
Intellectual Property Rights: Transfer Arrangements
524(1)
Right to Use and Conditions of Use
524(1)
Competitive Circumstances
524(1)
Confidentiality and Improvements
524(1)
International Protection for Patents, Trademarks, and Other Intellectual Property
525(10)
Paris Convention
525(1)
Patents
526(1)
Trademarks
527(1)
The War of ``Geographic Indications''
527(3)
Geographical Indications under the Doha Development Agenda
530(1)
Domain Name Trademarks
530(1)
Copyrights
531(1)
Trips
531(4)
The Doha Declaration on Trips and Public Health
535(1)
Government Policies in Emerging Nations
536(2)
Policies Influenced by Marxist Ideology
537(1)
Attitudes in Developed Nations
538(1)
Continuing Trips Turmoil on Biodiversity
538(1)
Nonenforcement of IPR Laws
539(1)
The Mechanics of IPR Transfer Regulations
540(4)
Prior-Approval Schemes
540(4)
Notification--Registration Schemes
544(1)
The Gray Market
544(2)
The Nature of the Problem
544(1)
Resolution of the Dispute
545(1)
Franchising: Licensing Outside the Technological Context
546(5)
Host-Country Regulation: Corporate Law, Taxation, and Currency Risk
551(19)
Host-Country Corporate Law Affecting Foreign Investment
551(1)
Minority Ownership Investments
552(5)
Passive Debt Investments
552(2)
Passive Equity Investments
554(1)
Active Investments
555(1)
Local Assistance
556(1)
Majority Ownership Interests
557(7)
Establishing a Foreign Branch or Subsidiary
557(1)
Tax Issues Associated with Foreign Branches and Subsidiaries
557(1)
Foreign Tax Credits
557(3)
Taxation of E-Commerce
560(1)
Transfer Pricing
560(3)
Foreign Sales Corporations
563(1)
Laws Prohibiting Foreign Control
563(1)
Effects of Prohibition of Control
564(1)
Controlling Currency Risk
564(6)
Minimizing Fluctuation Risk: Currency Swaps
565(1)
Arrangements with the Soft-Currency Country
565(1)
Payment and Price Adjustment Approaches
566(1)
Structuring of Hard-Currency Obligations and Revenues
566(1)
Countertrade
567(1)
Informal Consortia or Parallel Exchanges
567(1)
Inconvertibility Insurance
567(3)
Nationalization, Expropriation, and Privatization
570(30)
Theories Relating to Takings of Foreign Property
570(5)
The Traditional Theories
570(1)
Non-Western Theories of Takings
571(2)
Public Purpose, Nondiscrimination, and the Expropriation--Nationalization Distinction
573(1)
Level of Compensation
573(1)
Creeping Expropriation
574(1)
Guarding Against Political Risk
575(11)
Political Risk Insurance
575(1)
Political Risk Insurance from Government Agencies
576(1)
Private Political Risk Insurance
577(1)
Resolving Investment Disputes with Foreign Nations
577(1)
The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act
578(4)
Acts of State Doctrine
582(1)
International Adjudication
582(4)
Historical Development of Privatization
586(1)
Preparation for Privatization
587(2)
The Creation and Organization of an Independent Government Corporation
587(1)
Preparation of a Legal System for Privatization
587(1)
``Clearing'' of Expropriation Claims
587(1)
Property and Contract Law
588(1)
Methods of Distribution
588(1)
Private and Public Equity Placements
588(1)
Voucher Systems
588(1)
Debt-for-Equity Swaps
589(1)
Models of Privatization
589(11)
Sale of a Noncontrolling Interest
589(1)
The Trade Sale
590(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Trade Sale
591(1)
The Sale to Employees
591(2)
Concessions: BOTs and BOOs
593(1)
BOTs and BOOs
593(1)
The Concession and Anticompetitive Considerations
593(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Concession
594(1)
The Models in Combination
595(1)
The Joint Venture Privatization
595(1)
Example of Privatization Mixing Models
596(4)
Labor and Employment Discrimination Law
600(22)
General Directions of Labor Law Abroad
600(3)
Employee Participation in Strategic Decisions
600(1)
The U.S. View
600(1)
The German Approach
601(1)
Mandatory Employee Representation on Boards of Directors
601(1)
Impediments to Dismissal
601(1)
Underlying Philosophical Foundations
601(1)
Legal Frameworks Reflecting Philosophy
602(1)
Assumption of Employment Arrangements
602(1)
Employment Discrimination Outside the United States
603(12)
The Extraterritorial Application of U.S. Employment Discrimination Law
603(2)
Control by a Foreign Person
605(3)
The Foreign Compulsion Defense
608(1)
The Bona Fide Occupational Qualification Defense
609(1)
Antidiscrimination Laws Outside the United States
609(1)
Discrimination Based on National Origin or Religion
610(2)
Discrimination Based on Gender
612(3)
Foreign Laws Permitting Difficult Work Conditions
615(7)
Unsafe Labor Conditions
616(1)
Prison Labor
616(1)
Child Labor
617(1)
Consequences of Participation in Illegal or Harsh Work Conditions
617(5)
Environmental Law
622(25)
Consideration of Varying Environmental Requirements
622(2)
Differences in Regulatory Schemes
622(1)
Environmental Law as an Anticompetitive Tool
623(1)
Traditional International Remedies
624(10)
The Polluter Pays: Responsibility for Pollution
624(1)
Regulation of Products that Violate Environmental Objectives
625(1)
Regulation of Products with Environmentally Objectionable Production Processes
625(2)
Litigation Against Polluters in an Affected Country
627(2)
Litigation Against Polluters in Polluter's Home
629(5)
Inadequacies of the Traditional International Pollution-Control System
634(1)
Emerging Problems and Solutions
634(13)
Regional Approaches
634(1)
National Constraints on Exports
634(2)
North American Environmental Treaties
636(2)
European Union Environmental Initiatives
638(1)
Regional Marine Treaties
639(1)
Developments in South Asia and the South Pacific
639(1)
Developments in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
640(1)
Initiatives by Multilateral Agencies
640(1)
Global Solutions
640(1)
The World Trade Organization
641(1)
Global Ban on Toxic Substances
641(1)
The Basel Convention
642(1)
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
643(1)
The Montreal Protocol
643(1)
The Climate Control Convention
643(1)
General Prospects for Global Environmental Solutions
644(3)
Regulating the Competitive Environment
647(64)
Historical Development of International Competition Law
647(1)
Basic Regulatory Framework
648(6)
Prohibitions Against Agreements to Restrict Competition
648(1)
Abuse of Dominant Market Position
649(1)
The EU Merger Regulation
649(5)
Distinctions of Non-U.S. Competition Law
654(3)
Private Causes of Action for Damages and Criminal Prosecution
654(1)
Article 81(3) and the Rule of Reason
655(1)
Preapproval Procedures Versus Litigation
656(1)
Extraterritorial Effect of Competition Laws
657(12)
The U.S. Effects Test
657(7)
The European ``Implementation'' Test
664(1)
Blocking Legislation
664(5)
Appendices
A United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods
669(14)
B The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
683(6)
C Multilateral Agreements on Trade in Goods (Selected Provisions)
689(6)
D General Agreement on Trade in Services (Selected Provisions)
695(2)
E Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
697(6)
F North American Free Trade Agreement
703(8)
Index 711


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