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The aim of this book is to provide readers with the tools to understand the historical evolution of terrorism and counterterrorism over the past 150 years. In order to appreciate the contemporary challenges posed by terrorism it is necessary to look at its evolution, at the different phases it has gone through, and the transformations it has experienced. The same applies to the solutions that states have come up with to combat terrorism. The nature of terrorism changes but still it is possible to learn from past experiences even though they are not directly applicable to the present. Moreover, the complexity of terrorism can only be fully understood if one looks not only at different time periods but also different geographical areas. This volume therefore looks at the different experiences of several European and non-European countries over a timespan of roughly 150 years, going back to what David Rapoport describes as the first 'wave' of terrorism. Other regional areas examined in addition to Europe include the Indian subcontinent, the United States, sub-Saharan African, and Arab countries. Moreover, the role of international organizations such as the League of Nations and the United Nations in international campaigns against terrorism will be assessed as well as questions pertaining to human rights, the right to self-determination, and state terrorism. The book is divided into four parts: (1) Terrorism prior to the Cold War; (2) the Western experience of terrorism; (3) non-Western experiences of terrorism; and (4) contemporary terrorism and anti-terrorism. The issues covered offer a broad range of historical and current themes, ranging from the anarchist terrorist movements in the 19th century, the cold war and terrorism, the UN and terrorism, individual states' responses to and involvement in terrorism, through to Al Qaeda and contemporary challenges. This book will be of much interest to students of terrorism studies, political violence, international history, security studies and IR.