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Internetworking with TCP/IP Volume One

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9780136085300

ISBN10:
013608530X
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Pub. Date:
4/25/2013
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Addison-Wesley
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Summary

An internationally best-selling, conceptual introduction to the TCP/IP protocols and Internetworking, this book interweaves a clear discussion of fundamentals and scientific principles with details and examples drawn from the latest technologies. Leading author Douglas Comer covers layering and packet formats for all the Internet protocols, includingTCP, IPv4, IPv6, DHCP, and DNS.  In addition, the text explains new trends in Internet systems, including packet classification, Software Defined Networking (SDN), and mesh protocols used in The Internet of Things.

The text is appropriate for individuals interested in learning more about TCP/IP protocols, Internet architecture, and current networking technologies, as well as engineers who build network systems. It is suitable for junior to graduate-level courses in Computer Networks, Data Networks, Network Protocols, and Internetworking.

Author Biography

Dr. Douglas Comer, Distinguished Professor of Computer Science at Purdue University and former VP of Research at Cisco, is an internationally recognized expert on computer networking, the TCP/IP protocols, and the Internet. The author of numerous refereed articles and technical books, he is a pioneer in the development of curriculum and laboratories for research and education.


A prolific author, Comer’s popular books have been translated into over 15 languages, and are used in industry as well as computer science, engineering, and business departments around the world. His landmark three-volume series Internetworking With TCP/IP revolutionized networking and network education. His textbooks and innovative laboratory manuals have and continue to shape graduate and undergraduate curricula.


The accuracy and insight of Dr. Comer’s books reflect his extensive background in computer systems. His research spans both hardware and software. He has created a complete operating system, written device drivers, and implemented network protocol software for conventional computers as well as network processors. The resulting software has been used by industry in a variety of products. 


Comer has created and teaches courses on network protocols and computer technologies for a variety of audiences, including courses for engineers as well as academic audiences. His innovative educational laboratories allow him and his students to design and implement working prototypes of large, complex systems, and measure the performance of the resulting prototypes. He continues to teach at industries, universities, and conferences around the world. In addition, Comer consults for industry on the design of computer networks and systems.


For over eighteen years, Professor Comer served as editor-in-chief of the research journal Software — Practice and Experience. He is a Fellow of the ACM, a Fellow of the Purdue Teaching Academy, and a recipient of numerous awards, including a Usenix Lifetime Achievement award. 


Additional information can be found at: www.cs.purdue.edu/people/comer

Information about Comer’s books can be found at: www.comerbooks.com

Table of Contents

Foreword xxiii

Preface xxv

Chapter 1 Introduction And Overview 1

1.1 The Motivation For Internetworking 1

1.2 The TCP/IP Internet 2

1.3 Internet Services 2

1.4 History And Scope Of The Internet 6

1.5 The Internet Architecture Board 7

1.6 The IAB Reorganization 8

1.7 Internet Request For Comments (RFCs) 8

1.8 Internet Growth 9

1.9 Transition To IPv6 12

1.10 Committee Design And The New Version of IP 12

1.11 Relationship Between IPv4 And IPv6 13

1.12 IPv6 Migration 14

1.13 Dual Stack Systems 15

1.14 Organization Of The Text 15

1.15 Summary 16

Chapter 2 Overview Of Underlying Network Technologies 19

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Two Approaches To Network Communication 20

2.3 WAN And LAN 21

2.4 Hardware Addressing Schemes 21

2.5 Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) 22

2.6 Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) 26

2.7 ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) 26

2.8 Optical Carrier And Packet Over SONET (OC, POS) 27

2.9 Point-To-Point Networks 28

2.10 VLAN Technology And Broadcast Domains 28

2.11 Bridging 29

2.12 Congestion And Packet Loss 30

2.13 Summary 31

Chapter 3 Internetworking Concept And Architectural Model 35

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Application-Level Interconnection 35

3.3 Network-Level Interconnection 37

3.4 Properties Of The Internet 38

3.5 Internet Architecture 39

3.6 Interconnection Of Multiple Networks With IP Routers 39

3.7 The User’s View 41

3.8 All Networks Are Equal 42

3.9 The Unanswered Questions 43

3.10 Summary 43

Chapter 4 Protocol Layering 47

4.1 Introduction 47

4.2 The Need For Multiple Protocols 47

4.3 The Conceptual Layers Of Protocol Software 49

4.4 Functionality Of The Layers 49

4.5 ISO 7-Layer Reference Model 50

4.6 X.25 And Its Relation To The ISO Model 51

4.7 The TCP/IP 5-Layer Reference Model 52

4.8 Locus Of Intelligence 56

4.9 The Protocol Layering Principle 57

4.10 The Layering Principle Applied To A Network 58

4.11 Layering In Mesh Networks 60

4.12 Two Important Boundaries In The TCP/IP Model 62

4.13 Cross-Layer Optimizations 63

4.14 The Basic Idea Behind Multiplexing And Demultiplexing 64

4.15 Summary 66

Chapter 5 Internet Addressing 69

5.1 Introduction 69

5.2 Universal Host Identifiers 69

5.3 The Original IPv4 Classful Addressing Scheme 71

5.4 Dotted Decimal Notation Used With IPv4 72

5.5 IPv4 Subnet Addressing 72

5.6 Fixed Length IPv4 Subnets 75

5.7 Variable-Length IPv4 Subnets 77

5.8 Implementation Of IPv4 Subnets With Masks 77

5.9 IPv4 Subnet Mask Representation And Slash Notation 78

5.10 The Current Classless IPv4 Addressing Scheme 79

5.11 IPv4 Address Blocks And CIDR Slash Notation 82

5.12 A Classless IPv4 Addressing Example 82

5.13 IPv4 CIDR Blocks Reserved For Private Networks 83

5.14 The IPv6 Addressing Scheme 84

5.15 IPv6 Colon Hexadecimal Notation 84

5.16 IPv6 Address Space Assignment 85

5.17 Embedding IPv4 Addresses In IPv6 For Transition 86

5.18 IPv6 Unicast Addresses And /64 87

5.19 IPv6 Interface Identifiers And MAC Addresses 88

5.20 IP Addresses, Hosts, And Network Connections 89

5.21 Special Addresses 90

5.22 Weaknesses In Internet Addressing 94

5.23 Internet Address Assignment And Delegation Of Authority 96

5.24 An Example IPv4 Address Assignment 96

5.25 Summary 98

Chapter 6 Mapping Internet Addresses To Physical Addresses (ARP) 101

6.1 Introduction 101

6.2 The Address Resolution Problem 101

6.3 Two Types Of Hardware Addresses 102

6.4 Resolution Through Direct Mapping 102

6.5 Resolution In A Direct-Mapped Network 103

6.6 IPv4 Address Resolution Through Dynamic Binding 104

6.7 The ARP Cache 105

6.8 ARP Cache Timeout 106

6.9 ARP Refinements 106

6.10 Relationship Of ARP To Other Protocols 108

6.11 ARP Implementation 108

6.12 ARP Encapsulation And Identification 110

6.13 ARP Message Format 110

6.14 Automatic ARP Cache Revalidation 112

6.15 Reverse Address Resolution (RARP) 112

6.16 ARP Caches In Layer 3 Switches 113

6.17 Proxy ARP 114

6.18 IPv6 Neighbor Discovery 115

6.19 Summary 116

Chapter 7 Internet Protocol: Connectionless Datagram Delivery (IPv4, 119

IPv6)

7.1 Introduction 119

7.2 A Virtual Network 119

7.3 Internet Architecture And Philosophy 120

7.4 Principles Behind The Structure 120

7.5 Connectionless Delivery System Characteristics 121

7.6 Purpose And Importance Of The Internet Protocol 122

7.7 The IP Datagram 122

7.8 Datagram Type Of Service And Differentiated Services 127

7.9 Datagram Encapsulation 129

7.10 Datagram Size, Network MTU, and Fragmentation 130

7.11 Datagram Reassembly 134

7.12 Header Fields Used For Datagram Reassembly 135

7.13 Time To Live (IPv4) And Hop Limit (IPv6) 136

7.14 Optional IP Items 137

7.15 Options Processing During Fragmentation 141

7.16 Network Byte Order 143

7.17 Summary 144

Chapter 8 Internet Protocol: Forwarding IP Datagrams 147

8.1 Introduction 147

8.2 Forwarding In An Internet 147

8.3 Direct And Indirect Delivery 149

8.4 Transmission Across A Single Network 150

8.5 Indirect Delivery 151

8.6 Table-Driven IP Forwarding 152

8.7 Next-Hop Forwarding 153

8.8 Default Routes And A Host Example 155

8.9 Host-Specific Routes 156

8.10 The IP Forwarding Algorithm 157

8.11 Longest-Prefix Match Paradigm 158

8.12 Forwarding Tables And IP Addresses 160

8.13 Handling Incoming Datagrams 161

8.14 Forwarding In The Presence Of Broadcast And Multicast 162

8.15 Software Routers And Sequential Lookup 163

8.16 Establishing Forwarding Tables 163

8.17 Summary 163

Chapter 9 Internet Protocol: Error And Control Messages (ICMP) 167

9.1 Introduction 167

9.2 The Internet Control Message Protocol 167

9.3 Error Reporting Vs. Error Correction 169

9.4 ICMP Message Delivery 170

9.5 Conceptual Layering 171

9.6 ICMP Message Format 171

9.7 Example ICMP Message Types Used With IPv4 And IPv6 172

9.8 Testing Destination Reachability And Status (Ping) 173

9.9 Echo Request And Reply Message Format 174

9.10 Checksum Computation And The IPv6 Pseudo-Header 175

9.11 Reports Of Unreachable Destinations 176

9.12 ICMP Error Reports Regarding Fragmentation 178

9.13 Route Change Requests From Routers 178

9.14 Detecting Circular Or Excessively Long Routes 180

9.15 Reporting Other Problems 181

9.16 Older ICMP Messages Used At Startup 182

9.17 Summary 182

Chapter 10 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 185

10.1 Introduction 185

10.2 Using A Protocol Port As An Ultimate Destination 185

10.3 The User Datagram Protocol 186

10.4 UDP Message Format 187

10.5 Interpretation Of the UDP Checksum 188

10.6 UDP Checksum Computation And The Pseudo-Header 189

10.7 IPv4 UDP Pseudo-Header Format 189

10.8 IPv6 UDP Pseudo-Header Format 190

10.9 UDP Encapsulation And Protocol Layering 190

10.10 Layering And The UDP Checksum Computation 192

10.11 UDP Multiplexing, Demultiplexing, And Protocol Ports 193

10.12 Reserved And Available UDP Port Numbers 194

10.13 Summary 196

Chapter 11 Reliable Stream Transport Service (TCP) 199

11.1 Introduction 199

11.2 The Need For Reliable Service 199

11.3 Properties Of The Reliable Delivery Service 200

11.4 Reliability: Acknowledgements And Retransmission 201

11.5 The Sliding Window Paradigm 203

11.6 The Transmission Control Protocol 205

11.7 Layering, Ports, Connections, And Endpoints 206

11.8 Passive And Active Opens 208

11.9 Segments, Streams, And Sequence Numbers 208

11.10 Variable Window Size And Flow Control 209

11.11 TCP Segment Format 210

11.12 Out Of Band Data 212

11.13 TCP Options 212

11.14 TCP Checksum Computation 214

11.15 Acknowledgements, Retransmission, And Timeouts 216

11.16 Accurate Measurement Of Round Trip Samples 218

11.17 Karn’s Algorithm And Timer Backoff 219

11.18 Responding To High Variance In Delay 220

11.19 Response To Congestion 223

11.20 Fast Recovery And Other Response Modifications 225

11.21 Explicit Feedback Mechanisms (SACK and ECN) 227

11.22 Congestion, Tail Drop, And TCP 228

11.23 Random Early Detection (RED) 229

11.24 Establishing A TCP Connection 231

11.25 Initial Sequence Numbers 232

11.26 Closing a TCP Connection 233

11.27 TCP Connection Reset 234

11.28 TCP State Machine 235

11.29 Forcing Data Delivery 236

11.30 Reserved TCP Port Numbers 237

11.31 Silly Window Syndrome And Small Packets 238

11.32 Avoiding Silly Window Syndrome 239

11.33 Buffer Bloat And Its Effect On Latency 242

11.34 Summary 243

Chapter 12 Routing Architecture: Cores, Peers, And Algorithms 247

12.1 Introduction 247

12.2 The Origin Of Forwarding Tables 248

12.3 Forwarding With Partial Information 249

12.4 Original Internet Architecture And Cores 251

12.5 Beyond The Core Architecture To Peer Backbones 253

12.6 Automatic Route Propagation And A FIB 254

12.7 Distance-Vector (Bellman-Ford) Routing 255

12.8 Reliability And Routing Protocols 257

12.9 Link-State (SPF) Routing 258

12.10 Summary 259

Chapter 13 Routing Among Autonomous Systems (BGP) 263

13.1 Introduction 263

13.2 The Scope Of A Routing Update Protocol 263

13.3 Determining A Practical Limit On Group Size 264

13.4 A Fundamental Idea: Extra Hops 266

13.5 Autonomous System Concept 267

13.6 Exterior Gateway Protocols And Reachability 268

13.7 BGP Characteristics 269

13.8 BGP Functionality And Message Types 270

13.9 BGP Message Header 271

13.10 BGP OPEN Message 272

13.11 BGP UPDATE Message 273

13.12 Compressed IPv4 Mask-Address Pairs 274

13.13 BGP Path Attributes 274

13.14 BGP KEEPALIVE Message 276

13.15 Information From The Receiver’s Perspective 277

13.16 The Key Restriction Of Exterior Gateway Protocols 278

13.17 The Internet Routing Architecture And Registries 280

13.18 BGP NOTIFICATION Message 280

13.19 BGP Multiprotocol Extensions For IPv6 281

13.20 Multiprotocol Reachable NLRI Attribute 283

13.21 Internet Routing And Economics 284

13.22 Summary 285

Chapter 14 Routing Within An Autonomous System (RIP, RIPng, 289

OSPF, IS-IS)

14.1 Introduction 289

14.2 Static Vs. Dynamic Interior Routes 289

14.3 Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 293

14.4 Slow Convergence Problem 294

14.5 Solving The Slow Convergence Problem 296

14.6 RIP Message Format (IPv4) 297

14.7 Fields In A RIP Message 299

14.8 RIP For IPv6 (RIPng) 299

14.9 The Disadvantage Of Using Hop Counts 301

14.10 Delay Metric (HELLO) 301

14.11 Delay Metrics, Oscillation, And Route Flapping 302

14.12 The Open SPF Protocol (OSPF) 303

14.13 OSPFv2 Message Formats (IPv4) 305

14.14 Changes In OSPFv3 To Support IPv6 310

14.15 IS-IS Route Propagation Protocol 312

14.16 Trust And Route Hijacking 313

14.17 Gated: A Routing Gateway Daemon 313

14.18 Artificial Metrics And Metric Transformation 314

14.19 Routing With Partial Information 315

14.20 Summary 315

Chapter 15 Internet Multicasting 319

15.1 Introduction 319

15.2 Hardware Broadcast 319

15.3 Hardware Multicast 320

15.4 Ethernet Multicast 321

15.5 The Conceptual Building Blocks Of Internet Multicast 321

15.6 The IP Multicast Scheme 322

15.7 IPv4 And IPv6 Multicast Addresses 323

15.8 Multicast Address Semantics 326

15.9 Mapping IP Multicast To Ethernet Multicast 327

15.10 Hosts And Multicast Delivery 328

15.11 Multicast Scope 328

15.12 Host Participation In IP Multicasting 329

15.13 IPv4 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) 330

15.14 IGMP Details 331

15.15 IGMP Group Membership State Transitions 332

15.16 IGMP Membership Query Message Format 333

15.17 IGMP Membership Report Message Format 334

15.18 IPv6 Multicast Group Membership With MLDv2 335

15.19 Multicast Forwarding And Routing Information 337

15.20 Basic Multicast Forwarding Paradigms 339

15.21 Consequences Of TRPF 341

15.22 Multicast Trees 342

15.23 The Essence Of Multicast Route Propagation 343

15.24 Reverse Path Multicasting 344

15.25 Example Multicast Routing Protocols 345

15.26 Reliable Multicast And ACK Implosions 347

15.27 Summary 349

Chapter 16 Label Switching, Flows, And MPLS 353

16.1 Introduction 353

16.2 Switching Technology 353

16.3 Flows And Flow Setup 355

16.4 Large Networks, Label Swapping, And Paths 355

16.5 Using Switching With IP 357

16.6 IP Switching Technologies And MPLS 357

16.7 Labels And Label Assignment 359

16.8 Hierarchical Use Of MPLS And A Label Stack 359

16.9 MPLS Encapsulation 360

16.10 Label Semantics 361

16.11 Label Switching Router 362

16.12 Control Processing And Label Distribution 363

16.13 MPLS And Fragmentation 364

16.14 Mesh Topology And Traffic Engineering 364

16.15 Summary 365

Chapter 17 Packet Classification 369

17.1 Introduction 369

17.2 Motivation For Classification 370

17.3 Classification Instead Of Demultiplexing 371

17.4 Layering When Classification Is Used 372

17.5 Classification Hardware And Network Switches 372

17.6 Switching Decisions And VLAN Tags 374

17.7 Classification Hardware 375

17.8 High-Speed Classification And TCAM 375

17.9 The Size Of A TCAM 377

17.10 Classification-Enabled Generalized Forwarding 378

17.11 Summary 379

Chapter 18 Mobility And Mobile IP 381

18.1 Introduction 381

18.2 Mobility, Addressing, And Routing 381

18.3 Mobility Via Host Address Change 382

18.4 Mobility Via Changes In Datagram Forwarding 383

18.5 The Mobile IP Technology 383

18.6 Overview Of Mobile IP Operation 384

18.7 Overhead And Frequency Of Change 384

18.8 Mobile IPv4 Addressing 385

18.9 IPv4 Foreign Agent Discovery 386

18.10 IPv4 Registration 387

18.11 IPv4 Registration Message Format 388

18.12 Communication With An IPv4 Foreign Agent 388

18.13 IPv6 Mobility Support 389

18.14 Datagram Transmission, Reception, And Tunneling 390

18.15 Assessment Of IP Mobility And Unsolved Problems 391

18.16 Alternative Identifier-Locator Separation Technologies 395

18.17 Summary 396

Chapter 19 Network Virtualization: VPNs, NATs, And Overlays 399

19.1 Introduction 399

19.2 Virtualization 399

19.3 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) 400

19.4 VPN Tunneling And IP-in-IP Encapsulation 401

19.5 VPN Addressing And Forwarding 402

19.6 Extending VPN Technology To Individual Hosts 404

19.7 Using A VPN With Private IP Addresses 404

19.8 Network Address Translation (NAT) 405

19.9 NAT Translation Table Creation 407

19.10 Variant Of NAT 409

19.11 An Example Of NAT Translation 409

19.12 Interaction Between NAT And ICMP 411

19.13 Interaction Between NAT And Applications 411

19.14 NAT In The Presence Of Fragmentation 412

19.15 Conceptual Address Domains 413

19.16 Linux, Windows And Mac Versions Of NAT 413

19.17 Overlay Networks 413

19.18 Multiple Simultaneous Overlays 415

19.19 Summary 415

Chapter 20 Client-Server Model Of Interaction 419

20.1 Introduction 419

20.2 The Client-Server Model 420

20.3 A Trivial Example: UDP Echo Server 420

20.4 Time And Date Service 422

20.5 Sequential And Concurrent Servers 423

20.6 Server Complexity 425

20.7 Broadcasting Requests 426

20.8 Client-Server Alternatives And Extensions 426

20.9 Summary 428

Chapter 21 The Socket API 431

21.1 Introduction 431

21.2 Versions Of The Socket API 432

21.3 The UNIX I/O Paradigm And Network I/O 432

21.4 Adding Network I/O to UNIX 432

21.5 The Socket Abstraction And Socket Operations 433

21.6 Obtaining And Setting Socket Options 438

21.7 How A Server Accepts TCP Connections 439

21.8 Servers That Handle Multiple Services 440

21.9 Obtaining And Setting The Host Name 441

21.10 Library Functions Related To Sockets 442

21.11 Network Byte Order And Conversion Routines 443

21.12 IP Address Manipulation Routines 444

21.13 Accessing The Domain Name System 444

21.14 Obtaining Information About Hosts 446

21.15 Obtaining Information About Networks 447

21.16 Obtaining Information About Protocols 447

21.17 Obtaining Information About Network Services 447

21.18 An Example Client 448

21.19 An Example Server 453

21.20 Summary 460

Chapter 22 Bootstrap And Autoconfiguration (DHCP, NDP or IPv6-ND) 463

22.1 Introduction 463

22.2 History Of IPv4 Bootstrapping 464

22.3 Using IP To Determine An IP Address 464

22.4 DHCP Retransmission And Randomization 465

22.5 DHCP Message Format 465

22.6 The Need For Dynamic Configuration 468

22.7 DHCP Leases And Dynamic Address Assignment 469

22.8 Multiple Addresses And Relays 469

22.9 DHCP Address Acquisition States 470

22.10 Early Lease Termination 471

22.11 Lease Renewal States 472

22.12 DHCP Options And Message Type 473

22.13 DHCP Option Overload 474

22.14 DHCP And Domain Names 474

22.15 Managed And Unmanaged Configuration 474

22.16 Managed And Unmanaged Configuration For IPv6 475

22.17 IPv6 Configuration Options And Potential Conflicts 476

22.18 IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) 477

22.19 ICMPv6 Router Solicitation Message 478

22.20 ICMPv6 Router Advertisement Message 478

22.21 ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation Message 479

22.22 ICMPv6 Neighbor Advertisement Message 480

22.23 ICMPv6 Redirect Message 480

22.24 Summary 481

Chapter 23 The Domain Name System (DNS) 485

23.1 Introduction 485

23.2 Names For Computers 486

23.3 Flat Namespace 486

23.4 Hierarchical Names 487

23.5 Delegation Of Authority For Names 488

23.6 Subset Authority 488

23.7 Internet Domain Names 489

23.8 Top-Level Domains 490

23.9 Name Syntax And Type 492

23.10 Mapping Domain Names To Addresses 493

23.11 Domain Name Resolution 495

23.12 Efficient Translation 496

23.13 Caching: The Key To Efficiency 497

23.14 Domain Name System Message Format 498

23.15 Compressed Name Format 501

23.16 Abbreviation Of Domain Names 501

23.17 Inverse Mappings 502

23.18 Pointer Queries 503

23.19 Object Types And Resource Record Contents 504

23.20 Obtaining Authority For A Subdomain 505

23.21 Server Operation And Replication 505

23.22 Dynamic DNS Update And Notification 506

23.23 DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) 506

23.24 Multicast DNS And Service Discovery 507

23.25 Summary 508

Chapter 24 Electronic Mail (SMTP, POP, IMAP, MIME) 511

24.1 Introduction 511

24.2 Electronic Mail 511

24.3 Mailbox Names And Aliases 512

24.4 Alias Expansion And Mail Forwarding 513

24.5 TCP/IP Standards For Electronic Mail Service 514

24.6 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) 515

24.7 Mail Retrieval And Mailbox Manipulation Protocols 517

24.8 The MIME Extensions For Non-ASCII Data 519

24.9 MIME Multipart Messages 521

24.10 Summary 522

Chapter 25 World Wide Web (HTTP) 525

25.1 Introduction 525

25.2 Importance Of The Web 525

25.3 Architectural Components 526

25.4 Uniform Resource Locators 526

25.5 An Example HTML Document 527

25.6 Hypertext Transfer Protocol 528

25.7 HTTP GET Request 528

25.8 Error Messages 529

25.9 Persistent Connections 530

25.10 Data Length And Program Output 530

25.11 Length Encoding And Headers 531

25.12 Negotiation 532

25.13 Conditional Requests 533

25.14 Proxy Servers And Caching 533

25.15 Caching 534

25.16 Other HTTP Functionality 535

25.17 HTTP, Security, And E-Commerce 535

25.18 Summary 536

Chapter 26 Voice And Video Over IP (RTP, RSVP, QoS) 539

26.1 Introduction 539

26.2 Digitizing And Encoding 539

26.3 Audio And Video Transmission And Reproduction 540

26.4 Jitter And Playback Delay 541

26.5 Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) 542

26.6 Streams, Mixing, And Multicasting 544

26.7 RTP Encapsulation 544

26.8 RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) 545

26.9 RTCP Operation 545

26.10 IP Telephony And Signaling 546

26.11 Quality Of Service Controversy 549

26.12 QoS, Utilization, And Capacity 550

26.13 Emergency Services And Preemption 551

26.14 IntServ And Resource Reservation 551

26.15 DiffServ And Per-Hop Behavior 553

26.16 Traffic Scheduling 553

26.17 Traffic Policing And Shaping 555

26.18 Summary 556

Chapter 27 Network Management (SNMP) 559

27.1 Introduction 559

27.2 The Level Of Management Protocols 559

27.3 Architectural Model 561

27.4 Protocol Framework 562

27.5 Examples of MIB Variables 564

27.6 The Structure Of Management Information 564

27.7 Formal Definitions Using ASN.1 565

27.8 Structure And Representation Of MIB Object Names 566

27.9 MIB Changes And Additions For IPv6 571

27.10 Simple Network Management Protocol 571

27.11 SNMP Message Format 574

27.12 An Example Encoded SNMP Message 577

27.13 Security In SNMPv3 579

27.14 Summary 580

Chapter 28 Software Defined Networking (SDN, OpenFlow) 583

28.1 Introduction 583

28.2 Routes, Paths, And Connections 583

28.3 Traffic Engineering And Control Of Path Selection 584

28.4 Connection-Oriented Networks And Routing Overlays 584

28.5 SDN: A New Hybrid Approach 586

28.6 Separation Of Data And Control 586

28.7 The SDN Architecture And External Controllers 588

28.8 SDN Across Multiple Devices 589

28.9 Implementing SDN With Conventional Switches 590

28.10 OpenFlow Technology 592

28.11 OpenFlow Basics 592

28.12 Specific Fields In An OpenFlow Pattern 593

28.13 Actions That OpenFlow Can Take 594

28.14 OpenFlow Extensions And Additions 595

28.15 OpenFlow Messages 598

28.16 Uses Of OpenFlow 599

28.17 OpenFlow: Excitement, Hype, And Limitations 599

28.18 Software Defined Radio (SDR) 600

28.19 Summary 601

Chapter 29 Internet Security And Firewall Design (IPsec, SSL) 605

29.1 Introduction 605

29.2 Protecting Resources 606

29.3 Information Policy 607

29.4 Internet Security 607

29.5 IP Security (IPsec) 608

29.6 IPsec Authentication Header 608

29.7 Security Association 610

29.8 IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload 611

29.9 Authentication And Mutable Header Fields 612

29.10 IPsec Tunneling 613

29.11 Required Security Algorithms 613

29.12 Secure Socket Layer (SSL and TLS) 614

29.13 Firewalls And Internet Access 614

29.14 Multiple Connections And Weakest Links 614

29.15 Firewall Implementation And Packet Filters 615

29.16 Firewall Rules And The 5-Tuple 615

29.17 Security And Packet Filter Specification 617

29.18 The Consequence Of Restricted Access For Clients 618

29.19 Stateful Firewalls 618

29.20 Content Protection And Proxies 619

29.21 Monitoring And Logging 620

29.22 Summary 620

Chapter 30 Connected Embedded Systems (The Internet of Things) 623

30.1 Introduction 623

30.2 Sensing, Monitoring, And Control 624

30.3 Power Conservation And Energy Harvesting 624

30.4 A World Of Intelligent Embedded Devices 625

30.5 The Importance of Communication 625

30.6 Example: Electronic Ads In Shopping Malls 626

30.7 Collecting Data From Embedded Systems 627

30.8 Wireless Networking And IEEE 802.15.4 627

30.9 A Mesh Network For Smart Grid Sensors 628

30.10 A Forwarding Tree For a Sensor Mesh 629

30.11 Using Layer 2 And Layer 3 Protocols In A Mesh 630

30.12 The ZigBee IPv6 Protocol Stack 631

30.13 Forwarding In A ZigBee Route-Over Mesh 633

30.14 Assessment Of Using IPv6 Route-Over For A Mesh 635

30.15 Summary 637

Appendix 1 Glossary Of Internetworking Terms And Abbreviations 639

Index 681



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