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Now fully revised and published by Oxford University Press, Intimate Relationships, Marriages, and Families, Ninth Edition, is an accessible, comprehensive introduction to marriage and family with a focus on strengthening families and effective coping strategies. This text combines the most current research with an emphasis on family background and diversity. Each chapter concludes with a section on public policy and critical-thinking questions.
Nancy Stinnett is Instructor Emerita of Human Development and Family Studies at the University of Alabama.
Nick Stinnett is Professor Emeritus of Human Development and Family Studies at the University of Alabama.
Mary Kay DeGenova is a former Associate Professor of Family Studies at Central Michigan University and the University of New Hampshire.
F. Philip Rice was Professor Emeritus at the University of Maine-Orono.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1: INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS, MARRIAGES, AND FAMILIES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY Learning Objectives What Is a Family? Some Definitions Family Forms --Personal Perspective: A Long 15 Inches Changes in Family Philosophy and Emphasis From Institution to Companionship From Patriarchy to Democracy Changes in Marriage and Parenthood Marriage Rates Median Age Family Size Working Wives and Mothers One-Parent Families Cohabitation --At Issue Today: Children Not Living with Married Biological Parents Gay and Lesbian Families Grandparents as Parents Changes in Life Expectancy Changes in Divorce and Remarriage Divorce Rates Remarriage Trends Blended Families Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Families Increased Ethnic Diversity Hispanic Americans African Americans --Ethnic Identity and Acculturation Asian/Pacific Islander Americans Native Americans Theories to Help Explain Family Behavior Structural-Functional Theory Family Developmental Theory --The Importance of Coping Symbolic Interaction Theory Systems Theory Social Learning Theory Exchange Theory Conflict Theory Feminist Theory The International Family Strengths Model Critique of Family Theories The Study of Marriage, Families, and Intimate Relationships --Family Strengths Perspective: Qualities of Strong Families --A Question of Policy: Gay and Lesbian Parenting by Adoption Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 2: GENDER: IDENTITY AND ROLES Learning Objectives Environmental Influences on Gender Societal Expectations --Women and Weight: Gendered Messages on Magazine Covers Parental Influences The Influence of Popular Press, Television, and Movies School Influences Theories of Gender Role and Identity Social Learning Theory Cognitive Developmental Theory Gender Schema Theory Social Structure/Cultural Theories Evolutionary Theories Biological Theories Traditional Masculine and Feminine Stereotypes Masculinity Femininity Problems with Gender Stereotypes --Life on the Boundaries of Gender Gender Roles and Body Image --Cultural Perspective: The Word Machismo Race, Class, and Gender Changing Roles of Women and Men Gender Roles in the Family Roles in Marriage Housework and Child-Care Roles --Do Everyday Things Together Gender, Marriage, and Depression --Coping with Depression Androgyny --A Question of Policy: Title IX Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 3: BEING SINGLE Learning Objectives Categories of Singles Voluntary Singles Involuntary Singles Marital Delay Why Some People Remain Single Deliberate Choice --African American Single Mothers Fear of Marriage Lack of Opportunity Circumstances Advantages and Disadvantages of Being Single --Avoiding Counterproductive Strategies The Health and Well-Being of Singles Living Arrangements Shared Living Spaces Living with Parents Living Alone Sexual Behavior Teens Adult Heterosexual Activity Same-sex Activity Sexual Orientation Sexual Attraction Selected Health Measures --At Issue Today: Friends with Benefits Employment and Income Single Parents Special Issues for Single-Parent Families -- Time Together The Never-Married Adult --Single Fatherhood --Funding for Which Sex Education Programs? Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 4: ATTRACTION AND DATING Learning Objectives Attraction Physical Attractiveness Standards of Attractiveness Personality and Social Factors Unconscious Influences The Dating System Courtship in Early America The Emergence of Dating Dating at the End of the Twentieth Century Dating Today Reasons for Dating Finding and Meeting Dates Personal Ads Dating Services and the Internet --Cultural Perspective: Arranged Marriages Gender Roles in Dating Problems in Dating Honesty and Openness Jealousy and Infidelity --Family Strengths Perspective: Strengths of Russian Families Getting Too Serious Closeness and Distance in Relationships --Coping Feature: Coping with Your Own Jealousy Violence and Sexual Aggression in Dating Gender Differences in Dating Violence Psychological and Emotional Effects of Dating Violence Date Rape --At Issue Today: Date Rape Drugs Breaking Up a Relationship --Personal Perspective: Lessons Learned from Breaking Up --A Question of Policy: Sexual Assault Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 5: LOVE AND MATE SELECTION Learning Objectives What Is Love? Romantic Love Is Romantic Love a Sound Basis for Marriage? Erotic Love Are Love and Sex the Same? Sex as an Expression of Love Dependent Love Maslow's Theory of Love as Need Friendship Love Loving and Liking Altruistic Love Fromm's View of Altruistic Love Components of Love Research on the Components of Love --Family Strengths Perspective: Commitment Love and Attachment Changes over Time Theories of Mate Selection Psychodynamic Theories Needs Theories Exchange Theories Developmental Process Theories --Coping Feature: Happiness Family Background Factors in Mate Selection Socioeconomic Class Education and Intelligence Interracial and Interethnic Marriages Interfaith Marriages Personal Characteristics Individual Traits and Behavior Age Differentials Consensus and Similarity of Attitudes and Values Gender Roles and Personal Habits Nonmarital Cohabitation Patterns of Cohabitation --Personal Perspective: Living Together The Effect on the Relationship and on Marriage The Transition to Marriage Why People Marry Marital Readiness Marriage and the Law Preparing for Marriage --Cultural Perspective: Chinese Wedding Ceremonies Rites of Passage Engagement The Wedding as a Religious and Civil Rite --Wedding Bill Blues --Marriage Incentives Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 6: QUALITIES OF A SUCCESSFUL MARRIAGE Learning Objectives Criteria for Evaluating Marital Success Durability Approximation of Ideals Fulfillment of Needs Satisfaction Happy versus Unhappy Marriages --How We Appraise the Situation --Cultural Perspective: Polygamy Sex and a Happy Marriage Twelve Characteristics of Successful Marriages Communication Admiration and Respect Companionship --Family Strengths Perspective: Digging for Diamonds Spirituality and Values Commitment Affection The Ability to Deal with Crises and Stress Responsibility Unselfishness --Personal Perspective: Forgiveness Empathy and Sensitivity Honesty, Trust, and Fidelity --At Issue Today: No Time for Love Adaptability, Flexibility, and Tolerance Premarital Predictors of Marital Quality The Newlywed Years as Predictors of Marital Satisfaction Why Some People Regret Their Choice of Mate --A Question of Policy: Covenant Marriages Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 7: MARITAL RELATIONSHIPS OVER THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE Learning Objectives Marriage and Personal Happiness The Family Life Cycle Data on Family Life Cycles Changes in Marital Satisfaction Gay and Lesbian Families Adjustments Early in Marriage --Coping Feature: Half Full or Half Empty? Marital Adjustment Tasks Problems during Three Early Stages Adjustments to Parenthood Parenthood and Stress --Cultural Perspective: Individualism versus Familism Fatherhood and the Life Course Adjustments During Middle Adulthood Marital Adjustments The Postparental Years Adjustments During Late Adulthood Developmental Tasks --Family Strengths Perspective: Go with the Flow Marital Satisfaction Divorce Parent-Adult Child Relationships Widowhood --Personal Perspective: Widowhood --At Issue Today: Who Cares for Older People? --A Question of Policy: Nationalized/Universal Health Care Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 8: WORK, FAMILY ROLES, AND MATERIAL RESOURCES Learning Objectives The American Family Today Work, Stress, and the Family Positive Benefits of Dual-Earner Families Needed: More Time --Coping Feature: Time Pressure The Parents' Child-Care Role Household Labor --At Issue Today: The Family and Medical Leave Act Marital Adjustment Dual-Career Families --Family Strengths Perspective: Keep Things in Perspective Material Resources Financial Strains on Families The Gender Wage Gap Families and Debt Managing Finances Poverty and Family Life Measuring Poverty The Effects of Poverty on Families --Race or Economics? Homelessness --Homeless The Feminization of Poverty Welfare and the Family The Widening Gap between the Rich and the Poor --Earned Income Tax Credit Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 9: POWER, DECISION MAKING, AND COMMUNICATION Learning Objectives The Meaning of Power Why People Want Power Self-Actualization Social Expectations Family-of-Origin Influences Psychological Need Sources of Power --Cultural Perspective: Wearing a Veil Cultural Norms Gender Norms Economic Resources Education and Knowledge Personality Differences Communication Ability Emotional Factors Physical Stature and Strength Life Circumstances Children Marital Power Patterns --Coping Feature: The Need for Control Power Processes Power Tactics That Help Power Tactics That Can Help or Harm Power Tactics That Harm --Personal Perspective: How Do You Stop a Psychological Game? Consequences of Power Struggles Communication Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Barriers to Communication --At Issue Today: Facebook, Text Messaging, and Beer Improving Communication Skills Taking Time Motivation and Concern Empathy Content Self-Disclosure Clarity Listening Feedback Arguing Constructively --Family Strengths Perspective: Listen --A Question of Policy: The Power of Federal Judges Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 10: SEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS Learning Objectives Sexuality Sexual Myths Myth 1: Sexual Satisfaction Increases with Multiple Partners Myth 2: Sexual Satisfaction Is Determined by Frequency of Sexual Intercourse Myth 3: Sex during Menstruation Should Be Avoided Myth 4: Sex during Pregnancy Should Be Avoided Myth 5: Men Are Always Confident about and Ready for Sex --A Cross-Cultural View of Sexual Behavior Myth 6: Women Are Not Very Interested in Sex Myth 7: A Careful Person Will Never Get Caught in an Extramarital Affair Negative Consequences of Sexual Activity Unplanned Pregnancy Sexually Transmitted Diseases Confusing Sex with Love --Attachment Styles and Sexual Relationships Staying in a Relationship Longer than Desirable Emotional Vulnerability Manipulation and Power Games Sexual Response The Masters and Johnson Sexual Response Model The Kaplan Sexual Response Model Gender Differences in Sexual Response Sexual Desire Sexual Arousal Proceeding through Sexual Response Stages at Different Speeds Resolution Stage Orgasm Factors Contributing to a Fulfilling Sexual Relationship Intimacy Commitment Psychological Comfort Good Communication --Communication and Sexual Relationships Knowledge of the Sexual Response Cycle Emphasis on the Enjoyment of Each Other Rather than Performance Good Mental and Physical Health Sexuality and Aging The Female Climacteric Hormone Replacement Therapy For Women The Male Climacteric --An Affair? Consider the Consequences Hormone Replacement Therapy for Men Getting through the Change-of-Life Period More Successfully Sexual Disorders Sexual Addiction Hypoactive Sexual Desire Vaginismus Female Orgasmic Disorder Male Orgasmic Disorder Dyspareunia Erectile Disorder Premature Ejaculation Alcohol and Drugs Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chlamydia --Unsafe Sex Practices: Why So Prevalent? Gonorrhea Syphilis Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Herpes Hepatitis Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Vaginitis Pediculosis --Internet Pornography Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 11: FAMILY PLANNING AND PARENTHOOD Learning Objectives The Importance of Family Planning --Family Strengths Perspective: What Is a Strong Family? Hormonal Control Oral Contraceptives Other Forms of Hormonal Contraceptives --The Abortion Pill Vaginal Spermicides Intrauterine Devices Barrier Methods Condoms Diaphragm Cervical Cap Contraceptive Sponge Sterilization Vasectomy Female Sterilization Fertility Awareness Calendar Methods Withdrawal Noncoital Stimulation (Outercourse) Choosing a Method of Contraception Abortion Legal Considerations Moral Considerations Social and Realistic Considerations Psychological and Personal Considerations Cultural Perspective: A Preference for Males Infertility Causes of Infertility Infertility and Subjective Well-Being Treatment of Infertility Coping Feature: Coping with Infertility Alternative Means of Conception The Adoption Option Personal Perspective: Reasons for Having Children The Foster Care Option To Parent or Not to Parent Delayed Parenthood Choosing a Child-Free Marriage --A Question of Policy: Embryos Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 12: PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH Learning Objectives Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms of Pregnancy Tests for Pregnancy Calculating the Expected Date of Birth Emotional Reactions to Pregnancy Prenatal Care Importance of Prenatal Care Nutrition during Pregnancy General Health Care during Pregnancy Environmental Hazards Minor Side Effects of Pregnancy Major Complications of Pregnancy --Cultural Perspective: The Use of Ultrasounds Sexual Relations during Pregnancy Mental Health Prenatal Development The Germinal Period The Embryonic Period The Fetal Period Prepared Childbirth The Lamaze Method --At Issue Today: Options for Delivery Labor and Delivery Stages of Labor The Postpartum Period Care of the Newborn Parent-Infant Contact and Bonding --Family Strengths Perspective: Bonding with Baby Rooming-In Postpartum Adjustments Returning to Work --Coping Feature: Becoming a Parent --Personal Perspective: Postpartum Depression Sexual Relations after Childbirth --A Question of Policy: Substance Abuse by Pregnant Women Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 13: PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS Learning Objectives Philosophies of Child Rearing Parental Differences Value Differences Parent-Child Differences Cultural Differences --Family Strengths Perspective: Botho Life Circumstances --Cultural Perspective: Cultural Conflict and Acculturation Differences in Children Stress and Children Fostering Cognitive and Intellectual Growth --Personal Perspective: Serendipity Parental Contributions Language Development and Cultivation Educational Goals Meeting Emotional Needs Emotional Attachments Autonomy Connectedness Identity --At Issue Today: Family Happiness and Material Wealth Child Care Social Competence, Socialization, and Discipline Meaning and Goals of Discipline Principles of Discipline --Coping Feature: The Stress of Discipline Discipline Styles Corporal Punishment --A Question of Policy: Family-Friendly Policies Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 14: PARENTS AND EXTENDED FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Learning Objectives Parent-Adult Child Relationships When Parents Disapprove of Choice of Partner Children's Identification with Parents Interdependence between Generations --Cultural Perspective: Emerging Adulthood Parent-Adult Child Relationships and Psychological Functioning Elder Care --Personal Perspective: Mother-Daughter Relationships In-Laws Successful In-Law Relationships The Roots of Conflict --Family Strengths Perspective: Family Reunion Living with Parents or In-Laws Effects of Coresidence --Coping Feature: Reframing Sources of Stress Grandparents --At Issue Today: Fictive Kinship What Grandparents Can Do for Grandchildren Grandparents Who Parent Their Grandchildren Adolescents, Young Adults, and Grandparents What Grandchildren Can Do for Grandparents Adult Sibling Relationships --Grandparents' Rights Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 15: CONFLICT, FAMILY CRISES, AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT Learning Objectives Conflict and Children The Family Environment Interparent Conflict Sources of Conflict Personal Sources Physical Sources Interpersonal Sources Situational or Environmental Sources Methods of Dealing with Conflict Avoidance --What Would You Like to Change about the Way You Deal with Conflict? Ventilation and Catharsis Constructive and Destructive Conflicts Levels of Marital Conflict Model Family Crises Stage 1: Onset Stage 2: Disorganization --Search for Meaning in Tough Times Stage 3: Reorganization What Helps? The Crisis of Infidelity Reasons for Infidelity --Affair-Proofing Your Marriage --Cheating in Cyberspace Affairs as Crises for Married People The Crisis of Economic Distress Types of Economic Distress Effects on Individuals and on Family Relationships Coping with Economic Distress --Cultural Perspective: The Crisis of Immigration The Crisis of Addictions Characteristics of Addiction Reasons for Addiction Effects on the Family Overcoming Addiction: The Addicted Person Overcoming Addiction: The Family and the Addicted Person Working Together The Crisis of Violence and Abuse Factors Related to Violence Child Maltreatment Treatment for Spouse and Child Abuse Detecting Child Maltreatment Elder Abuse The Crisis of Death and Grief --Abused and Neglected Children Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 16: THE FAMILY AND DIVORCE Learning Objectives Probability of Divorce: Social and Demographic Factors Marital Age Religion Socioeconomic Status Geographic Area Parental Divorce The Presence of Children Quality of Marriage and Parent-Child Relationships Causes of Marital Breakup Spouses' Perceptions The Marital Disaffection Process The Divorce Decision Alternatives to Divorce --Getting Divorced Marriage Counseling Marriage Enrichment Separation --Why Marriage Counseling Sometimes Does Not Succeed No-Fault Divorce and Mediation --Adjustment to Divorce Adult Adjustments after Divorce Emotional Trauma Societal Attitudes toward Divorce Loneliness and Social Readjustment Adjustments to Custody Arrangements Finances Realignment of Responsibilities and Work Roles Contacts with the Ex-Spouse --Coping Feature: Anger Kinship Interaction Children and Divorce Child Custody --Forgiveness and Conflict-Resolution Skills Child Support Visitation Rights Reactions of Children Adjustments of Children --Divorce and the Single-Mother Family Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading
CHAPTER 17: COMING TOGETHER: REMARRIAGE AND STEPPARENTING Learning Objectives Remarriage Divorce or Success in Remarriage? --Happy vs. Unhappy Stepcouples Courtship and Mate Selection in Remarriage Preparing for Remarriage Facets of Remarriage Challenges of Remarriage Complex Relationships Ambiguous Family Boundaries Ambiguous Cultural Norms Carrying Expectations from One Marriage to Another --Merging Families and Finances Finances Relationships with the Ex-Spouse Family Relationships from a Previous Marriage --Coping Feature: Humor Stepfamilies Stepfathers Stepfamily Turning Points Stepparent-Stepchild Relationships --Stepfamilies in Cultural Context Child Well-Being in Stepfamilies Facilitating Bonds between Stepparents and Stepchildren Coparents and Parenting Coalitions Stepsibling Relationships --Personal Perspective: Being a Stepmom --A Question of Policy: Stepfamily Rights Summary Key Terms Questions for Thought For Further Reading