9780190278571

Intimate Relationships, Marriages, and Families

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780190278571

  • ISBN10:

    0190278579

  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 7/15/2016
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Now fully revised and published by Oxford University Press, Intimate Relationships, Marriages, and Families, Ninth Edition, is an accessible, comprehensive introduction to marriage and family with a focus on strengthening families and effective coping strategies. This text combines the most current research with an emphasis on family background and diversity. Each chapter concludes with a section on public policy and critical-thinking questions.

Author Biography


Nancy Stinnett is Instructor Emerita of Human Development and Family Studies at the University of Alabama.

Nick Stinnett is Professor Emeritus of Human Development and Family Studies at the University of Alabama.

Mary Kay DeGenova is a former Associate Professor of Family Studies at Central Michigan University and the University of New Hampshire.

F. Philip Rice was Professor Emeritus at the University of Maine-Orono.

Table of Contents


Preface

CHAPTER 1: INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS, MARRIAGES, AND FAMILIES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
Learning Objectives
What Is a Family?
Some Definitions
Family Forms
--Personal Perspective: A Long 15 Inches
Changes in Family Philosophy and Emphasis
From Institution to Companionship
From Patriarchy to Democracy
Changes in Marriage and Parenthood
Marriage Rates
Median Age
Family Size
Working Wives and Mothers
One-Parent Families
Cohabitation
--At Issue Today: Children Not Living with Married Biological Parents
Gay and Lesbian Families
Grandparents as Parents
Changes in Life Expectancy
Changes in Divorce and Remarriage
Divorce Rates
Remarriage Trends
Blended Families
Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Families
Increased Ethnic Diversity
Hispanic Americans
African Americans
--Ethnic Identity and Acculturation
Asian/Pacific Islander Americans
Native Americans
Theories to Help Explain Family Behavior
Structural-Functional Theory
Family Developmental Theory
--The Importance of Coping
Symbolic Interaction Theory
Systems Theory
Social Learning Theory
Exchange Theory
Conflict Theory
Feminist Theory
The International Family Strengths Model
Critique of Family Theories
The Study of Marriage, Families, and Intimate Relationships
--Family Strengths Perspective: Qualities of Strong Families
--A Question of Policy: Gay and Lesbian Parenting by Adoption
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 2: GENDER: IDENTITY AND ROLES
Learning Objectives
Environmental Influences on Gender
Societal Expectations
--Women and Weight: Gendered Messages on Magazine Covers
Parental Influences
The Influence of Popular Press, Television, and Movies
School Influences
Theories of Gender Role and Identity
Social Learning Theory
Cognitive Developmental Theory
Gender Schema Theory
Social Structure/Cultural Theories
Evolutionary Theories
Biological Theories
Traditional Masculine and Feminine Stereotypes
Masculinity
Femininity
Problems with Gender Stereotypes
--Life on the Boundaries of Gender
Gender Roles and Body Image
--Cultural Perspective: The Word Machismo
Race, Class, and Gender
Changing Roles of Women and Men
Gender Roles in the Family
Roles in Marriage
Housework and Child-Care Roles
--Do Everyday Things Together
Gender, Marriage, and Depression
--Coping with Depression
Androgyny
--A Question of Policy: Title IX
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 3: BEING SINGLE
Learning Objectives
Categories of Singles
Voluntary Singles
Involuntary Singles
Marital Delay
Why Some People Remain Single
Deliberate Choice
--African American Single Mothers
Fear of Marriage
Lack of Opportunity
Circumstances
Advantages and Disadvantages of Being Single
--Avoiding Counterproductive Strategies
The Health and Well-Being of Singles
Living Arrangements
Shared Living Spaces
Living with Parents
Living Alone
Sexual Behavior
Teens
Adult Heterosexual Activity
Same-sex Activity
Sexual Orientation
Sexual Attraction
Selected Health Measures
--At Issue Today: Friends with Benefits
Employment and Income
Single Parents
Special Issues for Single-Parent Families
-- Time Together
The Never-Married Adult
--Single Fatherhood
--Funding for Which Sex Education Programs?
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 4: ATTRACTION AND DATING
Learning Objectives
Attraction
Physical Attractiveness
Standards of Attractiveness
Personality and Social Factors
Unconscious Influences
The Dating System
Courtship in Early America
The Emergence of Dating
Dating at the End of the Twentieth Century
Dating Today
Reasons for Dating
Finding and Meeting Dates
Personal Ads
Dating Services and the Internet
--Cultural Perspective: Arranged Marriages
Gender Roles in Dating
Problems in Dating
Honesty and Openness
Jealousy and Infidelity
--Family Strengths Perspective: Strengths of Russian Families
Getting Too Serious
Closeness and Distance in Relationships
--Coping Feature: Coping with Your Own Jealousy
Violence and Sexual Aggression in Dating
Gender Differences in Dating Violence
Psychological and Emotional Effects of Dating Violence
Date Rape
--At Issue Today: Date Rape Drugs
Breaking Up a Relationship
--Personal Perspective: Lessons Learned from Breaking Up
--A Question of Policy: Sexual Assault
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 5: LOVE AND MATE SELECTION
Learning Objectives
What Is Love?
Romantic Love
Is Romantic Love a Sound Basis for Marriage?
Erotic Love
Are Love and Sex the Same?
Sex as an Expression of Love
Dependent Love
Maslow's Theory of Love as Need
Friendship Love
Loving and Liking
Altruistic Love
Fromm's View of Altruistic Love
Components of Love
Research on the Components of Love
--Family Strengths Perspective: Commitment
Love and Attachment
Changes over Time
Theories of Mate Selection
Psychodynamic Theories
Needs Theories
Exchange Theories
Developmental Process Theories
--Coping Feature: Happiness
Family Background Factors in Mate Selection
Socioeconomic Class
Education and Intelligence
Interracial and Interethnic Marriages
Interfaith Marriages
Personal Characteristics
Individual Traits and Behavior
Age Differentials
Consensus and Similarity of Attitudes and Values
Gender Roles and Personal Habits
Nonmarital Cohabitation
Patterns of Cohabitation
--Personal Perspective: Living Together
The Effect on the Relationship and on Marriage
The Transition to Marriage
Why People Marry
Marital Readiness
Marriage and the Law
Preparing for Marriage
--Cultural Perspective: Chinese Wedding Ceremonies
Rites of Passage
Engagement
The Wedding as a Religious and Civil Rite
--Wedding Bill Blues
--Marriage Incentives
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 6: QUALITIES OF A SUCCESSFUL MARRIAGE
Learning Objectives
Criteria for Evaluating Marital Success
Durability
Approximation of Ideals
Fulfillment of Needs
Satisfaction
Happy versus Unhappy Marriages
--How We Appraise the Situation
--Cultural Perspective: Polygamy
Sex and a Happy Marriage
Twelve Characteristics of Successful Marriages
Communication
Admiration and Respect
Companionship
--Family Strengths Perspective: Digging for Diamonds
Spirituality and Values
Commitment
Affection
The Ability to Deal with Crises and Stress
Responsibility
Unselfishness
--Personal Perspective: Forgiveness
Empathy and Sensitivity
Honesty, Trust, and Fidelity
--At Issue Today: No Time for Love
Adaptability, Flexibility, and Tolerance
Premarital Predictors of Marital Quality
The Newlywed Years as Predictors of Marital Satisfaction
Why Some People Regret Their Choice of Mate
--A Question of Policy: Covenant Marriages
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 7: MARITAL RELATIONSHIPS OVER THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE
Learning Objectives
Marriage and Personal Happiness
The Family Life Cycle
Data on Family Life Cycles
Changes in Marital Satisfaction
Gay and Lesbian Families
Adjustments Early in Marriage
--Coping Feature: Half Full or Half Empty?
Marital Adjustment Tasks
Problems during Three Early Stages
Adjustments to Parenthood
Parenthood and Stress
--Cultural Perspective: Individualism versus Familism
Fatherhood and the Life Course
Adjustments During Middle Adulthood
Marital Adjustments
The Postparental Years
Adjustments During Late Adulthood
Developmental Tasks
--Family Strengths Perspective: Go with the Flow
Marital Satisfaction
Divorce
Parent-Adult Child Relationships
Widowhood
--Personal Perspective: Widowhood
--At Issue Today: Who Cares for Older People?
--A Question of Policy: Nationalized/Universal Health Care
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 8: WORK, FAMILY ROLES, AND MATERIAL RESOURCES
Learning Objectives
The American Family Today
Work, Stress, and the Family
Positive Benefits of Dual-Earner Families
Needed: More Time
--Coping Feature: Time Pressure
The Parents' Child-Care Role
Household Labor
--At Issue Today: The Family and Medical Leave Act
Marital Adjustment
Dual-Career Families
--Family Strengths Perspective: Keep Things in Perspective
Material Resources
Financial Strains on Families
The Gender Wage Gap
Families and Debt
Managing Finances
Poverty and Family Life
Measuring Poverty
The Effects of Poverty on Families
--Race or Economics?
Homelessness
--Homeless
The Feminization of Poverty
Welfare and the Family
The Widening Gap between the Rich and the Poor
--Earned Income Tax Credit
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 9: POWER, DECISION MAKING, AND COMMUNICATION
Learning Objectives
The Meaning of Power
Why People Want Power
Self-Actualization
Social Expectations
Family-of-Origin Influences
Psychological Need
Sources of Power
--Cultural Perspective: Wearing a Veil
Cultural Norms
Gender Norms
Economic Resources
Education and Knowledge
Personality Differences
Communication Ability
Emotional Factors
Physical Stature and Strength
Life Circumstances
Children
Marital Power Patterns
--Coping Feature: The Need for Control
Power Processes
Power Tactics That Help
Power Tactics That Can Help or Harm
Power Tactics That Harm
--Personal Perspective: How Do You Stop a Psychological Game?
Consequences of Power Struggles
Communication
Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
Barriers to Communication
--At Issue Today: Facebook, Text Messaging, and Beer
Improving Communication Skills
Taking Time
Motivation and Concern
Empathy
Content
Self-Disclosure
Clarity
Listening
Feedback
Arguing Constructively
--Family Strengths Perspective: Listen
--A Question of Policy: The Power of Federal Judges
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 10: SEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS
Learning Objectives
Sexuality
Sexual Myths
Myth 1: Sexual Satisfaction Increases with Multiple Partners
Myth 2: Sexual Satisfaction Is Determined by Frequency of Sexual Intercourse
Myth 3: Sex during Menstruation Should Be Avoided
Myth 4: Sex during Pregnancy Should Be Avoided
Myth 5: Men Are Always Confident about and Ready for Sex
--A Cross-Cultural View of Sexual Behavior
Myth 6: Women Are Not Very Interested in Sex
Myth 7: A Careful Person Will Never Get Caught in an Extramarital Affair
Negative Consequences of Sexual Activity
Unplanned Pregnancy
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Confusing Sex with Love
--Attachment Styles and Sexual Relationships
Staying in a Relationship Longer than Desirable
Emotional Vulnerability
Manipulation and Power Games
Sexual Response
The Masters and Johnson Sexual Response Model
The Kaplan Sexual Response Model
Gender Differences in Sexual Response
Sexual Desire
Sexual Arousal
Proceeding through Sexual Response Stages at Different Speeds
Resolution Stage
Orgasm
Factors Contributing to a Fulfilling Sexual Relationship
Intimacy
Commitment
Psychological Comfort
Good Communication
--Communication and Sexual Relationships
Knowledge of the Sexual Response Cycle
Emphasis on the Enjoyment of Each Other Rather than Performance
Good Mental and Physical Health
Sexuality and Aging
The Female Climacteric
Hormone Replacement Therapy For Women
The Male Climacteric
--An Affair? Consider the Consequences
Hormone Replacement Therapy for Men
Getting through the Change-of-Life Period More Successfully
Sexual Disorders
Sexual Addiction
Hypoactive Sexual Desire
Vaginismus
Female Orgasmic Disorder
Male Orgasmic Disorder
Dyspareunia
Erectile Disorder
Premature Ejaculation
Alcohol and Drugs
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Chlamydia
--Unsafe Sex Practices: Why So Prevalent?
Gonorrhea
Syphilis
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Herpes
Hepatitis
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Vaginitis
Pediculosis
--Internet Pornography
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 11: FAMILY PLANNING AND PARENTHOOD
Learning Objectives
The Importance of Family Planning
--Family Strengths Perspective: What Is a Strong Family?
Hormonal Control
Oral Contraceptives
Other Forms of Hormonal Contraceptives
--The Abortion Pill
Vaginal Spermicides
Intrauterine Devices
Barrier Methods
Condoms
Diaphragm
Cervical Cap
Contraceptive Sponge
Sterilization
Vasectomy
Female Sterilization
Fertility Awareness
Calendar Methods
Withdrawal
Noncoital Stimulation (Outercourse)
Choosing a Method of Contraception
Abortion
Legal Considerations
Moral Considerations
Social and Realistic Considerations
Psychological and Personal Considerations
Cultural Perspective: A Preference for Males
Infertility
Causes of Infertility
Infertility and Subjective Well-Being
Treatment of Infertility
Coping Feature: Coping with Infertility
Alternative Means of Conception
The Adoption Option
Personal Perspective: Reasons for Having Children
The Foster Care Option
To Parent or Not to Parent
Delayed Parenthood
Choosing a Child-Free Marriage
--A Question of Policy: Embryos
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 12: PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH
Learning Objectives
Pregnancy
Signs and Symptoms of Pregnancy
Tests for Pregnancy
Calculating the Expected Date of Birth
Emotional Reactions to Pregnancy
Prenatal Care
Importance of Prenatal Care
Nutrition during Pregnancy
General Health Care during Pregnancy
Environmental Hazards
Minor Side Effects of Pregnancy
Major Complications of Pregnancy
--Cultural Perspective: The Use of Ultrasounds
Sexual Relations during Pregnancy
Mental Health
Prenatal Development
The Germinal Period
The Embryonic Period
The Fetal Period
Prepared Childbirth
The Lamaze Method
--At Issue Today: Options for Delivery
Labor and Delivery
Stages of Labor
The Postpartum Period
Care of the Newborn
Parent-Infant Contact and Bonding
--Family Strengths Perspective: Bonding with Baby
Rooming-In
Postpartum Adjustments
Returning to Work
--Coping Feature: Becoming a Parent
--Personal Perspective: Postpartum Depression
Sexual Relations after Childbirth
--A Question of Policy: Substance Abuse by Pregnant Women
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 13: PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS
Learning Objectives
Philosophies of Child Rearing
Parental Differences
Value Differences
Parent-Child Differences
Cultural Differences
--Family Strengths Perspective: Botho
Life Circumstances
--Cultural Perspective: Cultural Conflict and Acculturation
Differences in Children
Stress and Children
Fostering Cognitive and Intellectual Growth
--Personal Perspective: Serendipity
Parental Contributions
Language Development and Cultivation
Educational Goals
Meeting Emotional Needs
Emotional Attachments
Autonomy
Connectedness
Identity
--At Issue Today: Family Happiness and Material Wealth
Child Care
Social Competence, Socialization, and Discipline
Meaning and Goals of Discipline
Principles of Discipline
--Coping Feature: The Stress of Discipline
Discipline Styles
Corporal Punishment
--A Question of Policy: Family-Friendly Policies
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 14: PARENTS AND EXTENDED FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS
Learning Objectives
Parent-Adult Child Relationships
When Parents Disapprove of Choice of Partner
Children's Identification with Parents
Interdependence between Generations
--Cultural Perspective: Emerging Adulthood
Parent-Adult Child Relationships and Psychological Functioning
Elder Care
--Personal Perspective: Mother-Daughter Relationships
In-Laws
Successful In-Law Relationships
The Roots of Conflict
--Family Strengths Perspective: Family Reunion
Living with Parents or In-Laws
Effects of Coresidence
--Coping Feature: Reframing
Sources of Stress
Grandparents
--At Issue Today: Fictive Kinship
What Grandparents Can Do for Grandchildren
Grandparents Who Parent Their Grandchildren
Adolescents, Young Adults, and Grandparents
What Grandchildren Can Do for Grandparents
Adult Sibling Relationships
--Grandparents' Rights
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 15: CONFLICT, FAMILY CRISES, AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT
Learning Objectives
Conflict and Children
The Family Environment
Interparent Conflict
Sources of Conflict
Personal Sources
Physical Sources
Interpersonal Sources
Situational or Environmental Sources
Methods of Dealing with Conflict
Avoidance
--What Would You Like to Change about the Way You Deal with Conflict?
Ventilation and Catharsis
Constructive and Destructive Conflicts
Levels of Marital Conflict Model
Family Crises
Stage 1: Onset
Stage 2: Disorganization
--Search for Meaning in Tough Times
Stage 3: Reorganization
What Helps?
The Crisis of Infidelity
Reasons for Infidelity
--Affair-Proofing Your Marriage
--Cheating in Cyberspace
Affairs as Crises for Married People
The Crisis of Economic Distress
Types of Economic Distress
Effects on Individuals and on Family Relationships
Coping with Economic Distress
--Cultural Perspective: The Crisis of Immigration
The Crisis of Addictions
Characteristics of Addiction
Reasons for Addiction
Effects on the Family
Overcoming Addiction: The Addicted Person
Overcoming Addiction: The Family and the Addicted Person Working Together
The Crisis of Violence and Abuse
Factors Related to Violence
Child Maltreatment
Treatment for Spouse and Child Abuse
Detecting Child Maltreatment
Elder Abuse
The Crisis of Death and Grief
--Abused and Neglected Children
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 16: THE FAMILY AND DIVORCE
Learning Objectives
Probability of Divorce: Social and Demographic Factors
Marital Age
Religion
Socioeconomic Status
Geographic Area
Parental Divorce
The Presence of Children
Quality of Marriage and Parent-Child Relationships
Causes of Marital Breakup
Spouses' Perceptions
The Marital Disaffection Process
The Divorce Decision
Alternatives to Divorce
--Getting Divorced
Marriage Counseling
Marriage Enrichment
Separation
--Why Marriage Counseling Sometimes Does Not Succeed
No-Fault Divorce and Mediation
--Adjustment to Divorce
Adult Adjustments after Divorce
Emotional Trauma
Societal Attitudes toward Divorce
Loneliness and Social Readjustment
Adjustments to Custody Arrangements
Finances
Realignment of Responsibilities and Work Roles
Contacts with the Ex-Spouse
--Coping Feature: Anger
Kinship Interaction
Children and Divorce
Child Custody
--Forgiveness and Conflict-Resolution Skills
Child Support
Visitation Rights
Reactions of Children
Adjustments of Children
--Divorce and the Single-Mother Family
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading

CHAPTER 17: COMING TOGETHER: REMARRIAGE AND STEPPARENTING
Learning Objectives
Remarriage
Divorce or Success in Remarriage?
--Happy vs. Unhappy Stepcouples
Courtship and Mate Selection in Remarriage
Preparing for Remarriage
Facets of Remarriage
Challenges of Remarriage
Complex Relationships
Ambiguous Family Boundaries
Ambiguous Cultural Norms
Carrying Expectations from One Marriage to Another
--Merging Families and Finances
Finances
Relationships with the Ex-Spouse
Family Relationships from a Previous Marriage
--Coping Feature: Humor
Stepfamilies
Stepfathers
Stepfamily Turning Points
Stepparent-Stepchild Relationships
--Stepfamilies in Cultural Context
Child Well-Being in Stepfamilies
Facilitating Bonds between Stepparents and Stepchildren
Coparents and Parenting Coalitions
Stepsibling Relationships
--Personal Perspective: Being a Stepmom
--A Question of Policy: Stepfamily Rights
Summary
Key Terms
Questions for Thought
For Further Reading


References
Credits
Index

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