9780393926378

Intro To App Geophysics Cl

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780393926378

  • ISBN10:

    0393926370

  • Edition: 00
  • Format: Cloth
  • Copyright: 7/17/2006
  • Publisher: W W NORTON

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Summary

Offering a chapter on each of the most common methods of exploration, the text explains in detail how each method is performed and discusses that method's geologic, engineering, and environmental applications. In addition to ample examples, illustrations, and applications throughout, each chapter concludes with a problem set. The text is also accompanied by the Field Geophysics Software Suite , an innovative CD-ROM that allows students to experiment with refraction and reflection seismology, gravity, magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar methods of exploration.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Preface to Computer Materials xxii
Approaching the Subsurface
1(6)
What Are the Options?
1(1)
Some Fundamental Considerations
2(1)
Defining Objectives
3(1)
Limitations
4(1)
The Advantage of Multiple Methods
5(2)
Seismic Exploration: Fundamental Considerations
7(58)
Seismic Waves and Wave Propagation
7(14)
Wave Terminology
9(2)
Elastic Coefficients
11(3)
Seismic Waves
14(4)
Seismic Wave Velocities
18(3)
Ray Paths in Layered Materials
21(18)
Huygens' Principle
21(1)
Fermat's Principle
22(1)
Reflection
23(2)
Refraction
25(2)
Snell's Law
27(1)
Critical Refraction
28(1)
Diffraction
29(6)
Wave Arrivals at the Surface
35(4)
Wave Attenuation and Amplitude
39(8)
Spherical Spreading
40(1)
Absorption
40(2)
Energy Partitioning
42(4)
Additional Factors
46(1)
Energy Sources
47(3)
Source Types
47(2)
Source Considerations
49(1)
Seismic Equipment
50(10)
Signal Detection
50(3)
Signal Conditioning
53(3)
Signal Recording
56(4)
Summary
60(5)
Problems
61(2)
References Cited
63(2)
Seismic Exploration: The Refraction Method
65(84)
A Homogeneous Subsurface
65(2)
A Single Subsurface Interface
67(14)
Derivation of a Travel-Time Equation
67(3)
Analysis of Arrival Times
70(2)
Determining Thickness
72(1)
Crossover Distance
73(1)
Critical Distance
74(2)
Constructing a Travel-Time Curve from a Field Seismogram
76(2)
Using REFRACT
78(1)
The Mohorovicic Discontinuity
79(2)
Two Horizontal Interfaces
81(9)
Derivation of a Travel-Time Equation
81(2)
Determining Thickness
83(2)
Critical Distance
85(2)
Analyzing a Second Field Seismogram
87(3)
Multiple Interfaces
90(1)
Dipping Interfaces
91(9)
Analyzing the Problem
91(6)
Derivation of a Travel-Time Equation
97(2)
Determining Thickness
99(1)
Multiple Dipping Interfaces
100(6)
Travel-Time Equation
100(2)
Analyzing Field Seismograms
102(4)
The Nonideal Subsurface
106(14)
Hidden Zones: The Low-Velocity Layer
107(4)
Hidden Zones: The Thin Layer
111(3)
Laterally Varying Velocity
114(2)
Interface Discontinuities
116(4)
The Delay-Time Method
120(7)
Other Methods
127(2)
Wave Front Method
127(2)
Ray Tracing and the Generalized Reciprocal Method
129(1)
Field Procedures
129(7)
Site Selection and Planning Considerations
129(1)
Equipment Considerations
130(1)
Geophone Spread Geometries and Placements
131(3)
Corrections to Data
134(2)
Applications Using Seismic Refraction
136(13)
Whately, Massachusetts
136(1)
Southeastern New Hampshire
137(1)
Waste Disposal Site
138(1)
Maricopa Area, Arizona
139(2)
Problems
141(6)
References Cited
147(1)
Suggested Reading
148(1)
Seismic Exploration: The Reflection Method
149(116)
A Single Subsurface Interface
150(17)
Using Reflect
150(1)
Derivation of a Travel-Time Equation
151(5)
Analysis of Arrival Times
156(4)
Normal Move-Out
160(3)
Determining Velocity and Thickness
163(2)
Applying the x2 -- t2 Method to a Field Seismogram
165(2)
Multiple Horizontal Interfaces
167(15)
The Dix Equation
170(1)
Determining Velocities
170(4)
Determining Thicknesses
174(1)
Further Discussion of the Dix Method
175(6)
Analyzing a Field Seismogram Containing Multiple Reflections
181(1)
Dipping Interface
182(18)
Derivation of a Travel-Time Equation
183(3)
Determining Dip, Thickness, and Velocity
186(4)
Determining Dip, Thickness, and Velocity---Another Approach
190(2)
A Return to Normal Move-Out
192(5)
Determining Dip, Thickness, and Velocity---Yet Another Approach
197(3)
Acquiring and Recognizing Reflections from Shallow Interfaces
200(17)
The Optimum Window
200(6)
Multiple Reflections
206(3)
Diffractions
209(8)
Common Field Procedures
217(12)
Equipment Considerations
217(2)
Geophone Spreads
219(1)
Split Spread
219(2)
Common Offset
221(4)
Common Depth Point
225(4)
Computer Processing of Reflection Data
229(19)
The Static Correction
229(3)
Correcting for Normal Move-Out
232(1)
Velocity Analysis A
233(2)
Velocity Analysis B
235(3)
Velocity Analysis C
238(1)
Stacking CDP Gathers
238(3)
Migration
241(3)
Waveform Adjustments
244(1)
Seismic Sections: Time Sections and Depth Sections
245(3)
Applying the Seismic Reflection Method
248(17)
Whately, Massachusetts
248(1)
Meers Fault, Oklahoma
249(1)
Cavity Detection
249(3)
Other Applications
252(2)
Problems
254(8)
References Cited
262(1)
Suggested Reading
263(2)
Electrical Resistivity
265(84)
Introduction
265(2)
Applied Currents
265(1)
Natural Currents
266(1)
A Brief History
266(1)
Chapter Goals
267(1)
Basic Electricity
267(3)
Current Flow in a Homogeneous, Isotropic Earth
270(10)
Point Current Source
270(1)
Two Current Electrodes
271(5)
Two Potential Electrodes
276(4)
A Single Horizontal Interface
280(22)
Current Distribution
280(4)
Current Flow Lines and Current Density
284(3)
Apparent Resistivity
287(1)
Qualitative Development of the Resistivity Pattern over a Horizontal Interface
288(2)
Quantitative Development of the Resistivity Pattern over a Horizontal Interface
290(7)
Using Resist
297(5)
Multiple Horizontal Interfaces
302(3)
Vertical Contact
305(5)
Constant-Spread Traverse
306(3)
Expanding-Spread Traverse
309(1)
Two Vertical Contacts, Hemispherical Structures, and Dipping Interfaces
310(4)
Two Vertical Contacts
312(1)
Hemispherical Structures
312(1)
Dipping Interfaces
313(1)
Field Procedures
314(9)
Equipment
315(2)
Electrode Configurations
317(4)
Surveying Strategies
321(2)
Other Considerations
323(1)
Quantitative Interpretation of Apparent Resistivity Curves
323(8)
Electrical Resistivities of Geologic Materials
324(1)
Empirical Methods
325(1)
Analytical Methods---Curve Matching
326(3)
Analytical Methods---Automated Curve Matching
329(2)
Applications of Electrical Resistivity Surveying
331(7)
Applications Related to Aquifers
332(3)
Applications Related to Contamination
335(1)
Applications in Mapping Karst and Geologic Structures
335(3)
Other Applications
338(1)
Other Electrical Methods
338(11)
Induced Potential (IP)
338(1)
Spontaneous Potential (SP)
339(1)
Telluric and Magnetotelluric Methods
340(1)
Problems
341(5)
References Cited
346(1)
Suggested Reading
347(2)
Exploration Using Gravity
349(80)
Fundamental Relationships
350(1)
Gravitational Acceleration
350(1)
Measuring Gravity
351(5)
Relative Measurements Using a Pendulum
351(1)
Relative Measurements Using a Gravimeter
352(3)
Absolute Measurements
355(1)
International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 (IGSN71)
355(1)
Adjusting Observed Gravity
356(14)
Variation in g as a Function of Latitude
356(1)
Correcting for the Latitude Effect
357(1)
Elevation Correction 1: The Free-Air Correction
358(2)
Elevation Correction 2: The Bouguer Correction
360(4)
Elevation Correction 3: The Terrain Correction
364(5)
The Isostatic Anomaly
369(1)
Basic Field Procedures
370(8)
Drift and Tidal Effects
370(3)
Establishing Base Stations
373(1)
Determining Elevations
373(2)
Determining Horizontal Position
375(1)
Selecting a Reduction Density
376(1)
Survey Procedure
376(2)
Gravity Effects of Simple Geometric Shapes
378(21)
Rock Densities
378(1)
Gravity Effect of a Sphere
379(4)
Gravity Effect of a Horizontal Cylinder
383(3)
Gravity Effect of a Vertical Cylinder
386(2)
Gravity Effect of an Inclined Rod
388(2)
Gravity Effect of a Horizontal Sheet
390(7)
GRAVMAG
397(2)
Analyzing Anomalies
399(10)
Regionals and Residuals
399(3)
Trend Surfaces
402(1)
Upward and Downward Continuation
403(4)
Second Derivatives
407(2)
Filtering
409(1)
Gravity Interpretation
409(6)
Half-Maximum Technique
410(1)
Second Derivative Techniques
411(2)
Revisiting Some Bouguer Anomaly Values
413(2)
Applications of the Gravity Method
415(14)
Bedrock Depths
415(1)
Subsurface Voids
416(1)
Landfill Geometry
417(3)
Problems
420(6)
References Cited
426(1)
Suggested Reading
427(2)
Exploration Using the Magnetic Method
429(70)
Fundamental Relationships
430(8)
Magnetic Force
431(1)
Magnetic Field Strength
431(1)
Magnetic Moment
432(1)
Intensity of Magnetization
433(1)
Magnetic Susceptibility
434(3)
Magnetic Potential
437(1)
The Earth's Magnetic Field
438(8)
Field Elements
438(1)
Dipolar Nature of the Earth's Field
439(2)
Variations of the Earth's Field
441(3)
Dipole Equations
444(2)
Measuring the Magnetic Field
446(4)
Flux-Gate Magnetometer
446(1)
Proton-Precession Magnetometer
447(1)
Total-Field Anomalies
447(3)
Basic Field Procedures
450(4)
Magnetic Cleanliness
450(1)
Diurnal Corrections
450(1)
Elevation Corrections
451(1)
Correcting for Horizontal Position
452(2)
Magnetic Effects of Simple Geometric Shapes
454(28)
Rock Susceptibilities
454(2)
Magnetic Effect of an Isolated Pole (Monopole)
456(1)
Magnetic Effect of a Dipole
457(8)
Magnetic Effect of a Sphere
465(5)
Magnetic Effect of a Thin, Horizontal Sheet
470(8)
Magnetic Effects of Polygons with Infinite Strike Length (Using GRAVMAG)
478(4)
Interpretation of Magnetic Data
482(6)
Disadvantages and Advantages
482(2)
Quantitative Interpretation Techniques
484(1)
Half-Maximum Techniques
484(1)
Slope Methods
485(3)
Computer Modeling
488(1)
Applications of the Magnetic Method
488(11)
Archaeological Surveys
488(2)
Detection of Voids and Well Casings
490(3)
Defining Landfill Geometry
493(1)
Problems
494(2)
References Cited
496(1)
Suggested Reading
497(2)
Electromagnetic Surveying
499
Electromagnetic Waves
500(9)
Wavelengths
502(2)
AC/DC
504(1)
Electrical Properties of Geologic Materials
504(1)
Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity
505(1)
Dielectric Properties
505(2)
Absorption and Attenuation
507(2)
EM Sounding
509(12)
Near-Field Continuous-Wave Methods of Frequency Domain Electromagnetics (FDEM)
512(1)
Moving Transmitter-Plus-Receiver System (Slingram)
512(2)
Noncontacting Ground Conductivity Measurements
514(5)
Other FDEM Systems
519(1)
Time Domain Electromagnetics (TDEM)
519(2)
EM Field Techniques
521(3)
Profiling versus Sounding
521(1)
Sounding
521(2)
Profiling
523(1)
Interpretation
523(1)
Ground-Penetrating Radar
524(15)
Radar Velocity
525(2)
Data Acquisition
527(6)
GPR Velocity Analysis
533(1)
Burial of Known Object
533(1)
Walkaway Test
533(4)
Diffraction Hyperbola
537(2)
Applications of Electromagnetic Surveying
539
Archaeological Surveys
539(1)
Aztec Ruins, New Mexico
539(2)
Ceren, El Salvador
541(2)
Geologic Applications
543(3)
Snow and Ice Mapping
546(1)
Environmental and Engineering Applications
546(2)
Problems
548(5)
References Cited
553(1)
Suggested Reading
554
Appendixes
A. Instructions for Using Refract
1(5)
B. Instructions for Using Reflect
6(7)
C. Instructions for Using Resist
13(4)
D. Instructions for Using GRAVMAG
17(7)
E. Instructions for Using Diffract
24(9)
Index 33

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