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Introducing Ethics: A Critical Thinking Approach with Readings combines guiding commentary and questions with a rich selection of concise, carefully edited, and accessible readings on ethical theory and contemporary moral issues. This unique introduction shows students how to do philosophy by first analyzing texts--identifying ethical positions and the arguments that support them--and then evaluating the truth of those positions and the soundness of the arguments. In doing so, it provides students with a uniquely engaging introduction to ethics that also hones their critical thinking skills.
* A unique Unit 1 gives students the conceptual tools to "do" philosophy with coverage of logic, arguments, moral reasoning, and reading and writing philosophy
* Extensive coverage of the three main areas of ethics--metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics--addresses issues often ignored by other texts, including ethics vs. science, moral responsibility, moral vs. legal issues, torture, terrorism, and more
* Unit and chapter introductions outline major themes and issues and explain why they matter
* Reading questions precede the essays and focus students' studying on key points, while discussion questions follow the readings and help students move into the evaluation phase
* "Argument Reconstruction Exercises" after each reading provide practice in identifying the premises and conclusions in the essays
* An Instructor's Manual with Test Bank on CD is available to adopters
* A Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/mcbrayer provides all the material contained on the CD along with student resources
Justin P. McBrayer is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Fort Lewis College, Colorado. He is the coeditor of Skeptical Theism: New Essays (OUP, 2014), and The Blackwell Companion to the Problem of Evil (2013).
Peter J. Markie is Curators' Teaching Professor of Philosophy at the University of Missouri. He is the coeditor of Ethics: History, Theory and Contemporary Issues (OUP, 2011).
Table of Contents
Each reading selection is followed by Reading Questions, Discussion Questions, and Argument Reconstruction Exercises. Preface UNIT 1. PHILOSOPHY AND METHODOLOGY Chapter 1. Introductions Chapter 2. The Method of Philosophy 2.1 Philosophy and Logic 2.2 Deductive Arguments 2.3 Inductive Arguments 2.4 Fallacious Arguments 2.5 Conditions and Analysis 2.6 Moral Reasoning Chapter 3. True for You, But Not For Me 3.1 Moral Interpretation 3.2 Doxastic Interpretation 3.3 Epistemic Interpretation 3.4 Semantic Interpretation 3.5 Metaphysical Interpretation Chapter 4. Reading Philosophy 4.1 Determining the Thesis 4.2 Reconstructing the Argument 4.3 How to Use this Text Chapter 5. Writing Philosophy 5.1 The Goal of a Philosophy Paper 5.2 The Evaluation of a Philosophy Paper 5.3 The Content of a Philosophy Paper 5.4 The Structure of a Philosophy Paper UNIT 2: FOUNDATIONS OF ETHICS Chapter 6. Moral Facts Readings 6.1 "Moral Nihilism," Gilbert Harmon 6.2 "Values in a Scientific World," Russ Shafer-Landau 6.3 "Four Arguments against Moral Knowledge," Russ Shafer-Landau Chapter 7. Morality and Authority Readings 7.1 "Does Morality Depend upon Religion?" John Arthur 7.2 "Humanistic Ethics," Kai Nielsen 7.3 "Master and Slave Moralities," Friedrich Nietzsche 7.4 "Moral Relativism," Gilbert Harman 7.5 "Ethical Relativism and Ethical Absolutism," Paul Taylor Chapter 8. Moral Responsibility Readings 8.1 "The Impossibility of Moral Responsibility," Galen Strawson 8.2 "Freedom and Necessity," A. J. Ayer 8.3 "Human Freedom and the Self," Roderick Chisholm 8.4 "Existentialism Is a Humanism," Jean-Paul Sartre Chapter 9. Why Be Moral? Readings 9.1 "The Virtue of Selfishness," Ayn Rand 9.2 "Three Failed Arguments for Ethical Egoism," James Rachels 9.3 "Right and Wrong," Thomas Nagel 9.4 "A Reconciliation Project," Gregory Kavka UNIT 3. NORMATIVE ETHICS Chapter 10. Value and The Good Life Readings 10.1 "The Meaning of Life," Richard Taylor 10.2 "The Experience Machine," Robert Nozick 10.3 "What Makes Someone's Life Go Best," Derek Parfit Chapter 11. Consequentialism Readings 11.1 "Utilitarianism," John Stuart Mill 11.2 "Against Moral Conservatism," Kai Nielsen 11.3 "Some Merits of One Form of Rule Utilitarianism," Richard B. Brandt 11.4 "Turning the Trolley," Judith Jarvis Thomson Chapter 12. Nonconsequentialism Readings 12.1 "Natural Law," ISaint Thomas Aquinas 12.2 "Natural Law Ethics," Alfonso Gomez-Lobo 12.3 "The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals," Immanuel Kant 12.4 "What Makes Right Acts Right," W.D. Ross 12.5 "Hypothetical Contractarianism," John Rawls 12.6 "Non-Contractual Society: A Feminist View," Virginia Held Chapter 13. Virtue and Care Ethics Readings 13.1 "Virtue," Aristotle, translated by W.D. Ross 13.2 "Aristotle on Virtue," Rosalind Hursthouse 13.3 "Moral Saints," Susan Wolf 13.4 "Care and Context in Moral Reasoning," IMarilyn Friedman 13.5 "The Ethics of Care as Moral Theory," Virginia Held UNIT 4. APPLIED ETHICS Chapter 14. The Moral Community Readings 14.1 "All Animals are Equal," Peter Singer 14.2 "The Ethics of Respect for Nature," Paul Taylor 14.3 "Are All Species Equal?," David Schmidtz Chapter 15. Abortion Readings 15.1 "An Argument that Abortion Is Wrong," Don Marquis 15.2 "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion," Mary Ann Warren 15.3 "A Defense of Abortion," Judith Jarvis Thomson 15.4 "Caring for Women and Girls Who Are Considering Abortion," Diana Fritz Cates Chapter 16. The Environment and Sustainability Readings 16.1 "Sustainability and Intergenerational Justice," Brian Barry 16.2 "Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments," Thomas E. Hill, Jr. 16.3 "Do We Consume Too Much?" Mark Sagoff 16.4 "Redefining the Good Life in a Sustainable Society," Lester W. Milbrath Chapter 17. Famine Relief Readings 17.1 "Famine, Affluence and Morality," Peter Singer 17.2 "Famine Relief and the Ideal Moral Code," John Arthur 17.3 "Feeding the Hungry," Jan Narveson Chapter 18. Terrorism Readings 18.1 "Terrorism: A Critique of Excuses," Michael Walzer 18.2 "Is Terrorism Distinctively Wrong?" Lionel K. McPherson 18.3 "The War on Terrorism and the End of Human Rights," David Luban Chapter 19. Torture Readings 19.1 "Is Torture Ever Morally Justifiable?" Seumas Miller 19.2 "Ticking Bombs, Torture, and the Analogy with Self-Defense," David J. Hill Chapter 20. Euthanasia Readings 20.1 "Active and Passive Euthanasia," James Rachels 20.2 "Active and Passive Euthanasia: An Impertinent Distinction?" Thomas D. Sullivan 20.3 "Self-Regarding Suicide: A Modified Kantian View," Thomas E. Hill, Jr. 20.4 "Buddhist Views of Suicide and Euthanasia," Carl B. Becker Chapter 21. Capital Punishment Readings 21.1 "Justifying Capital Punishment," Igor Primoratz 21.2 "The Case Against the Death Penalty," Hugo Bedau Chapter 22. Morality and the Law Readings 22.1 "The Harm Principle," John Stuart Mill 22.2 "Morals and the Criminal Law," Patrick Devlin 22.3 "France and the Ban on the Full-Face Veil: A Philosophical Analysis of the Arguments," Sarah Roberts-Cady 22.4 "Pornography, Oppression and Freedom: A Closer Look," Helen E. Longino 22.5 "The Feminist Case Against Pornography," Joel Feinberg Glossary Argument Reconstruction Exercise Solutions Index