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Introducing Philosophy : A Text with Integrated Readings,9780195174625
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Introducing Philosophy : A Text with Integrated Readings

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780195174625

ISBN10:
0195174623
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/29/2004
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press

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Summary

Philosophy is an exciting and accessible subject, and this engaging text acquaints students with the core problems of philosophy and the many ways in which they are and have been answered. Introducing Philosophy: A Text with Integrated Readings , Eighth Edition, insists both that philosophy is very much alive today and that it is deeply rooted in the past. Accordingly, it combines substantial original sources from significant works in the history of philosophy and current philosophy with detailed commentary and explanation that help to clarify the readings. The selections range from the oldest known fragments to cutting-edge essays in feminism, multiculturalism, and cognitive science. At the end of each chapter is a summary, a list of review questions, a glossary, and a bibliography with suggestions for further reading. Important philosophical terms are carefully introduced in the text and also summarized at the end of each chapter, and brief biographies of the philosophers are provided at the end of the book. New to the Eighth Edition : * Addressing the needs of a new generation of students, Robert C. Solomon has included for the first time more than 300 study and review questions. Appearing throughout the text and at the end of each chapter, these questions require immediate feedback from students. They encourage students to articulate the central ideas of what they have just read, instead of just "passing through" on the way to the next reading. * New selections expand and update the chapters on religion, knowledge, mind and body, freedom, ethics, justice, and beauty. The selections include work by Charles Hartshorne, Paul Davies, Cory Juhl, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jean-Paul Sartre, Sextus Empiricus, Edmund L. Gettier, David Braddon-Mitchell and Frank Jackson, John R. Searle, Colin McGinn, Daniel Dennett, Harry Frankfurt, Gilbert Harman, Emma Goldman, and Arthur C. Danto. * A companion website at www.oup.com/us/solomon8e features 300 study and review questions (100 multiple-choice, 100 true-or-false, and 100 fill-in-the-blank), discussion questions, chapter overviews and summaries, topical links, suggestions for further reading, and PowerPoint lecture aids.

Author Biography

Robert C. Solomon is Quincy Lee Centennial Professor of Philosophy and Business and Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of Texas at Austin.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
The History of Philosophy xxv
INTRODUCTION 1(1)
A. Socrates 1(9)
Aristophanes, from The Clouds
2(1)
Plato, from The Apology
2(2)
Plato, from The Crito
4(4)
Plato, from The Phaedo
8(1)
Plato, from The Republic
9(1)
B. What Is Philosophy? 10(5)
Plato, from The Apology
13(1)
Lao-Tzu, from Tao Te Ching
13(2)
C. A Modern Approach to Philosophy 15(5)
RenÚ Descartes, from Discourse on Method
19(1)
D. A Brief Introduction to Logic 20(23)
Glossary
37(3)
Bibliography and Further Reading
40(3)
PART ONE THE WORLD AND BEYOND 43(286)
CHAPTER 1 REALITY
45(77)
A. "The Way the World Really Is"
46(1)
Aristotle, from Metaphysics
46(1)
B. The First Greek Philosophers
47(1)
Karl Jaspers, from "The 'Axial Period'"
48(1)
C. The Early Greek Philosophers
48(10)
Parmenides, from Fragments
55(3)
D. Ultimate Reality in the East: India, Persia, and China
58(10)
From Upanishads
59(3)
From Zend-Avesta
62(1)
Confucius, from The Analects
63(2)
Lao-Tzu, from Tao Te Ching
65(2)
Buddha, from "Fire-Sermon"
67(1)
E. Two Kinds of Metaphysics: Plato and Aristotle
68(21)
Plato, from The Symposium
70(1)
Plato, from The Republic
71(5)
Plato, from The Meno
76(6)
Aristotle, from Metaphysics
82(1)
Aristotle, from Physics
83(5)
Aristotle, from Metaphysics
88(1)
F. Modern Metaphysics: Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz
89(27)
RenÚ Descartes, on Substance
92(2)
RenÚ Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
94(2)
Benedictus de Spinoza, from Ethics
96(10)
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from Monadology
106(10)
Summary and Conclusion
116(1)
Chapter Review Questions
117(1)
Glossary
117(4)
Bibliography and Further Reading
121(1)
CHAPTER 2 RELIGION
122(67)
A. What Is Religion?
122(6)
John Wisdom, from "Gods"
123(1)
Albert Einstein, on the Design of the Universe
124(1)
Keiji Nishitani, from "What Is Religion?"
125(3)
B. The Western Religions
128(21)
St. Anselm, on the Ontological Argument
131(3)
Rene Descartes, on the Ontological Argument
134(3)
Immanuel Kant, Against the Ontological Argument
137(2)
Charles Hartshorne, on the Ontological Argument
139(3)
St. Thomas Aquinas, on the Cosmological Argument
142(2)
St. Thomas Aquinas, on the "Fifth Way"
144(1)
David Hume, on an Imperfect Universe
145(2)
Paul Davies, from The Mind of God
147(1)
Cory Juhl, on the "Fine-Tuning" Argument
148(1)
C. Religion, Morality, and Evil
149(15)
Immanuel Kant, on God and Morality
150(2)
William James, from "The Will to Believe"
152(4)
St. Augustine, from Confessions
156(5)
From Bhagavadgita
161(3)
D. Reason and Faith
164(6)
ibn-Rushd, on the Philosophic Study of God
165(2)
Fyodor Dostoyevski, from The Brothers Karamazov
167(3)
E. Faith and Irrationality
170(9)
Mohammad al-Ghazali, from The Deliverance from Error
171(2)
S°ren Kierkegaard, on Subjective Truth
173(4)
Paul Tillich, on the Ultimate Concern
177(2)
F. The Attack on Religion: Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud
179(6)
Karl Marx, from Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
179(2)
Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil
181(1)
Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Antichrist
181(1)
Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Gay Science
182(1)
Sigmund Freud, from The Future of an Illusion
183(1)
Jean-Paul Sartre, from "The Desire to Be God"
184(1)
Summary and Conclusion
185(1)
Chapter Review Questions
185(1)
Glossary
186(2)
Bibliography and Further Reading
188(1)
CHAPTER 3 KNOWLEDGE
189(71)
Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
190(3)
Plato, from Theatetus
193(2)
A. The Rationalist's Confidence: Descartes
195(11)
RenÚ Descartes, from "Meditation I"
196(4)
RenÚ Descartes, from "Meditation II"
200(5)
RenÚ Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
205(1)
B. Innate Ideas Concerning Human Understanding: John Locke
206(5)
John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
207(2)
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays on Human Understanding
209(2)
C. The Empiricist Theory of Knowledge
211(7)
John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
211(7)
D. Common Sense Undone: Bishop Berkeley
218(9)
Bishop George Berkeley, from Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
219(8)
E. The Congenial Skeptic: David Hume
227(14)
David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature
228(4)
David Hume, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
232(9)
F. Two Ancient Skeptics: Sextus Empiricus and Nagarjuna
241(6)
Sextus Empiricus, from Outlines of Pyrrhonism
242(3)
Nagarjuna, from Madhyamaka-Karikas
245(2)
G. Double Vision: A Non-Western Feminist Perspective
247(4)
Uma Narayan, on Feminist Epistemology
247(4)
H. A Contemporary Conundrum: Knowledge as Justified True Belief
251(3)
Edmund L. Gettier, from "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?"
252(2)
Summary and Conclusion
254(1)
Chapter Review Questions
255(1)
Glossary
256(2)
Bibliography and Further Reading
258(2)
CHAPTER 4 TRUTH
260(69)
A. Two Kinds of Truths
263(8)
Aristotle, from Metaphysics
266(1)
Immanuel Kant, from The Critique of Pure Reason
267(4)
B. Theories of Truth
271(11)
Brand Blanshard, on the Coherence Theory
272(2)
Charles Peirce, from "How to Make Our Ideas Clear"
274(3)
William James, on the Pragmatic Theory
277(2)
Alfred Tarski, from "The Semantic Theory of Truth"
279(3)
C. Kant's Revolution
282(8)
Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
286(4)
D. The Battle in Europe After Kant: Relativism and Absolutism
290(15)
G.W.F. Hegel, from The Phenomenology of Spirit
292(4)
G.W.F. Hegel, from Reason in History
296(4)
Arthur Schopenhauer, from The World as Will and Representation
300(2)
Friedrich Nietzsche, on Truth
302(3)
E. Phenomenology
305(2)
Edmund Husserl, from "Philosophy as Rigorous Science"
305(1)
Edmund Husserl, from The 1929 Paris Lectures
306(1)
F. Hermeneutics, Pragmatism, and Feminism: Relativism Reconsidered
307(15)
Richard Rorty, from "Solidarity or Objectivity?"
310(4)
Isamu Nagami, from "Cultural Gaps: Why Do We Misunderstand?"
314(5)
Elizabeth Grosz, on Feminist Knowledge
319(3)
Summary and Conclusion
322(1)
Chapter Review Questions
323(1)
Glossary
323(4)
Bibliography and Further Reading
327(2)
PART TWO KNOW THYSELF 329(176)
CHAPTER 5 SELF
331(56)
A. Consciousness and the Self: From Descartes to Kant
333(17)
RenÚ Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
334(1)
John Locke, on Personal Identity
335(5)
David Hume, on "There Is No Self"
340(5)
Immanuel Kant, Against the Soul
345(3)
Meredith Michaels, on "Personal Identity"
348(2)
B. Existentialism: Self-Identity and the Responsibility of Choice
350(8)
Jean-Paul Sartre, on Existentialism
352(2)
Jean-Paul Sartre, on Bad Faith
354(2)
Jean-Paul Sartre, from No Exit
356(2)
C. The Individual and the Community
358(15)
Friedrich Nietzsche, on the Dispensability of Consciousness
359(2)
S°ren Kierkegaard, on "The Public"
361(1)
S°ren Kierkegaard, on Self and Passion
361(1)
Martin Heidegger, on "Dasein" and the "They"
362(1)
David Reisman, on Individualism
363(1)
Malcolm X, on Being "African"
364(1)
Malcolm X, from "At the Audubon"
364(1)
Sherri Ortner, from "Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?"
365(3)
Ann Ferguson, on Androgyny
368(1)
G.W.F. Hegel, on "Spirit" and the Individual
369(1)
G.W.F. Hegel, from Reason in History
370(1)
S°ren Kierkegaard, a Retort
371(1)
Karl Marx, on the Social Self
372(1)
D. One Self? Any Self? Questioning the Concept of Personal "Essence"
373(10)
Hermann Hesse, from Steppenwolf
374(1)
Luce Irigaray, from This Sex Which Is Not One
375(2)
Genevieve Lloyd, from "The Man of Reason"
377(4)
From The Dhammapada
381(1)
Lao-Tzu, from Tao Te Ching
382(1)
Summary and Conclusion
383(1)
Chapter Review Questions
384(1)
Glossary
384(1)
Bibliography and Further Reading
385(2)
CHAPTER 6 MIND AND BODY
387(50)
A. What Is Consciousness?
387(6)
RenÚ Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
388(4)
RenÚ Descartes, from "Meditation III"
392(1)
B. The Problem of Dualism
393(4)
RenÚ Descartes, from "The Passions of the Soul"
394(3)
C. The Rejection of Dualism
397(25)
Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind
399(7)
J.J.C. Smart, from "Sensations and Brain Processes"
406(2)
Jerome Shaffer, Against the Identity Theory
408(4)
Paul M. Churchland, on Eliminative Materialism
412(5)
David Braddon-Mitchell and Frank Jackson, from Philosophy of Mind and Cognition
417(2)
John R. Searle, from "The Myth of the Computer"
419(1)
John R. Searle, from Minds, Brains, and Science
420(2)
D. The Problem of Consciousness
422(11)
Sigmund Freud, on the "Unconscious"
422(2)
Thomas Nagel, from Mortal Questions
424(2)
Colin McGinn, on "The Mystery of Consciousness"
426(3)
Aristotle, from De Anima
429(2)
William James, from "Does Consciousness Exist?"
431(2)
Summary and Conclusion
433(1)
Chapter Review Questions
433(1)
Glossary
434(2)
Bibliography and Further Reading
436(1)
CHAPTER 7 FREEDOM
437(68)
A. Fatalism and Karma
438(4)
Sophocles, from Oedipus the King
439(1)
Keiji Nishitani, on Fate
440(2)
B. Predestination
442(9)
St. Augustine, from On Free Choice of the Will
443(2)
Mohammad Iqbal, from The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
445(1)
Jacqueline Trimier, on the Yoruba Ori
446(2)
Jonathan Edwards, from "Freedom of the Will"
448(3)
C. Determinism
451(24)
Baron Paul Henri d'Holbach, from System of Nature
452(2)
Daniel Dennett, from Elbow Room
454(7)
Robert Kane, on Indeterminism
461(3)
John Stuart Mill, on Causation and Necessity
464(4)
David Hume, on Causation and Character
468(2)
Robert Kane, on "Wiggle Room"
470(1)
Harry Frankfurt, from "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person"
471(4)
D. Compulsion and Ignorance
475(15)
Aristotle, on Voluntary Action
476(3)
John Hospers, from "What Means This Freedom?"
479(3)
B.F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom
482(3)
B.F. Skinner, from Walden Two
485(1)
Robert Kane, Beyond Skinner
486(2)
Anthony Burgess, from A Clockwork Orange
488(1)
Catherine MacKinnon, on Coercion of Women's Sexuality
488(2)
E. Freedom in Practice
490(5)
Harry Frankfurt, from "Coercion and Moral Responsibility"
491(4)
F. Radical Freedom: Existentialism
495(6)
Jean-Paul Sartre, on "Absolute Freedom"
495(4)
Fyodor Dostoyevski, from "The Most Advantageous Advantage"
499(1)
Thich Nhat Hanh, from "Turning on the Television"
500(1)
Summary and Conclusion
501(1)
Chapter Review Questions
502(1)
Glossary
502(2)
Bibliography and Further Reading
504(1)
PART THREE THE GOOD AND THE BEAUTIFUL 505(208)
CHAPTER 8 ETHICS
507(92)
A. Morality
509(2)
St. Augustine, from On Freedom
509(2)
B. Is Morality Relative?
511(8)
Walter Stace, on Ethical Absolutism
513(1)
Gilbert Harman, from "Moral Relativism Defended"
514(3)
Margaret Mead, from Sex and Temperament
517(2)
C. Egoism and Altruism
519(6)
Plato, from The Republic
520(2)
Joseph Butler, Against Egoism
522(3)
D. Morality as Virtue: Aristotle
525(13)
Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
525(13)
E. Morality and Sentiment: Hume and Rousseau
538(8)
David Hume, on "Reason as Slave of the Passions"
539(4)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from Emile
543(3)
F. Morality and Practical Reason: Kant
546(15)
Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
547(14)
G. Utilitarianism
561(13)
Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
562(4)
John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
566(8)
H. The Creation of Morality: Nietzsche and Existentialism
574(11)
Friedrich Nietzsche, on "Morality as Herd-Instinct"
577(1)
Friedrich Nietzsche, on "Master and Slave Morality"
578(2)
Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism as a Humanism
580(5)
I. Ethics and Gender
585(9)
Virginia Held, on Feminist Ethics
585(6)
John Corvino, from Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality
591(3)
Summary and Conclusion
594(1)
Chapter Review Questions
594(1)
Glossary
595(2)
Bibliography and Further Reading
597(2)
CHAPTER 9 JUSTICE
599(69)
A. The Problem of Justice
601(35)
Plato, from The Republic
602(3)
Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
605(4)
David Hume, on "Justice and Utility"
609(1)
John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
610(5)
Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan
615(7)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social Contract
622(5)
Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence
627(1)
John Rawls, from "Justice as Fairness"
628(3)
Robert Nozick, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia
631(3)
Cheshire Calhoun, from "Justice, Care, Gender Bias"
634(2)
B. Individual Rights and Freedom
636(9)
John Locke, from The Second Treatise on Government
637(3)
John Stuart Mill, from On Liberty
640(3)
Emma Goldman, from "Anarchism: What It Really Stands For"
643(2)
C. Fighting for Rights and Justice
645(15)
Frederick Douglass, from "In Defense of Purchasing Freedom"
646(3)
Henry David Thoreau, on "Civil Disobedience"
649(4)
Martin Luther King, Jr., from "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
653(5)
Malcolm X, from "The Ballot or the Bullet"
658(1)
Nelson Mandela, from Long Walk to Freedom
658(2)
D. On the Origins of Good and Evil
660(4)
Mencius, on Human Nature
660(2)
Hsun Tsu, from "Human Nature Is Evil"
662(2)
Summary and Conclusion
664(1)
Chapter Review Questions
665(1)
Glossary
665(1)
Bibliography and Further Reading
666(2)
CHAPTER 10 BEAUTY
668(45)
A. Plato and the Transcendence of Beauty
669(9)
Plato, from The Symposium
670(3)
Plato, from The Ion
673(2)
Plato, from The Republic
675(3)
B. Aristotle and the Self-Sufficiency of Art
678(4)
Aristotle, from The Poetics
679(3)
C. The Dispute About Tastes
682(4)
David Hume, from "Of the Standard of Taste"
683(3)
D. Kant: Disputes About Taste Resolved
686(3)
E. After Kant: Art, Society, and Self-Awareness
689(7)
G.W.F. Hegel, from The Philosophy of Fine Art
691(1)
G.W.F. Hegel, from Introduction to Aesthetics
692(4)
F. Art and Reality in the Twentieth Century
696(5)
Arthur C. Danto, from "Approaching the End of Art"
696(2)
Jose Ortega y Gasset, from The Dehumanization of Art
698(1)
John Dewey, from Art as Experience
699(2)
G. The Other Half of the Picture: Feminist Aesthetics
701(4)
Marilyn French, from "Is There a Feminist Aesthetic?"
701(4)
H. Art and Culture: Japan and Africa
705(6)
Mara Miller, on Japanese Erotic Art
705(3)
Isidore Okpewho, on Traditional African Art
708(3)
Summary and Conclusion
711(1)
Chapter Review Questions
711(1)
Glossary
712(1)
Bibliography and Further Reading
712(1)
Brief Biographies 713(12)
Index 725


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