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Introducing Philosophy: A Text with Integrated Readings,Tenth Edition, is an exciting, accessible, and thorough introduction to the core problems of philosophy and the many ways in which they are, and have been, answered. The authors combine substantial selections from significant works in the history of philosophy with excerpts from current philosophy, clarifying the readings and providing context with their own detailed commentary and explanation. Spanning 2,500 years, the selections range from the oldest known fragments to cutting-edge contemporary essays. Organized topically, the chapters present alternative perspectives--including analytic, continental, feminist, and non-Western viewpoints--alongside the historical works of major Western philosophers. PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES: * Discussion questions, a summary, and a bibliography with suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter * Questions at the end of each subsection * Marginal quotations from the featured readings * Key philosophical terms, boldfaced in the text and collected at the end of each chapter * A glossary at the end of the book NEW TO THIS EDITION: * A second color and more than 230 images illustrating key concepts and depicting famous philosophical figures * New selections by William Paley, John Locke, Bertrand Russell, W. V. O. Quine, St. Thomas Aquinas, John Dewey, and Martin Luther King, Jr. * Careful revisions to the readings and the author commentary that make the material even more accessible * More than 100 brief profiles of philosophers interspersed throughout * A revisedInstructor's Manualprovides chapter summaries and goals; section summaries; a Test Bank with multiple-choice, essay, true/false, and fill-in-the-blank questions; lecture outlines; and downloadable PowerPoint-based slides * An updatedCompanion Websiteat www.oup.com/us/solomon includes all the material from the Instructor's Manual along with resources for students: chapter overviews; chapter goals; interactive flash cards with key terms and definitions; discussion and essay questions; web links and activities; self-quizzes; and suggestions for further reading
The late Robert C. Solomon was Quincy Lee Centennial Professor of Business and Philosophy and Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of Texas at Austin.
Kathleen Higgins is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin.
Clancy Martin is Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Department at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.
Table of Contents
Philosopher Biographies Preface History of Philosophy INTRODUCTION A. Socrates Aristophanes, from The Clouds Plato, from The Apology; from The Crito; from The Phaedo; from The Republic B. What Is Philosophy? Plato, from The Apology Karl Jaspers, from "The 'Axial Period'" Laozi, from Dao De Jing C. A Modern Approach to Philosophy RenÚ Descartes, from Discourse on Method D. A Brief Introduction to Logic 1. Deductive Arguments 2. Inductive Arguments 3. Argument by Analogy 4. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions, "Logical Possibility," and Arguments by Counterexample 5. Reductio ad Absurdum 6. The Most Insidious Kinds of Fallacies Key Terms Bibliography and Further Reading PART ONE. THE WORLD AND BEYOND CHAPTER 1. RELIGION A. What Is Religion? John Wisdom, from "Gods" Albert Einstein, On the Design of the Universe Keiji Nishitani, from "What Is Religion?" B. The Western Religions 1. The Traditional Conception of God C. Proving God: The Ontological Argument St. Anselm, On the Ontological Argument RenÚ Descartes, On the Ontological Argument Immanuel Kant, Against the Ontological Argument D. God as Creator: Intelligence and Design St. Thomas Aquinas, On the Cosmological Argument * William Paley, "The Watch and the Watchmaker" St. Thomas Aquinas, On the "Fifth Way" David Hume, from Dialogues on Natural Religion E. Religion, Morality, and Evil 1. Religion and "Practical Reason" Immanuel Kant, on God and Morality William James, from "The Will to Believe" 2. The Problem of Evil St. Augustine, from Confessions 3. Hinduism, Buddhism, Karma, and Compassion From The Bhagavadgita F. Beyond Reason: Faith and Irrationality 1. God as Experience Mohammad al-Ghazali, from The Deliverance from Error 2. The Leap of Faith S°ren Kierkegaard, On Subjective Truth 3. God as Ultimate Concern Paul Tillich, On the Ultimate Concern G. Doubts about Religion Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from The Brothers Karamazov Karl Marx, from Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil; from The Antichrist; from The Gay Science Sigmund Freud, from The Future of an Illusion CHAPTER 2. REALITY A. "The Way the World Really Is" Aristotle, from Metaphysics B. The First Greek Philosophers 1. The Ionian Naturalists 2. Monism, Materialism, and Immaterial "Stuff" 3. Heraclitus 4. Democritus, Atoms, and Pluralism 5. Animism 6. Pythagoras 7. The Appearance/Reality Distinction 8. Parmenides Parmenides, from Fragments 9. The Sophists 10. Metaphysics C. Ultimate Reality in the East: India, Persia, and China 1. Reality as One: The Upanishads From Upanishads 2. Reality, Good, and Evil: Zarathustra From Zend-Avesta 3. Confucius Confucius, from The Confucian Analects 4. Laozi, or the Poets of the Dao De Jing Laozi, from Dao De Jing 5. Buddha Buddha, from "Fire-Sermon" D. Two Kinds of Metaphysics: Plato and Aristotle 1. Plato Plato, from The Symposium; from The Republic; from The Meno 2. Aristotle Aristotle, from Metaphysics; from Physics; from Metaphysics E. Modern Metaphysics 1. RenÚ Descartes RenÚ Descartes, On Substance; from "Meditation VI" * John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 2. Benedictus de Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza, from Ethics 3. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from Monadology Martin Heidegger, from "The Fundamental Question of Metaphysics" CHAPTER 3. KNOWLEDGE Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy Plato, from Theatetus A. The Rationalist's Confidence: Descartes RenÚ Descartes, from "Meditation I"; from "Meditation II"; from "Meditation VI" B. Innate Ideas Concerning Human Understanding: John Locke John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays on Human Understanding C. Two Empiricist Theories of Knowledge John Locke John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Bishop George Berkeley Bishop George Berkeley, from Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge D. The Congenial Skeptic: David Hume David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature; from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding E. Kant's Revolution Immanuel Kant, from The Critique of Pure Reason; from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics F. The Battle in Europe After Kant: Relativism and Absolutism 1. Hegel G. W. F. Hegel, from The Phenomenology of Spirit; from Reason in History 2. Schopenahuer Arthur Schopenhauer, from The World as Will and Representation 3. Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche, On Truth G. Phenomenology Edmund Husserl, from "Philosophy as Rigorous Science"; from The 1929 Paris Lectures H. Hermeneutics and Pragmatism: Relativism Reconsidered Richard Rorty, from "Solidarity or Objectivity?" Isamu Nagami, from "Cultural Gaps: Why Do We Misunderstand?" * I. The Analytic Turn * Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy * W. V. O. Quine, from "Epistemology Naturalized" J. Feminist Epistemology Elizabeth Grosz, On Feminist Knowledge Uma Narayan, On Feminist Epistemology PART TWO. KNOW THYSELF CHAPTER 4. SELF A. Consciousness and the Self: From Descartes to Kant Ren┤Descartes, from "Meditation VI" John Locke, On Personal Identity David Hume, On "There Is No Self" Immanuel Kant, Against the Soul Meredith Michaels, On "Personal Identity" B. Existentialism: Self-Identity and the Responsibility of Choice Jean-Paul Sartre, On Existentialism; On Bad Faith; from No Exit C. The Individual and the Community S°ren Kierkegaard, On "The Public"; On Self and Passion Martin Heidegger, On "Dasein" and the "They" David Reisman, On Individualism 1. Voices of Protest Malcolm X, On Being "African"; from "At the Audubon" Sherry Ortner, from "Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?" Ann Ferguson, On Androgyny D. One Self? Any Self? Questioning the Concept of Personal "Essence" Hermann Hesse, from Steppenwolf Luce Irigaray, from This Sex Which Is Not One Genevieve Lloyd, from "The Man of Reason" From The Dhammapada Laozi, from Dao De Jing CHAPTER 5. MIND AND BODY A. What Is Consciousness? RenÚ Descartes, from "Meditation VI"; from "Meditation III" B. The Problem of Dualism RenÚ Descartes, from "The Passions of the Soul" C. The Rejection of Dualism 1. Radical Behaviorism 2. Logical Behaviorism Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind 3. The Identity Theory J. J. C. Smart, from "Sensations and Brain Processes" Jerome Shaffer, Against the Identity Theory 4. Eliminative Materialism Paul M. Churchland, On Eliminative Materialism 5. Functionalism: The Mind and the Computer David Braddon-Mitchell and Frank Jackson, from Philosophy of Mind and Cognition John R. Searle, from "The Myth of the Computer"; from Minds, Brains, and Science 6. Connectionism D. The Problem of Consciousness Sigmund Freud, On the "Unconscious" Thomas Nagel, from Mortal Questions Colin McGinn, On "The Mystery of Consciousness" 1. Changing Our Minds: Holism and Consciousness Aristotle, from De Anima Galen Strawson, On "Cognitive Experience" William James, from "Does Consciousness Exist?" Friedrich Nietzsche, On the "Genius of the Species" CHAPTER 6. FREEDOM A. Fatalism and Karma Sophocles, from Oedipus the King Keiji Nishitani, On Fate B. Predestination St. Augustine, from On Free Choice of the Will Mohammad Iqbal, from The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Jacqueline Trimier, on the Yoruba Ori Jonathan Edwards, from "Freedom of the Will" C. Determinism 1. Hard Determinism Baron Paul Henri d'Holbach, from System of Nature Daniel Dennett, from Elbow Room 2. Determinism Versus Indeterminism Robert Kane, On Indeterminism 3. The Role of Consciousness 4. Soft Determinism John Stuart Mill, On Causation and Necessity David Hume, On Causation and Character Robert Kane, On "Wiggle Room" Harry Frankfurt, from "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person" D. Compulsion and Ignorance Aristotle, On Voluntary Action Judith Orr, "Sex, Ignorance, and Freedom" John Hospers, from "What Means This Freedom?" B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom B. F. Skinner, from Walden Two Robert Kane, Beyond Skinner Anthony Burgess, from A Clockwork Orange Catherine MacKinnon, On Coercion of Women's Sexuality E. Freedom in Practice: Kant's Solution F. Radical Freedom: Existentialism Jean-Paul Sartre, On "Absolute Freedom" Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from "The Most Advantageous Advantage" Thich Nhat Hanh, from "Turning on the Television" PART THREE. THE GOOD AND THE RIGHT CHAPTER 7. ETHICS A. Morality B. Is Morality Relative? Gilbert Harman, from "Moral Relativism Defended" * St. Thomas Aquinas, from The Summa Theologica John Corvino, from Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality C. Egoism and Altruism Plato, from The Republic D. Are We Naturally Selfish? A Debate Mencius, On Human Nature: Man Is Good Xunzi, from "Human Nature Is Evil" Joseph Butler, Against Egoism E. Morality as Virtue: Aristotle Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics F. Morality and Sentiment: Hume and Rousseau David Hume, On "Reason as Slave of the Passions" Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from ╔mile G. Morality and Practical Reason: Kant Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals H. Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism I. The Creation of Morality: Nietzsche and Existentialism Friedrich Nietzsche, On "Morality as Herd-Instinct"; On "Master and Slave Morality" Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism as a Humanism * J. Pragmatism in Ethics * John Dewey, from The Quest for Certainty K. Ethics and Gender Virginia Held, On Feminist Ethics CHAPTER 8. JUSTICE A. The Problem of Justice B. Two Ancient Theories of Justice: Plato and Aristotle Plato, from The Republic Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics C. Two Modern Theories of Justice: Hume and Mill on Utility and Rights David Hume, on "Justice and Utility" John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism D. The Social Contract Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social Contract Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence E. Fairness and Entitlement John Rawls, from "Justice as Fairness" Robert Nozick, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia F. Justice or Care: A Feminist Perspective Cheshire Calhoun, from "Justice, Care, Gender Bias" G. Individual Rights and Freedom John Locke, from The Second Treatise on Government; from On Liberty Malcolm X, On Civil and Human Rights Amartya Sen, from "Property and Hunger" H. Fighting for Rights and Justice: Civil Disobedience Henry David Thoreau, from "Resistance to Civil Government" ("Civil Disobedience") * Martin Luther King, Jr., from "Letter from Birmingham Jail" Glossary Index