9780134436050

Introduction to Animal Science Global, Biological, Social and Industry Perspectives

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780134436050

  • ISBN10:

    0134436059

  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2017-03-17
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

A flexible, current, and comprehensive look at the biological, industry, and species approaches to Animal Science, complete with worldview information and societal issues.


Relevant and timely, Introduction to Animal Science features the most comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the traditional disciplines that are so essential to a solid foundation in Animal Science: nutrition, digestion, feeds, genetics, reproduction, disease, and animal behavior. The text's comprehensive, non-traditional approach introduces the discipline as an ever-changing, integral part of every aspect of human existence. Author W. Stephen Damron not only presents thorough coverage of the major species and their respective concerns, he challenges readers to consider the many pressing interests relevant to Animal Science as it influences and is influenced by society today.


The Sixth Edition features updated, expanded, and improved coverage including the latest statistical information as appropriate; improvements to the lactation chapter, the animal health chapter, and the animal health sections in each of the species chapters; substantial updates in the biotechnology chapter and the nutrition chapters; enhanced material on food safety; new figures and redesigned and updated graphics throughout; streamlined tables with greater emphasis on example information; and enhanced margin terms and glossary terms to facilitate reading and understanding of the material.

   

Author Biography

W. Stephen Damron was born and raised on a diversified farm in Martin, Tennessee. He received his BS from the University of Tennessee-Martin (1975) in Agricultural Science and Master’s (1978) and PhD (1982) degrees from the University of Tennessee-Knoxville in Ruminant Nutrition. He joined the Animal Science Department Oklahoma State University in 1988 after having taught at the University of Hawaii-Hilo and The University of Wisconsin-River Falls. Dr. Damron’s teaching career is characterized by rigorous courses on a variety of topics taught in multiple delivery systems. He has developed and taught over 30 courses. He has also taught five distance education courses, which annually enrolled several hundred students from across the United States and around the world. As a faculty member, Dr. Damron advised a large number of students and is known for his care and concern for students. He has been the faculty advisor to 13 separate student organizations and the academic advisor to over 1500 students at OSU alone. For many years, he coordinated the Animal Science Department’s large scholarship program. He also served the department as Teaching Coordinator, Diversity Coordinator, and Research Scholar Co-coordinator. He has served on numerous departmental, college, university, professional, and community committees and councils. Dr. Damron’s text, Introduction to Animal Science: Global, Biological, Social, and Industry Perspectives, is used extensively in the United States and abroad. In its fifth edition, it has also been published in an international edition and a Chinese translation. Dr Damron has received 26 teaching and advising awards and recognitions. From 2011 to present Dr. Damron has been the Assistant Dean of Academic Programs in the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources at Oklahoma State University. Dr. Damron’s wife, Rebecca, is currently the Director of the OSU Writing Center and a member of the English faculty at OSU. Their son, Joshua, is a PhD candidate at the University of Michigan and their daughter, Aubryana Peterson, resides in Dallas where she is an event planner and her husband, Cameron, is a Dallas police officer.


Table of Contents

Preface

PART ONE: THE PLACE OF ANIMALS AND ANIMAL SCIENCE IN THE LIVES OF HUMANS

1. Introduction to the Animal Sciences

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Animal Science Specialties

Animal Distribution

Contributions of Animals to Humanity

Food Source

Other Uses

The Future of Livestock Production

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

2. The Value of Animals to Humanity

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

The Food Uses of Agricultural Animals

Red Meat and Poultry Production

Edible Slaughter By-Products

Milk and Milk Products

Poultry and Eggs

Miscellaneous Food Uses

The Value of Animal Products in the Human Diet

The Nonfood Uses of Agricultural Animals

Body Coverings

Power Sources

Body Wastes

Pest and Weed Control

Storage of Capital and Food

Cultural Uses

Nonfood or Inedible Slaughter By-Products

Human Health Research

Income

Conservation

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

3. Factors Affecting World Agricultural Structure

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Adaptation

Artificial Environments

Adaptive Changes

Climatic Environments of the World

Tropical Climates

Deserts

Cold Environments

Temperate Climates

Social and Cultural Differences

Religion

Levels of Economic Development

Levels of Agricultural Development

Economic Institutions and Agricultural

Development

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

4. Worldwide Systems of Agricultural Production

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Nomadism and Transhumance

Shifting Cultivation and Rudimentary Sedentary

Tillage

Paddy Rice Farming

Peasant Grain, Tuber, and Livestock Farming

Ranching

Commercial Crop and Livestock Farming

Commercial Livestock Finishing

Commercial Dairy Farming

Commercial Grain Farming

Mediterranean Agriculture

Market Gardening

Commercial Plantation

Urban Agriculture

Aquaculture

Developed Versus Subsistence Agriculture

Comparison of the Livestock Industry in the Developed and the Developing Countries

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

PART TWO: THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES OF ANIMAL SCIENCE

5. Introduction To Nutrition

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Nutrients and their Uses

Body Functions and Nutrient Needs

Feed Analysis

Determining the Value of Feedstuffs to Animals

Expressing Feed Composition on a Dry-Matter (DM) Basis

Measures of Energy

Energy Content of Nutrients

Efficiency of Energy Use

Nutrient Requirements

Ration Formulation

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

6. The Gastrointestinal Tract and Nutrition

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Classification of Digestive Systems

An Overview of the Steps of Digestion

Digestion in the Pig

Digestion in the Ruminant

The Fermentation Process

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Ruminant System

Digestion in the Avian

Digestion in the Horse

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

7. Feedstuffs Classification

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Feedstuff Categories

Dry Forages and Roughages

Pasture, Range Plants, and Green Forages

Silages

Characteristics

Energy Feeds

Protein Supplements

Mineral and Vitamin Supplements

Nonnutritive Additives

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

8. Genetics

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

The Gene

Principles of Inheritance

Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis

Meiosis

Gene Expression

Dominant and Recessive Expression

Codominance

Incomplete Dominance

Epistasis

Multiple Alleles

Testcrossing

Sex-Related Inheritance

Sex-Linked Inheritance

Sex-Influenced Inheritance

Sex-Limited Traits

Population Genetics

Gene Frequency

Animal Breeding and Population Genetics

Mutation and Genetic Drift

Migration and Selection

Quantity Versus Quality Traits

Qualitative and Quantitative Traits

Heritability

Systems of Mating

Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

9. Animal Breeding

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Beef Cattle Genetic Improvement

Heritability

Genetic Correlations

Performance Information

Genetic Evaluation, Breeding Value, and Expected Progeny Difference

Growth Trait EPDs

Breed Average EPD and Base Year

Accuracy

Possible Change

Sire Summaries

Maternal Trait EPDs

Milk EPD

Combined Maternal EPD

Carcass EPD

Mature Size

Use of EPDs

Use of EPDs for Selection in Seedstock Herds

Use of EPDs for Selection in Commercial Herds

Pedigree Estimated EPDs

Across-Breed EPDs

EPDs and Crossbreeding

Dairy Cattle Genetic Improvement

Heritability Estimates

Associations Among Traits

Goal Setting and Trait Emphasis

Genetic Evaluation Procedures

DHI System

Animal Model

Sire Selection

Swine Genetic Improvement

Performance Information

Genetic Parameters

Breeding Value and Expected Progeny Difference

Swine Breeds

Stages

Sheep Genetic Improvement

Breed and Breed Types

Selection

National Sheep Improvement Program (NSIP)

Heterosis in Sheep Breeding

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

10. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Nuts and Bolts of Genetic Engineering

Restriction Enzymes

Gene Cloning

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Gene Mapping

Biotechnology and/or Genetically Engineered Organisms

Applications of Biotechnology

Micropropagation

Transgenic animals

Livestock

Agricultural Applications

Disease Resistance

Biomedical Applications

Transgenic Pets

Medicine

Genetic Testing

Gene Therapy

Pharmacogenomics

Microorganisms and Recombinant DNA

Technology

Drug and Vaccine Production

Biotechnology and pest management

Bacteria engineered for the foods industry

Societal Concerns

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

11. Animal Reproduction

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Puberty

Endocrinology

Anatomy

Female

Male

Pregnancy

Parturition

Environmental Influences on Reproduction

Technology and Reproduction

Artificial Insemination

Estrous Synchronization

Embryo Transfer

“In Vitro” Fertilization

Reproduction in Poultry and Birds

Hen

Cock

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

12. Lactation

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Mammary Gland Development, Anatomy, and Function

Components of Milk

Carbohydrates

Protein

Lipids

Calcium

Other Factors in Milk Production

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

13. Animal Behavior

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Areas of Study in Animal Behavior

Communication

Aggression and Social Structure

Biological Rhythms and Sleep

Sexual Behavior

Maternal Behavior

Development of Behavior

Learning

Ingestive Behavior: Food and Water Intake

Behavioral Disorders

Livestock Behavior

Temperament

Training and Habituating Livestock to Handling and Restraint

Effects of Novelty

Vision

Noise

Flight Zone

Herd Animals

Genetic Differences

Handler Dominance

Handling Facility Layout

Improved Handling Practices

Objective Scoring of Handling

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

14. Animal Health

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Disease

Causes of Disease

Describing Disease

Diagnosis of Disease

Veterinary Services Available

Mobile

Animal Clinics/Hospitals

Programmed Health Management

Resident Veterinarian

Diagnostic Services

The Body’s Defense Against Disease

Herd Health

Management

Nutrition

Genetics

Prevention

Animal Disease and Human Well-Being

Emotional Loss

Animal Disease and Human Health

Animal Disease and National Economies

Animal Disease and Farm Income

Bioterrorism

Regulatory Animal Medicine

Federal Regulation

Animal Disease Traceability Framework

State Regulation

Accredited Veterinarians

United States Animal Health Association (USAHA)

Organizations

American Veterinary Medical Association

USDA, APHIS, Animal Care

United States Animal Health Association

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

PART THREE: THE ANIMAL INDUSTRIES

15. Market Coordination in the Beef, Pork, and Poultry Industries

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Vertical Integration Definition

Vertical Coordination Motives

Current State of Vertical Integration

Production Characteristics: Beef, Pork, and Poultry

Biological Production Cycle

Genetic Base

Industry Stages

Geographic Concentration in Production

Operation Size and Specialization

Market Factors Enhancing Coordination

Value-Added Products at Retail

New Product Development

Brand Marketing

Vertical Coordination Limitations

Capital

Risk

Control of Quantity, Quality, and Consistency

Management Skills Needed

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

16. Beef Cattle

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Scientific Classification of Cattle

The Place of the Beef Cattle Industry in U.S. Agriculture

Purpose of the U.S. Beef Cattle Industry

Historical Perspective

Structure of the Beef Industry

Geographic Location of Beef Cattle in the United States

Genetics and Breeding Programs

Breeds

Reproductive Management in Beef Cattle

Nutrition in Beef Cattle

Challenges to Beef Cattle Health

Calf diarrhea (scours)

Bovine respiratory disease

Blackleg

Bloat

Beef’s Nutritional Benefits to Humans

Trends and Factors Influencing the Beef Industry

Consumption

Exports/Globalization

Technology

Animal Traceability

Food Safety

Environmental Concerns

Organic and Natural Production

Biofuel Production

Industry Structure

Additional Trends and Concerns

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

17. Dairy Cattle

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Scientific Classification of Cattle

The Place of the Dairy Cattle Industry in U.S. Agriculture

Purpose of the Dairy Cattle Industry in the United States

Historical Perspective

Structure and Geographic Location of the Dairy Industry

Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA)

Genetics and Breeding Programs

Breeds

Reproductive Management in Dairy Cattle

Nutrition in Dairy Cattle

Herd Health

Mastitis

Milk fever (hypocalcemia)

Displaced abomasum

Johne’s disease

Bovine Somatotropin (BST)

Nutritional Benefits of Milk to Humans

Trends and Factors Influencing the Dairy Industry

Restructuring

Consumption

Food Safety

Trade

Industry Organizations

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

18. Poultry

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Scientific Classification of Poultry

The Place of Poultry in U.S. Agriculture

Purpose of the Poultry Industry in the United States

Historical Perspective

Domestication

Early Use in the United States

Eggs

Genetics

Chicks

Integration

Structure and Geographic Location of the Poultry Industry

The U.S. Broiler Industry

The U.S. Egg Industry

The U.S. Turkey Industry

The U.S. Duck, Goose, and Other Poultry Industries

Genetics and Breeding Programs

Breeds, Varieties, and Strains of Poultry

Chicken Breeds in Modern Production

Turkey Breeds

Duck and Goose Breeds

Reproductive Management in Poultry

Breeder Flock Management

Mating Systems

Selection and Care of Eggs

Egg Storage

Incubators

Testing for Fertility

Nutrition in Poultry

Flock Health Management

Challenges to Poultry Health

Rickets

Fowl cholera

Mycoplasmosis

Nutritional Benefits of Poultry to Humans

Trends and Factors Influencing the Poultry Industry

Turkey Consumption and Production

Broiler Consumption and Production

Egg Consumption

All-Natural and Organic Production

Food Safety Concerns

Integration and Consolidation

Technological Innovation and Standardization

Waste Disposal

Biotechnology

Animal Welfare

Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

Industry Organizations

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

19. Swine

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Scientific Classification of swine

The Place of the Swine Industry in U.S. Agriculture

Purpose of the Swine Industry in the United States

Historical Perspective

Structure of the Swine Industry

Geographic Location of Swine in the United States

Genetics and Breeding Programs

Breeds

Swine Breeding Programs

Reproductive Management in Swine

Gilts

Sows

Estrus Detection

Farrowing Management

Boars

Artificial Insemination in Swine

Record Keeping

Nutrition in Swine

Feeding Practices

Herd Health Management

Biosecurity

challenges to swine health

Diarrhea (scours)

Respiratory disease

Gastric ulcers

Nutritional Benefits of Pork to Humans

Trends and Factors Influencing the Swine Industry

Pork Consumption

Nutrition and Health Consciousness

Convenient Foods

Food Safety Concerns

Last Stages of Restructuring-Consolidation

Technological Innovation and Standardization

Waste Disposal

Biotechnology

Foreign Competition/Trade

Animal Welfare/Animal Rights

Work Force

Industry Organizations

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

20. Sheep and Goats

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Scientific Classification of Sheep and Goats

The Place of the Sheep and Goat Industries in U.S. Agriculture

Purpose of the Sheep and Goat Industries in the United States

Historical Perspective

Structure of the Sheep and Goat Industries

Geographic Location of Sheep and Goats in the United States

Selection and Breeding Programs

Breeds

Reproductive Management

Nutrition

Challenges to Sheep and Goat Health

Gastrointestinal parasitism

Contagious ecthyma

Caseous lymphadenitis

Pregnancy toxemia

Nutritional Benefits of Lamb and Goat Meat to Humans

Nutritional Benefits of Goat Milk to Humans

Trends and Factors Influencing the sheep and goat Industries

Consumption

Industry Size and Structure

Environmental Concerns

Technology

Industry Organizations

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

21. Horses

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Scientific Classification of Horses

The Place of Horses in the United States

Purpose of the Horse Industry in the United States

Historical Perspective

Structure and Geographic Location of the Horse Industry

Horse Genetics

Basic Coat Colors

Flaxen Mane and Tail

Additional Common Markings

Genetic Diseases in Horses

Breeds of Horses

Draft Horses

Imported Light Breeds

Breeds of Horses Developed in the United States

Breed Popularity

Reproductive Management

Nutrition and Feeding of Horses

Challenges to Horse Health

Colic

Laminitis

Heaves

Trends and Factors Influencing the Horse Industry

Education and Research

Competition

New Owners

Safety Concerns

West Nile Virus

Social Issues

Technological Innovation

Industry Organizations

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

22. Aquaculture

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

The Place of Aquaculture in U.S. Agriculture

The Purpose of the Aquaculture Industry

Worldwide Importance of Aquaculture

Historical Perspective

Structure and Geographic Location of the Aquaculture Industry

Catfish

Trout

Tilapia

Crawfish

Salmon

Mollusks

Ornamental Fish

Types of Aquaculture Systems

Water Quality

Aquaculture Life Cycles

Genetics

Nutrition of Aquatic Species

Benefits of Consuming Farm-Raised Fish

Trends Affecting Aquaculture

Species

Technology

Constraints to Expansion

Disease Control

Environmental Concerns

Predator Loss

Culture of Aquatic Species

Farm-Raised Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus)*

Production Process

Feeding

Water Quality

Disease Management

Harvest and Marketing

Quality Assurance

Freshwater Prawn Pond Production and Grow-Out (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii)*

Site Selection and Pond Design

Stocking of Juveniles

Temperature

Feeding

Water Quality Management

Nitrogen Compounds

pH

Diseases

Harvesting

Polyculture and Intercropping

Processing and Marketing

Reproduction of Angelfish (Pterophyllum Scalare)*

Water Quality

Nutrition

Spawning

Sources of Information

Study Questions

References

23. Pet and Companion Animals

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

The Place of Pet and Companion Species in the United States

Purpose of the Pet and Companion Animals Industry

Pets and Companion Animals Defined

Value of Pets

Historical Perspective

Geographic Location

Genetics and Breeding Programs

Breeds of Dogs

Breeds of Cats

Breeds of Other Pet Species

Reproductive Management

Nutrition of the Pet Species

Product Name

Net Quantity Statement

Nutritional Adequacy Statement

Feeding Directions

Calorie Statement

Other Label Claims

Challenges to Companion Animal Health

Cancer

Allergic skin disease

Pyometra

Endocrine diseases

Trends in the Pet Industry

Humanizing the Pet

Pet Population

Registered Animals

Pet Foods

Nutrition

Veterinary Expenditures

Mini-Trends

Industry Organizations

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

24. Lamoids

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Scientific Classification of Camelids

The Place of Lamoids in the United States

The Purpose of the Llama and Alpaca Industries

History of the Llama in the United States

Geographic Distribution

Physical Description

Camelidae

Lamoids

Genetics and Breeds

Health Care

Reproduction

Rearing the Cria

Nutrition and Feed Use

Lamoid Feeding

Behavior

Trends and Challenges to the Llama Industry

Research Needs

Educational Needs

Health Care

Organizations and Sources of Information

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

25. Rabbits

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Scientific Classification of the Rabbit

The Place and Purpose of Rabbits in the United States

Historical Perspective

Geographic Location of the Rabbit Industry in the United States

The Structure of the Rabbit Industry

The Rabbit Fancy

Commercial Meat Production

Laboratory Specimen Production

Breeding Stock Production

Angora Production

Breeds and Genetics

Reproductive Management

Nutrition

Health Program

Challenges to Rabbit Health

Pasteurellosis

Mastitis

Diarrhea

Non-infectious diseases

Nutritional Value of Rabbit Meat to Humans

Trends and Factors in Rabbit Production

Advantages of Commercial Rabbit Production

Disadvantages of Commercial Rabbit Production

Management

Organizations and Sources of Information

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

PART FOUR: ANIMALS AND SOCIETY

26. Careers and Career Preparation in the Animal Sciences

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Animal Science Studies and Careers

Production

Science and Medicine

Foods

Agribusiness

Communication and Education

Animal Caretakers

International Opportunities

Trends Affecting Employment

A Job, a Career, a Lifetime: What are You Deciding When You Choose a Career and a Major?

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

27. Food Safety and Consumer Concerns

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

History of Food Safety as a Public Issue

Importance of Food Safety to Consumers

Preventing Foodborne Illnesses

Some Important Microbial Pathogens Associated with Foodborne Illness

Bacteria

Parasitic Protozoa

Viruses

Governmental Agencies and Food Safety

The Role of the FDA

The Role of FSIS

Responsibilities of the Federal Agencies

Changes in FSIS

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

The Seven HACCP Principles

Additional Changes at FSIS and Other Food Safety Initiatives

The Bioterrorism Act of Ensuring Safety of the Milk Supply

Other Issues of Concern to Consumers

Bovine Somatotropin

Hormones

Antibiotics

Food Irradiation

Mad Cow Disease

Genetically Engineered Products

Sources of Information

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

28. Animal Welfare and Animal Rights

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Animal Rights Versus Animal Welfare

Philosophy, History, and Legislation

Animal Welfare/Animal Rights Groups

Animal Rights Issues Present and Future

Defining and Measuring Animal Welfare

Sources of Information

Suggested Readings

Summary and Conclusion

References

29. Animals in Sustainable Agriculture

Learning Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

What is Sustainable Agriculture?

Practices That Are Part of Sustainable Farming

The Systems Philosophy

Animals in Sustainable Agricultural Systems

Monoculture

Sources of Information

Summary and Conclusion

Study Questions

References

Glossary

Index


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