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An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics



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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 4/25/2011.
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An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics provides an introduction to the theory and practice of applied geophysics.The book covers a range of applications including mineral and hydrocarbon exploration but the greatest emphasis is on the use of geophysics in civil engineering, and in environmental and groundwater investigations.Since the publication of the 1 st edition of An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics the field of applied and environmental geophysics has grown with significant developments in the subject. The new edition will build on the success of the 1 st edition and will include the following key developments: Greater discussion of survey design and standards in geophysical investigations Inclusion of more marine geophysical and geotechical case histories e.g. cable/pip laying Inclusion of examples of integrated case histories Inclusion of new sections dealing with thermal imaging of landfills and radioactivity investigations More information of physio-chemical properties of geological, engineering and environmental materials Greater discussion of borehole techniques especially topography

Table of Contents

Preface to the 2nd Edition.


1 Introduction.

1.1 What are 'applied' and 'environmental' geophysics?

1.2 Geophysical methods.

1.3 Matching geophysical methods to applications.

1.4 Planning a geophysical survey.

1.5 Geophysical survey design.

2 Gravity Methods.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Physical basis.

2.3 Measurement of gravity.

2.4 Gravity meters.

2.5 Corrections to gravity observations.

2.6 Interpretation methods.

2.7 Applications and case histories.

3 Geomagnetic Methods.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Basic concepts and units of geomagnetism.

3.3 Magnetic properties of rocks.

3.4 The Earth’s magnetic field.

3.5 Magnetic instruments.

3.6 Magnetic surveying.

3.7 Qualitative interpretation.

3.8 Quantitative interpretation.

3.9 Applications and case histories.

4 Applied Seismology: Introduction and Principles.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Seismic waves.

4.3 Raypath geometry in layered ground.

4.4 Loss of seismic energy.

4.5 Seismic energy sources.

4.6 Detection and recording of seismic waves.

5 Seismic Refraction Surveying.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 General principles of refraction surveying.

5.3 Geometry of refracted raypaths.

5.4 Interpretational methods.

5.5 Applications and case histories.

5.6 Shear wave methods.

6 Seismic Reflection Surveying.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Reflection surveys.

6.3 Reflection data processing.

6.4 Correlating seismic data with borehole logs and cones.

6.5 Interpretation.

6.6 Applications.

7 Electrical Resistivity Methods.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Basic principles.

7.3 Electrode configurations and geometric factors.

7.4 Modes of deployment.

7.5 Interpretation methods.

7.6 ERT applications and case histories.

7.7 Mise-`a-la-masse (MALM) method.

7.8 Leak detection through artificial membranes.

8 Spontaneous (Self) Potential Methods.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Occurrence of self-potentials.

8.3 Origin of self-potentials.

8.4 Measurement of self-potentials.

8.5 Corrections to SP data.

8.6 Interpretation of self-potential anomalies.

8.7 Applications and case histories.

8.8 Electrokinetic (EK) surveying.

9 Induced Polarisation.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Origin of induced polarisation effects.

9.3 Measurement of induced polarisation.

9.4 Applications and case histories.

10 Electromagnetic Methods: Introduction and Principles.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Principles of EM surveying.

10.3 Airborne EM surveying.

10.4 Seaborne EM surveying.

10.5 Borehole EM surveying.

11 Electromagnetic Methods: Systems and Applications.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Continuous-wave (CW) systems.

11.3 Pulse-transient (TEM) or time-domain (TDEM) EM systems.

12 Electromagnetic Methods: Systems and Applications II.

12.1 Very-low-frequency (VLF) methods.

12.2 The telluric method.

12.3 The magnetotelluric (MT) method.

12.4 Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS).

13 Introduction to Ground-Penetrating Radar.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Principles of operation.

13.3 Propagation of radiowaves.

13.4 Dielectric properties of earth materials.

13.5 Modes of data acquisition.

13.6 Data processing.

13.7 Interpretation techniques.

14 Ground-Penetrating Radar: Applications and Case Histories.

14.1 Geological mapping.

14.2 Hydrogeology and groundwater contamination.

14.3 Glaciological applications.

14.4 Engineering applications on manmade structures.

14.5 Voids within manmade structures.

14.6 Archaeological investigations.

14.7 Forensic uses of GPR.

14.8 Wide-aperture radar mapping and migration processing.

14.9 Borehole radar.

14.10 UXO and landmine detection.

14.11 Animals.

15 Radiometrics.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Natural radiation.

15.3 Radioactivity of rocks.

15.4 Radiation detectors.

15.5 Data correction methods.

15.6 Radiometric data presentation.

15.7 Case histories.




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