9780691001852

Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780691001852

  • ISBN10:

    0691001855

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 12/21/1999
  • Publisher: Princeton Univ Pr

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Summary

Atmospheric chemistry is one of the fastest growing fields in the earth sciences. Until now, however, there has been no book designed to help students capture the essence of the subject in a brief course of study. Daniel Jacob, a leading researcher and teacher in the field, addresses that problem by presenting the first textbook on atmospheric chemistry for a one-semester course. Based on the approach he developed in his class at Harvard, Jacob introduces students in clear and concise chapters to the fundamentals as well as the latest ideas and findings in the field. Jacob's aim is to show students how to use basic principles of physics and chemistry to describe a complex system such as the atmosphere. He also seeks to give students an overview of the current state of research and the work that led to this point. Jacob begins with atmospheric structure, design of simple models, atmospheric transport, and the continuity equation, and continues with geochemical cycles, the greenhouse effect, aerosols, stratospheric ozone, the oxidizing power of the atmosphere, smog, and acid rain. Each chapter concludes with a problem set based on recent scientific literature. This is a novel approach to problem-set writing, and one that successfully introduces students to the prevailing issues. This is a major contribution to a growing area of study and will be welcomed enthusiastically by students and teachers alike.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Measures of Atmospheric Composition
3(11)
Mixing Ratio
3(1)
Number Density
4(4)
Partial Pressure
8(6)
Further Reading
11(1)
Problems
11(1)
Fog Formation
11(1)
Phase Partitioning of Water in Cloud
11(1)
The Ozone Layer
11(3)
Atmospheric Pressure
14(10)
Measuring Atmospheric Pressure
14(1)
Mass of the Atmosphere
14(2)
Vertical Profiles of Pressure and Temperature
16(2)
Barometric Law
18(3)
The Sea-Breeze Circulation
21(3)
Problems
22(1)
Scale Height of the Martian Atmosphere
22(1)
Scale Height and Atmospheric Mass
22(2)
Simple Models
24(18)
One-Box Model
25(5)
Concept of Lifetime
25(2)
Mass Balance Equation
27(3)
Multibox Models
30(3)
Puff Models
33(9)
Problems
36(1)
Atmospheric Steady State
36(1)
Ventilation of Pollution from the United States
37(1)
Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange
37(2)
Interhemispheric Exchange
39(1)
Long-Range Transport of Acidity
39(1)
Box versus Column Model for an Urban Airshed
40(1)
The Montreal Protocol
40(2)
Atmospheric Transport
42(37)
Geostrophic Flow
42(6)
Coriolis Force
42(4)
Geostrophic Balance
46(2)
The Effect of Friction
48(1)
The General Circulation
48(5)
Vertical Transport
53(10)
Buoyancy
53(2)
Atmospheric Stability
55(1)
Adiabatic Lapse Rate
56(2)
Latent Heat Release from Cloud Formation
58(2)
Atmospheric Lapse Rate
60(3)
Turbulence
63(16)
Description of Turbulence
64(1)
Turbulent Flux
64(3)
Parameterization of Turbulence
67(3)
Time Scales for Vertical Transport
70(1)
Further Reading
71(1)
Problems
71(1)
Dilution of Power Plant Plumes
71(1)
Short Questions on Atmospheric Transport
72(1)
Seasonal Motion of the ITCZ
73(1)
A Simple Boundary Layer Model
74(1)
Breaking a Nighttime Inversion
74(1)
Wet Convection
75(1)
Scavenging of Water in a Thunderstorm
76(1)
Global Source of Methane
76(1)
Role of Molecular Diffusion in Atmospheric Transport
77(1)
Vertical Transport near the Surface
78(1)
The Continuity Equation
79(8)
Eulerian Form
79(5)
Derivation
79(2)
Discretization
81(3)
Lagrangian Form
84(3)
Further Reading
85(1)
Problems
85(1)
Turbulent Diffusion Coefficient
85(2)
Geochemical Cycles
87(28)
Geochemical Cycling of Elements
87(2)
Early Evolution of the Atmosphere
89(1)
The Nitrogen Cycle
90(4)
The Oxygen Cycle
94(3)
The Carbon Cycle
97(18)
Mass Balance of Atmospheric CO2
97(1)
Carbonate Chemistry in the Ocean
97(3)
Uptake of CO2 by the Ocean
100(4)
Uptake of CO2 by the Terrestrial Biosphere
104(1)
Box Model of the Carbon Cycle
105(2)
Further Reading
107(1)
Problems
107(1)
Short Questions on the Oxygen Cycle
107(1)
Short Questions on the Carbon Cycle
108(1)
Atmospheric Residence Time of Helium
108(1)
Methyl Bromide
109(2)
Global Fertilization of the Biosphere
111(1)
Ocean pH
111(1)
Cycling of CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere
112(1)
Sinks of Atmospheric CO2 Deduced from Changes in Atmospheric O2
113(1)
Fossil Fuel CO2 Neutralization by Marine CaCO3
113(2)
The Greenhouse Effect
115(31)
Radiation
118(3)
Effective Temperature of the Earth
121(5)
Solar and Terrestrial Emission Spectra
121(1)
Radiative Balance of the Earth
122(4)
Absorption of Radiation by the Atmosphere
126(7)
Spectroscopy of Gas Molecules
126(2)
A Simple Greenhouse Model
128(3)
Interpretation of the Terrestrial Radiation Spectrum
131(2)
Radiative Forcing
133(5)
Definition of Radiative Forcing
133(2)
Application
135(2)
Radiative Forcing and Surface Temperature
137(1)
Water Vapor and Cloud Feedbacks
138(2)
Water Vapor
138(2)
Clouds
140(1)
Optical Depth
140(6)
Further Reading
142(1)
Problems
142(1)
Climate Response to Changes in Ozone
142(1)
Interpretation of the Terrestrial Radiation Spectrum
143(1)
Jupiter and Mars
144(1)
The ``Faint Sun'' Problem
144(1)
Planetary Skin
145(1)
Absorption in the Atmospheric Window
145(1)
Aerosols
146(11)
Sources and Sinks of Aerosols
146(2)
Radiative Effects
148(9)
Scattering of Radiation
148(2)
Visibility Reduction
150(1)
Perturbation to Climate
151(3)
Further Reading
154(1)
Problems
155(1)
Residence Times of Aerosols
155(1)
Aerosols and Radiation
155(2)
Chemical Kinetics
157(7)
Rate Expressions for Gas-Phase Reactions
157(2)
Bimolecular Reactions
157(1)
Three-Body Reactions
158(1)
Reverse Reactions and Chemical Equilibria
159(1)
Photolysis
160(1)
Radical-Assisted Reaction Chains
161(3)
Further Reading
163(1)
Stratospheric Ozone
164(36)
Chapman Mechanism
164(7)
The Mechanism
164(2)
Steady-State Solution
166(5)
Catalytic Loss Cycles
171(8)
Hydrogen Oxide Radicals (HOx)
171(1)
Nitrogen Oxide Radicals (NOx)
172(5)
Chlorine Radicals (ClOx)
177(2)
Polar Ozone Loss
179(8)
Mechanism for Ozone Loss
181(2)
PSC Formation
183(2)
Chronology of the Ozone Hole
185(2)
Aerosol Chemistry
187(13)
Further Reading
191(1)
Problems
191(1)
Shape of the Ozone Layer
191(1)
The Chapman Mechanism and Steady State
191(1)
The Detailed Chapman Mechanism
192(1)
HOx-Catalyzed Ozone Loss
193(1)
Chlorine Chemistry at Midlatitudes
193(2)
Partitioning of Cly
195(1)
Bromine-Catalyzed Ozone Loss
196(1)
Limitation of Antarctic Ozone Depletion
197(1)
Fixing the Ozone Hole
198(1)
PSC Formation
199(1)
Oxidizing Power of the Troposphere
200(31)
The Hydroxyl Radical
201(4)
Tropospheric Production of OH
201(2)
Global Mean OH Concentration
203(2)
Global Budgets of CO and Methane
205(2)
Cycling of HOx and Production of Ozone
207(5)
The OH Titration Problem
207(1)
CO Oxidation Mechanism
207(3)
Methane Oxidation Mechanism
210(2)
Global Budget of Nitrogen Oxides
212(3)
Global Budget of Tropospheric Ozone
215(1)
Anthropogenic Influence on Ozone and OH
216(15)
Further Reading
219(1)
Problems
219(1)
Sources of CO
219(1)
Sources of Tropospheric Ozone
220(1)
Oxidizing Power of the Atmosphere
221(2)
OH Concentrations in the Past
223(1)
Acetone in the Upper Troposphere
223(2)
Transport, Rainout, and Chemistry in the Marine Upper Troposphere
225(2)
Bromine Chemistry in the Troposphere
227(1)
Nighttime Oxidation of NOx
228(1)
Peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) as a Reservoir for NOx
229(2)
Ozone Air Pollution
231(14)
Air Pollution and Ozone
231(2)
Ozone Formation and Control Strategies
233(7)
Ozone Production Efficiency
240(5)
Further Reading
242(1)
Problems
242(1)
NOx- and Hydrocarbon-Limited Regimes for Ozone Production
242(1)
Ozone Titration in a Fresh Plume
243(2)
Acid Rain
245(12)
Chemical Composition of Precipitation
245(4)
Natural Precipitation
245(1)
Precipitation over North America
246(3)
Sources of Acids: Sulfur Chemistry
249(1)
Effects of Acid Rain
250(2)
Emission Trends
252(5)
Problems
253(1)
What Goes Up Must Come Down
253(1)
The True Acidity of Rain
253(1)
Aqueous-Phase Oxidation of SO2 by Ozone
253(1)
The Acid Fog Problem
254(1)
Acid Rain: The Preindustrial Atmosphere
255(2)
Numerical Solutions to Problems 257(2)
Appendix. Physical Data and Units 259(2)
Index 261

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