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Preface | p. xiii |
Acronyms | p. xv |
List of Symbols | p. xix |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Audio Content | p. 3 |
A Generalized Audio Content Analysis System | p. 4 |
Fundamentals | p. 7 |
Audio Signals | p. 7 |
Periodic Signals | p. 7 |
Random Signals | p. 9 |
Sampling and Quantization | p. 9 |
Statistical Signal Description | p. 13 |
Signal Processing | p. 14 |
Convolution | p. 14 |
Block-Based Processing | p. 18 |
Fourier Transform | p. 20 |
Constant Q Transform | p. 23 |
Auditory Filterbanks | p. 24 |
Correlation Function | p. 24 |
Linear Prediction | p. 28 |
Instantaneous Features | p. 31 |
Audio Pre-Processing | p. 33 |
Down-Mixing | p. 33 |
DC Removal | p. 33 |
Normalization | p. 34 |
Down-Sampling | p. 34 |
Other Pre-Processing Options | p. 35 |
Statistical Properties | p. 35 |
Arithmetic Mean | p. 36 |
Geometric Mean | p. 36 |
Harmonic Mean | p. 36 |
Generalized Mean | p. 26 |
Centroid | p. 37 |
Variance and Standard Deviation | p. 37 |
Skewness | p. 38 |
Kurtosis | p. 39 |
Generalized Central Moments | p. 40 |
Quantiles and Quantile Ranges | p. 40 |
Spectral Shape | p. 41 |
Spectral Rolloff | p. 42 |
Spectral Flux | p. 44 |
Spectral Centroid | p. 45 |
Spectral Spread | p. 47 |
Spectral Decrease | p. 48 |
Spectral Slope | p. 49 |
Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients | p. 51 |
Signal Properties | p. 54 |
Tonalness | p. 54 |
Autocorrelation Coefficients | p. 61 |
Zero Crossing Rate | p. 62 |
Feature Post-Processing | p. 53 |
Derived Features | p. 64 |
Normalization and Mapping | p. 65 |
Subfeatures | p. 66 |
Feature Dimensionality Reduction | p. 66 |
Intensity | p. 71 |
Human Perception of Intensity and Loudness | p. 71 |
Representation of Dynamics in Music | p. 73 |
Features | p. 73 |
Root Mean Square | p. 73 |
Peak Envelope | p. 76 |
Psycho-Acoustic Loudness Features | p. 77 |
EBU R128 | p. 78 |
Tonal Analysis | p. 79 |
Human Perception of Pitch | p. 79 |
Pitch Scales | p. 79 |
Chroma Perception | p. 81 |
Representation of Pitch in Music | p. 82 |
Pitch Classes and Names | p. 82 |
Intervals | p. 83 |
Root Note, Mode, and Key | p. 83 |
Chords and Harmony | p. 86 |
The Frequency of Musical Pitch | p. 88 |
Fundamental Frequency Detection | p. 91 |
Detection Accuracy | p. 92 |
Pre-Processing | p. 94 |
Monophonic Input Signals | p. 97 |
Polyphonic Input Signals | p. 103 |
Tuning Frequency Estimation | p. 106 |
Key Detection | p. 108 |
Pitch Chroma | p. 108 |
Key Recognition | p. 112 |
Chord Recognition | p. 116 |
Temporal Analysis | p. 119 |
Human Perception of Temporal Events | p. 119 |
Onsets | p. 119 |
Tempo and Meter | p. 122 |
Rhythm | p. 122 |
Timing | p. 123 |
Representation of Temporal Events in Music | p. 123 |
Tempo and Time Signature | p. 123 |
Note Value | p. 124 |
Onset Detection | p. 124 |
Novelty Function | p. 125 |
Peak Picking | p. 127 |
Evaluation | p. 128 |
Beat Histogram | p. 133 |
Beat Histogram Features | p. 134 |
Detection of Tempo and Beat Phase | p. 135 |
Detection of Meter and Downbeat | p. 136 |
Alignment | p. 139 |
Dynamic Time Warping | p. 139 |
Example | p. 143 |
Common Variants | p. 144 |
Optimizations | p. 145 |
Audio-to-Audio Alignment | p. 146 |
Ground Truth Data for Evaluation | p. 147 |
Audio-to-Score Alignment | p. 148 |
Real-Time Systems | p. 148 |
Non-Real-Time Systems | p. 149 |
Musical Genre, Similarity, and Mood | p. 151 |
Musical Genre Classification | p. 151 |
Musical Genre | p. 152 |
Feature Extraction | p. 154 |
Classification | p. 155 |
Related Research Fields | p. 156 |
Music Similarity Detection | p. 156 |
Mood Classification | p. 158 |
Instrument Recognition | p. 161 |
Audio Fingerprinting | p. 163 |
Fingerprint Extraction | p. 164 |
Fingerprint Matching | p. 165 |
Fingerprinting System: Example | p. 166 |
Music Performance Analysis | p. 169 |
Musical Communication | p. 169 |
Score | p. 169 |
Music Performance | p. 170 |
Production | p. 172 |
Recipient | p. 172 |
Music Performance Analysis | p. 172 |
Analysis Data | p. 173 |
Research Results | p. 177 |
Convolution Properties | p. 181 |
Identity | p. 181 |
Commutativity | p. 181 |
Associativity | p. 182 |
Distributivity | p. 183 |
Circularity | p. 183 |
Fourier Transform | p. 185 |
Properties of the Fourier Transformation | p. 186 |
Inverse Fourier Transform | p. 186 |
Superposition | p. 186 |
Convolution and Multiplication | p. 186 |
Parseval's Theorem | p. 187 |
Time and Frequency Shift | p. 188 |
Symmetry | p. 188 |
Time and Frequency Scaling | p. 189 |
Derivatives | p. 190 |
Spectrum of Example Time Domain Signals | p. 190 |
Delta Function | p. 190 |
Constant | p. 191 |
Cosine | p. 191 |
Rectangular Window | p. 191 |
Delta Pulse | p. 191 |
Transformation of Sampled Time Signals | p. 192 |
Short Time Fourier Transform of Continuous Signals | p. 192 |
Window Functions | p. 193 |
Discrete Fourier Transform | p. 195 |
Window Functions | p. 196 |
Fast Fourier Transform | p. 197 |
Principal Component Analysis | p. 199 |
Computation of the Transformation Matrix | p. 200 |
Interpretation of the Transformation Matrix | p. 200 |
Software for Audio Analysis | p. 201 |
Software Frameworks and Applications | p. 202 |
Marsyas | p. 202 |
CLAM | p. 202 |
jMIR | p. 203 |
CoMTRVA | p. 203 |
Sonic Visualiser | p. 203 |
Software Libraries and Toolboxes | p. 204 |
Feature Extraction | p. 204 |
Plugin Interfaces | p. 205 |
Other Software | p. 206 |
References | p. 207 |
Index | p. 243 |
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