Preface | p. xiii |

Acronyms | p. xv |

List of Symbols | p. xix |

Introduction | p. 1 |

Audio Content | p. 3 |

A Generalized Audio Content Analysis System | p. 4 |

Fundamentals | p. 7 |

Audio Signals | p. 7 |

Periodic Signals | p. 7 |

Random Signals | p. 9 |

Sampling and Quantization | p. 9 |

Statistical Signal Description | p. 13 |

Signal Processing | p. 14 |

Convolution | p. 14 |

Block-Based Processing | p. 18 |

Fourier Transform | p. 20 |

Constant Q Transform | p. 23 |

Auditory Filterbanks | p. 24 |

Correlation Function | p. 24 |

Linear Prediction | p. 28 |

Instantaneous Features | p. 31 |

Audio Pre-Processing | p. 33 |

Down-Mixing | p. 33 |

DC Removal | p. 33 |

Normalization | p. 34 |

Down-Sampling | p. 34 |

Other Pre-Processing Options | p. 35 |

Statistical Properties | p. 35 |

Arithmetic Mean | p. 36 |

Geometric Mean | p. 36 |

Harmonic Mean | p. 36 |

Generalized Mean | p. 26 |

Centroid | p. 37 |

Variance and Standard Deviation | p. 37 |

Skewness | p. 38 |

Kurtosis | p. 39 |

Generalized Central Moments | p. 40 |

Quantiles and Quantile Ranges | p. 40 |

Spectral Shape | p. 41 |

Spectral Rolloff | p. 42 |

Spectral Flux | p. 44 |

Spectral Centroid | p. 45 |

Spectral Spread | p. 47 |

Spectral Decrease | p. 48 |

Spectral Slope | p. 49 |

Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients | p. 51 |

Signal Properties | p. 54 |

Tonalness | p. 54 |

Autocorrelation Coefficients | p. 61 |

Zero Crossing Rate | p. 62 |

Feature Post-Processing | p. 53 |

Derived Features | p. 64 |

Normalization and Mapping | p. 65 |

Subfeatures | p. 66 |

Feature Dimensionality Reduction | p. 66 |

Intensity | p. 71 |

Human Perception of Intensity and Loudness | p. 71 |

Representation of Dynamics in Music | p. 73 |

Features | p. 73 |

Root Mean Square | p. 73 |

Peak Envelope | p. 76 |

Psycho-Acoustic Loudness Features | p. 77 |

EBU R128 | p. 78 |

Tonal Analysis | p. 79 |

Human Perception of Pitch | p. 79 |

Pitch Scales | p. 79 |

Chroma Perception | p. 81 |

Representation of Pitch in Music | p. 82 |

Pitch Classes and Names | p. 82 |

Intervals | p. 83 |

Root Note, Mode, and Key | p. 83 |

Chords and Harmony | p. 86 |

The Frequency of Musical Pitch | p. 88 |

Fundamental Frequency Detection | p. 91 |

Detection Accuracy | p. 92 |

Pre-Processing | p. 94 |

Monophonic Input Signals | p. 97 |

Polyphonic Input Signals | p. 103 |

Tuning Frequency Estimation | p. 106 |

Key Detection | p. 108 |

Pitch Chroma | p. 108 |

Key Recognition | p. 112 |

Chord Recognition | p. 116 |

Temporal Analysis | p. 119 |

Human Perception of Temporal Events | p. 119 |

Onsets | p. 119 |

Tempo and Meter | p. 122 |

Rhythm | p. 122 |

Timing | p. 123 |

Representation of Temporal Events in Music | p. 123 |

Tempo and Time Signature | p. 123 |

Note Value | p. 124 |

Onset Detection | p. 124 |

Novelty Function | p. 125 |

Peak Picking | p. 127 |

Evaluation | p. 128 |

Beat Histogram | p. 133 |

Beat Histogram Features | p. 134 |

Detection of Tempo and Beat Phase | p. 135 |

Detection of Meter and Downbeat | p. 136 |

Alignment | p. 139 |

Dynamic Time Warping | p. 139 |

Example | p. 143 |

Common Variants | p. 144 |

Optimizations | p. 145 |

Audio-to-Audio Alignment | p. 146 |

Ground Truth Data for Evaluation | p. 147 |

Audio-to-Score Alignment | p. 148 |

Real-Time Systems | p. 148 |

Non-Real-Time Systems | p. 149 |

Musical Genre, Similarity, and Mood | p. 151 |

Musical Genre Classification | p. 151 |

Musical Genre | p. 152 |

Feature Extraction | p. 154 |

Classification | p. 155 |

Related Research Fields | p. 156 |

Music Similarity Detection | p. 156 |

Mood Classification | p. 158 |

Instrument Recognition | p. 161 |

Audio Fingerprinting | p. 163 |

Fingerprint Extraction | p. 164 |

Fingerprint Matching | p. 165 |

Fingerprinting System: Example | p. 166 |

Music Performance Analysis | p. 169 |

Musical Communication | p. 169 |

Score | p. 169 |

Music Performance | p. 170 |

Production | p. 172 |

Recipient | p. 172 |

Music Performance Analysis | p. 172 |

Analysis Data | p. 173 |

Research Results | p. 177 |

Convolution Properties | p. 181 |

Identity | p. 181 |

Commutativity | p. 181 |

Associativity | p. 182 |

Distributivity | p. 183 |

Circularity | p. 183 |

Fourier Transform | p. 185 |

Properties of the Fourier Transformation | p. 186 |

Inverse Fourier Transform | p. 186 |

Superposition | p. 186 |

Convolution and Multiplication | p. 186 |

Parseval's Theorem | p. 187 |

Time and Frequency Shift | p. 188 |

Symmetry | p. 188 |

Time and Frequency Scaling | p. 189 |

Derivatives | p. 190 |

Spectrum of Example Time Domain Signals | p. 190 |

Delta Function | p. 190 |

Constant | p. 191 |

Cosine | p. 191 |

Rectangular Window | p. 191 |

Delta Pulse | p. 191 |

Transformation of Sampled Time Signals | p. 192 |

Short Time Fourier Transform of Continuous Signals | p. 192 |

Window Functions | p. 193 |

Discrete Fourier Transform | p. 195 |

Window Functions | p. 196 |

Fast Fourier Transform | p. 197 |

Principal Component Analysis | p. 199 |

Computation of the Transformation Matrix | p. 200 |

Interpretation of the Transformation Matrix | p. 200 |

Software for Audio Analysis | p. 201 |

Software Frameworks and Applications | p. 202 |

Marsyas | p. 202 |

CLAM | p. 202 |

jMIR | p. 203 |

CoMTRVA | p. 203 |

Sonic Visualiser | p. 203 |

Software Libraries and Toolboxes | p. 204 |

Feature Extraction | p. 204 |

Plugin Interfaces | p. 205 |

Other Software | p. 206 |

References | p. 207 |

Index | p. 243 |

Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved. |