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Introduction to Behavioral Research Methods,9780205322046
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Introduction to Behavioral Research Methods

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205322046

ISBN10:
0205322042
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
6/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 6/1/2000.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

Taking into consideration the four basic approaches to behavioral research (descriptive research, correlational research, experimental research, and quasi-experimental research), "Introduction to Behavioral Research Methods" shows students how to conceptualize questions, measure variables, design studies, and analyze data.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Research in the Behavioral Sciences
1(32)
The Beginnings of Behavioral Research
2(2)
Goals of Behavioral Research
4(2)
Describing Behavior
4(1)
Explaining Behavior
4(1)
Predicting Behavior
5(1)
Solving Behavioral Problems
5(1)
Four Goals or One?
5(1)
The Value of Research to the Student
6(1)
The Scientific Approach
7(3)
Systematic Empiricism
8(1)
Public Verification
8(1)
Solvable Problems
9(1)
Behavioral Science and Common Sense
10(1)
Philosophy of Science
11(2)
The Role of Theory in Science
13(1)
Research Hypotheses
14(2)
A Priori Predictions and Post Hoc Explanations
16(1)
Conceptual and Operational Definitions
16(3)
Proof and Disproof in Science
19(4)
The Logical Impossibility of Proof
19(1)
The Practical Impossibility of Disproof
20(1)
If Not Proof or Disproof, Then What?
20(3)
Strategies of Behavioral Research
23(2)
Descriptive Research
23(1)
Correlational Research
23(1)
Experimental Research
24(1)
Quasi-Experimental Research
24(1)
Domains of Behavioral Science
25(2)
A Preview
27(1)
Summary
28(5)
Behavioral Variability and Research
33(20)
Variability and the Research Process
34(3)
Variance: An Index of Variability
37(5)
A Conceptual Explanation of Variance
38(1)
A Statistical Explanation of Variance
39(3)
Systematic and Error Variance
42(4)
Systematic Variance
42(1)
Error Variance
43(2)
Distinguishing Systematic from Error Variance
45(1)
Assessing the Strength of Relationships
46(1)
Meta-Analysis: Systematic Variance Across Studies
47(2)
Summary
49(4)
The Measurement of Behavior
53(24)
Types of Measures
54(2)
Scales of Measurement
56(1)
Estimating the Reliability of a Measure
57(8)
Measurement Error
58(1)
Reliability as Systematic Variance
59(1)
Assessing Reliability
60(4)
Increasing the Reliability of Measures
64(1)
Estimating the Validity of a Measure
65(6)
Assessing Validity
65(6)
Fairness and Bias in Measurement
71(2)
Summary
73(4)
Approaches to Psychological Measurement
77(27)
Observational Methods
78(7)
Naturalistic Versus Contrived Settings
78(2)
Disguised Versus Nondisguised Observation
80(2)
Behavioral Recording
82(3)
Increasing the Reliability of Observational Methods
85(1)
Physiological Measures
85(1)
Self-Report: Questionnaires and Interviews
86(11)
Writing Questions
86(5)
Questionnaires
91(2)
Interviews
93(1)
Advantages of Questionnaires Versus Interviews
94(1)
Biases in Self-Report Measurement
94(3)
Archival Data
97(2)
Content Analysis
99(1)
Summary
100(4)
Descriptive Research
104(32)
Types of Descriptive Research
105(4)
Surveys
105(2)
Demographic Research
107(1)
Epidemiological Research
108(1)
Summary
108(1)
Sampling
109(10)
Probability Samples
109(7)
Nonprobability Samples
116(3)
Describing and Presenting Data
119(12)
Criteria of a Good Description
119(1)
Frequency Distributions
120(5)
Measures of Central Tendency
125(1)
Measures of Variability
126(1)
Standard Deviation and the Normal Curve
127(3)
The z-Score
130(1)
Summary
131(5)
Correlational Research
136(26)
The Correlation Coefficient
138(1)
A Graphic Representation of Correlations
139(3)
The Coefficient of Determination
142(4)
Statistical Significance of r
146(2)
Factors That Distort Correlation Coefficients
148(4)
Restricted Range
148(2)
Outliers
150(2)
Reliability of Measures
152(1)
Correlation and Causality
152(3)
Partial Correlation
155(1)
Other Correlation Coefficients
156(1)
Summary
157(5)
Advanced Correlational Strategies
162(22)
Predicting Behavior: Regression Strategies
162(9)
Linear Regression
163(2)
Types of Multiple Regression
165(5)
Multiple Correlation
170(1)
Assessing Directionality: Cross-Lagged and Structural Equations Analysis
171(4)
Cross-Lagged Panel Design
171(1)
Structural Equations Modeling
172(3)
Uncovering Underlying Dimensions: Factor Analysis
175(4)
An Intuitive Approach
176(1)
Basics of Factor Analysis
176(2)
Uses of Factor Analysis
178(1)
Summary
179(5)
Basic Issues in Experimental Research
184(34)
Manipulating the Independent Variable
186(5)
Independent Variables
186(4)
Dependent Variables
190(1)
Assignment of Participants of Conditions
191(6)
Simple Random Assignment
191(1)
Matched Random Assignment
192(1)
Repeated Measures Designs
193(4)
Experimental Control
197(3)
Systematic Variance
197(1)
Error Variance
198(1)
An Analogy
199(1)
Eliminating Confounds
200(8)
Internal Validity
200(1)
Threats to Internal Validity
201(4)
Experimenter Expectancies, Demand Characteristics, and Placebo Effects
205(3)
Error Variance
208(3)
Sources of Error Variance
208(3)
Experimental Control and Generalizability: The Experimenter's Dilemma
211(1)
Summary
212(6)
Experimental Design
218(25)
One-Way Designs
219(5)
Assigning Participants to Conditions
220(1)
Posttest and Pretest-Posttest Designs
221(3)
Factorial Designs
224(6)
Factorial Nomenclature
225(3)
Assigning Participants to Conditions
228(2)
Main Effects and Interactions
230(5)
Main Effects
230(1)
Interactions
231(3)
Higher-Order Designs
234(1)
Combining Independent and Subject Variables
235(4)
Summary
239(4)
Analyzing Experimental Data
243(19)
An Intuitive Approach to Analysis
244(2)
The Problem: Error Variance Can Cause Mean Differences
245(1)
The Solution: Inferential Statistics
245(1)
Hypothesis Testing
246(4)
The Null Hypothesis
246(1)
Type I and Type II Errors
247(3)
Effect Size
250(1)
Summary
250(1)
Analysis of Two-Group Experiments: The t-Test
250(6)
Conducting a t-Test
251(4)
Back to the Droodles Experiment
255(1)
Analyses of Matched-Subjects and Within-Subjects Designs
256(1)
Summary
257(5)
Analyzing Complex Designs
262(20)
The Problem: Multiple Tests Inflate Type I Error
263(1)
The Rationale Behind ANOVA
264(1)
How ANOVA Works
265(6)
Total Sum of Squares
265(1)
Sum of Squares Within-Groups
266(1)
Sum of Squares Between-Groups
267(1)
The F-Test
267(1)
Extension of ANOVA to Factorial Designs
268(3)
Follow-Up Tests
271(3)
Main Effects
271(1)
Interactions
272(2)
Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects ANOVAs
274(1)
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
274(3)
Conceptually Related Dependent Variables
275(1)
Inflation of Type I Error
275(1)
How MANOVA Works
276(1)
Experimental and Nonexperimental Uses of Inferential Statistics
277(1)
Computer Analyses
278(1)
Summary
279(3)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
282(24)
Pretest-Posttest Designs
284(7)
How NOT to Do a Study: The One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
285(1)
Nonequivalent Control Group Design
286(5)
Time Series Designs
291(5)
Simple Interrupted Time Series Design
291(3)
Interrupted Time Series with a Reversal
294(1)
Control Group Interrupted Time Series Design
295(1)
Longitudinal Designs
296(2)
Program Evaluation
298(2)
Evaluating Quasi-Experimental Designs
300(3)
Threats to Internal Validity
300(2)
Increasing Confidence in Quasi-Experimental Results
302(1)
Summary
303(3)
Single-Case Research
306(23)
Single-Case Experimental Designs
308(13)
Criticisms of Group Designs and Analyses
309(3)
Basic Single-Case Experimental Designs
312(4)
Data from Single-Participant Designs
316(2)
Uses of Single-Case Experimental Designs
318(2)
Critique of Single-Participant Designs
320(1)
Case Study Research
321(4)
Uses of the Case Study Method
322(1)
Limitations of the Case Study Approach
323(2)
Summary
325(4)
Ethical Issues in Behavioral Research
329(24)
Approaches to Ethical Decisions
330(2)
Basic Ethical Guidelines
332(3)
Potential Benefits
333(1)
Potential Costs
334(1)
Balancing Benefits and Costs
334(1)
The Institutional Review Board
334(1)
The principle of Informed Consent
335(3)
Obtaining Informed Consent
335(1)
Problems with Obtaining Informed Consent
336(2)
Invasion of Privacy
338(1)
Coercion to Participate
339(1)
Physical and Mental Stress
339(1)
Deception in Research
340(2)
Objections to Deception
340(1)
Debriefing
341(1)
Confidentiality in Research
342(2)
Common Courtesy
344(1)
Ethical Principles in Research with Animals
345(2)
Scientific Misconduct
347(3)
A Final Note
350(1)
Summary
350(3)
Scientific Writing
353(46)
How Scientific Findings Are Disseminated
353(4)
Journal Publication
354(1)
Presentations at Professional Meetings
355(1)
Personal Contact
356(1)
Elements of Good Scientific Writing
357(5)
Organization
357(1)
Clarity
358(2)
Conciseness
360(1)
Proofreading and Rewriting
361(1)
Avoiding Biased Language
362(2)
Gender-Neutral Language
362(2)
Other Language Pitfalls
364(1)
Parts of a Manuscript
364(6)
Title Page
365(1)
Abstract
366(1)
Introduction
367(1)
Method
367(1)
Results
368(1)
Discussion
369(1)
Citing and Referencing Previous Research
370(3)
Citations in the Text
370(1)
The Reference List
371(2)
Other Aspects of APA Style
373(4)
Optional Sections
373(1)
Headings, Spacing, Pagination, and Numbers
374(3)
Sample Manuscript
377(22)
Glossary 399(12)
Appendix A Statistical Tables 411(7)
Appendix B Computational Formulas for ANOVA 418(9)
References 427(8)
Index 435


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