This text gives readers the background (and confidence) they need in chemistry. Stoker's book focuses on the most important topics (this text omits organic and biochemistry chapters), and teaches the problem-solving skills students need, all at an affordable price.
1. The Science of Chemistry.
Chemistry—A Scientific Discipline. Scientific Disciplines and Technology. The Scope of Chemistry and Chemical Technology. How Chemists Discover Things—The Scientific Method. 2. Numbers from Measurements.
The Importance of Measurement. Exact and Inexact Numbers. Accuracy, Precision, and Error. Uncertainty in Measurements. Significant Figures. Significant Figures and Mathematical Operations. Scientific Notation. Mathematical Operations in Scientific Notation. 3. Unit Systems and Dimensional Analysis.
The Metric System of Units. Metric Units of Length. Metric Units of Mass. Metric Units of Volume. Units in Mathematical Operations. Conversion Factors. Dimensional Analysis. Density. Equivalence Conversion Factors Other than Density. Percentage and Percent Error. Temperature Scales. 4. Basic Concepts about Matter.
Chemistry—The Study of Matter. Physical States of Matter. Properties of Matter. Changes in Matter. Pure Substances and Mixtures. Types of Mixtures: Heterogeneous and Homogeneous. Types of Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds. Discovery and Abundance of the Elements. Names and Symbols of the Elements. 5. Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles.
The Atom. The Molecule. Natural and Synthetic Compounds. Chemical Formulas. Subatomic Particles: Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons. Atomic Number and Mass Number. Isotopes. Atomic Masses. Evidence Supporting the Existence and Arrangement of Subatomic Particles. 6. Electronic Structures and Chemical Periodicity.
The Periodic Law. The Periodic Table. The Energy of an Electron. Electron Shells. Electron Subshells. Electron Orbitals. Electron Configurations. Orbital Diagrams. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Law. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table. Classification Systems for the Elements. Chemical Periodicity. 7. Chemical Bonds.
Types of Chemical Bonds. Valence Electrons and Electron-Dot Structures. The Octet Rule. The Ionic Bond Model. Determination of Ionic Charge Magnitude. Ionic Compound Formation. Formulas for Ionic Compounds. Structure for Ionic Compounds. Polyatomic Ions. The Covalent Bond Model. Electron-Dot Structures for Molecular Compounds. Single, Double, and Triple Covalent Bonds. Valence Electron Count and Number of Covalent Bonds Formed. Coordinate Covalent Bonds. Resonance Structures. Systematic Procedures for Drawing Electron-Dot Structures. The Shapes of Molecules: Molecular Geometry. Electronegativity. Bond Polarity. Molecular Polarity. 8. Chemical Nomenclature.
Classification of Compounds for Nomenclature Purposes. Types of Binary Ionic Compounds. Nomenclature for Binary Ionic Compounds. Nomenclature for Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions. Nomenclature for Binary Molecular Compounds. Nomenclature for Acids. Nomenclature Rules—A Summary. 9. Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas.
The Law of Definite Proportions. Calculation of Formula Masses. Significant Figures and Atomic Mass. Percent Composition. The Mole: The Chemist's Counting Unit. The Mass of a Mole. Significant Figures and Avogadro's Number. Counting Particles by Weighing. The Mole and Chemical Formulas. The Mole and Chemical Calculations. Empirical and Molecular Formulas. Determination of Empirical Formulas. Determination of Molecular Formulas. 10. Chemical Calculations Involving Chemical Equations.
The Law of Conservation of Mass. Writing Chemical Equations. Balancing Chemical Equations. Special Symbols Used in Chemical Equations. Classes of Chemical Reactions. Chemical Equations and the Mole Concept. Balanced Chemical Equations and the Law of Conservation of Mass. Calculations Based on Chemical Equations—Stoichiometry. The Limiting Reactant Concept. Yields: Theoretical, Actual, and Percent. Simultaneous and Consecutive Reactions. 11. States of Matter.
Factors that Determine Physical State. Property Differences among Physical States. The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter. The Solid State. The Liquid State. The Gaseous State. A Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases. Endothermic and Exothermic Changes of State. Heat Energy and Specific Heat. Temperature Change as a Substance Is Heated. Energy and Changes of State. Heat Energy Calculations. Evaporation of Liquids. Vapor Pressure of Liquids. Boiling and Boiling Points. Intermolecular Forces in Liquids. Types of Solids. 12. Gas Laws.
Properties of Some Common Gases. Gas Law Variables. Boyle's Law: A Pressure-Volume Relationship. Charles's Law: A Temperature-Volume Relationship. Gay-Lussac's Law: A Temperature-Pressure Relationship. The Combined Gas Law. Standard Conditions for Temperature and Pressure. Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Volumes. Volumes of Gases and the Limiting Reactant Concept. Avogadro's Law: A Volume-Quantity Relationship. Molar Volume of a Gas. The Ideal Gas Law. Equations Derived from the Ideal Gas Law. Gas Laws and Chemical Equations. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures. 13. Solutions.
Types of Solutions. Terminology Used In Describing Solutions. Solution Formation. Solubility Rules. Solution Concentration. Concentration: Percentage of Solute. Concentration: Parts per Million and Parts per Billion. Concentration: Molarity. Concentration: Molality. Dilution. Molarity and Chemical Equations. 14. Acids, Bases, and Salts.
Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory. Brønsted-Lowery Acid-Base Theory. Conjugate Acids and Bases. Mono-, Di-, Triprotic Acids. Strengths of Acids and Bases. Salts. Ionic and Net Ionic Equations. Reactions of Acids. Reactions of Bases. Reactions of Salts. Self-Ionization of Water. The pH Scale. Hydrolysis of Salts. Acid-Base Titrations. Normality Concentration Unit. Acid-Base Titration Calculation. Acid and Base Stock Solutions. 15. Oxidation and Reduction.
Oxidation-Reduction Terminology. Oxidation Numbers. Types of Chemical Reactions. Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations. Oxidation-Number Method for Balancing Redox Equations. Half-Reaction Method for Balancing Redox Equations. Disproportionation Reactions. Some Important Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. 16. Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium.
Collision Theory. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions. Factors That Influence Reaction Rates. Chemical Equilibrium. Equilibrium Mixture Stoichiometry. Equilibrium Constants. Le Châtelier's Principle. Forcing Reactions to Completion. 17. Nuclear Chemistry.
Unstable Nuclides and Radioactivity. Discovery of Radioactivity. Nature of Natural Radioactive Emissions. Equations of Radioactive Decay. Rate of Radioactive Decay. Transmutation through Bombardment Reactions. Positron Emission and Electron Capture. Nuclear Stability. Radioactive Decay Series. Chemical Effects of Radiation. Biological Effects of Radiation. Detection of Radiation. Sources of Radiation. Nuclear Medicine. Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion. A Comparison of Nuclear and Chemical Reactions. Appendix A. Mathematical Review. Glossary. Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems. Index.