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Introduction to Communication Disorders: A Life Span Perspective,9780205274581
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Introduction to Communication Disorders: A Life Span Perspective

by ; ;
ISBN13:

9780205274581

ISBN10:
0205274587
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
10/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Introduction to Communication Disorders: A Lifespan Perspective presents an informative overview of the fields of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology in an interesting and highly readable manner. This text provides a solid foundation for future study by providing many viewpoints for the introductory student, offering personal stories of people with communication disorders, and examining the field from a lifespan perspective. In addition, the best models of good practice and approaches for assessment and intervention are discussed based on the authors' own clinical experience.Each chapter describes a specific disorder and related assessment and intervention methods. Each disorder is also illustrated by the personal story of an individual with that disorder. Reader interest and thought are stimulated by thought questions placed throughout each chapter and by margin notes that highlight important information. The suggested readings and Internet locations provided at the conclusion of each chapter provide additional avenues by which students can gain further knowledge.Unlike any other text currently available, Introduction to Communication Disorders features an accompanying CD-ROM a learning device and study tool which presents many of the disorders students read about in sound and video format. In addition, self-study questions follow the outline of each chapter and highlight important information.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction to Communication, Disorders, and the Professions
1(46)
Human Communication
2(12)
The Social Animal
2(3)
Means of Communication
5(9)
Communication Impairments
14(9)
Hearing Disorders
14(2)
Central Auditory Processing Disorders
16(1)
Speech Disorders
17(2)
Language Disorders
19(1)
How Common Are Communication Disorders?
20(3)
Communication Disorders in Historic Perspective
23(3)
The Team of Professionals
26(9)
Speech-Language Pathologists
26(1)
Audiologists
27(2)
Speech, Language, and Hearing Scientists
29(1)
Related Professions: A Team Approach
30(5)
Professional Organizations
35(2)
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
35(2)
Related Professional Associations
37(1)
Helping Others to Help Themselves
37(3)
Summary
40(1)
Reflections
40(1)
Suggested Readings
41(1)
On-Line Resources
41(1)
Appendix 1A: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Code of Ethics
42(5)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech and Voice Mechanism
47(34)
The Respiratory System
49(10)
Structural Framework of the Respiratory System
49(2)
The Pulmonary System
51(1)
Musculature of the Respiratory System
52(4)
The Physiology of Quiet Breathing and Speech Breathing
56(2)
Life Span Issues of the Respiratory System
58(1)
The Laryngeal System
59(7)
Structural Support of the Laryngeal System
59(1)
The Vocal Folds
60(1)
Laryngeal Musculature
61(5)
The Articulatory/Resonating System
66(9)
Structural Support of the Articulating/Resonating System
67(1)
Teeth
67(1)
The Tongue
67(2)
The Velum
69(2)
Life Span Issues of the Articulatory/Resonating System
71(4)
Speech Production Process
75(3)
Summary
78(1)
Reflections
79(1)
Suggested Readings
79(1)
On-Line Resources
79(2)
Communication Development
81(34)
A Chronology
83(29)
Infants and Toddlers
83(15)
Preschoolers
98(6)
School-Age Children and Adolescents
104(5)
Adults
109(3)
Summary
112(1)
Reflections
113(1)
Suggested Readings
113(1)
On-Line Resources
113(2)
Assessment and Treatment
115(46)
Differences, Dialects, Disorders
116(4)
A Communication Continuum
116(1)
Dialects
116(2)
Disorders
118(2)
Is There A Problem?
120(6)
Referrals
120(2)
Screening
122(4)
Defining the Problem
126(14)
Assessment Goals
126(4)
Assessment Procedures
130(10)
Treatment of Communication Disorders
140(10)
Target Selection
140(2)
Baseline Data
142(1)
Behavioral Objects
143(1)
Clinical Procedures
143(6)
Measuring Effectiveness
149(1)
Follow-up and Maintenance
149(1)
Summary
150(1)
Reflections
150(1)
Suggested Readings
151(1)
On-Line Resources
151(1)
Appendix 4A: Child Case History Form
152(9)
Childhood Language Impairments
161(46)
Associated Disorders and Related Causes
163(22)
Mental Retardation/Developmental Disabilities
164(4)
Learning Disabilities
168(5)
Specific Language Impairment
173(2)
Autism and Pervasive Development Disorder
175(3)
Brain Injury
178(3)
Early Expressive Language Delay
181(1)
Neglect and Abuse
182(1)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Drug-Addicted Newborns
183(1)
Conclusion
184(1)
Aspects of Language Affected
185(1)
Assessment
186(11)
Referral
187(1)
Case History and Interview
187(1)
Observation
187(4)
Testing
191(3)
Sampling
194(3)
Intervention
197(6)
Target Selection and Sequence of Training
198(1)
Intervention Procedures
199(1)
Intervention Through the Life Span
200(3)
Summary
203(1)
Reflections
204(1)
Suggested Readings
204(1)
On-Line Resources
205(2)
Adult Language Impairments
207(42)
Central Nervous System
208(4)
Hemispheric Asymmetry
210(1)
Language Processing
211(1)
Aphasia
212(21)
Concomitant or Accompanying Deficits
216(4)
Types of Aphasia
220(6)
Assessment for Aphasia
226(5)
Intervention
231(2)
Conclusion
233(1)
Right Hemisphere Injury
233(3)
Characteristics
234(1)
Assessment
235(1)
Intervention
236(1)
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
236(6)
Characteristics
238(2)
Assessment
240(1)
Intervention
240(2)
Dementia
242(4)
Alzheimer's Disease
243(1)
Assessment
244(1)
Intervention
244(2)
Summary
246(1)
Reflections
246(1)
Suggested Readings
247(1)
On-Line Resources
247(2)
Fluency Disorders
249(30)
Effects of Stuttering on Life Activities
252(2)
Effects of Stuttering on School Performance
252(1)
Effects of Stuttering on Work
253(1)
Effects of Stuttering on Social Interactions
253(1)
Fluent Speech Versus Stuttering
254(3)
Normal Disfluencies
254(1)
Stuttered Disfluencies
254(3)
The Onset and Development of Stuttering
257(5)
Theories and Conceptualizations of Stuttering
262(4)
Behavioral Theory
264(1)
Psychologcal Theory
265(1)
Current Conceptual Models of Stuttering
265(1)
Identifying and Treating Stuttering in Children
266(4)
Indirect and Direct Stuttering Therapy
269(1)
Parental Counseling
269(1)
Therapeutic Techniques Used with Older Children and Adults Who Stutter
270(4)
Modifying the Timing of Speech Movements
271(2)
Modifying the Physical Tension of Speech Movements
273(1)
Selecting Therapeutic Techniques
274(1)
The Effectiveness of Stuttering Treatment
274(2)
Efficacy of Therapy with Preschool-Age Children
275(1)
Efficacy of Therapy with School-Age Children
275(1)
Summary
276(1)
Reflections
277(1)
Suggested Readings
277(1)
On-Line Resources
277(2)
The Voice and Voice Disorders
279(28)
Pitch and the Pitch-Changing Mechanism
280(3)
Vocal Intensity and the Intensity-Changing Mechanism
283(1)
Changes in Voice Production Through the Life Span
284(2)
Infancy and Childhood
284(1)
Adulthood
284(1)
Advanced Age
285(1)
Disorders of Voice
286(13)
Disorders of Vocal Pitch
286(1)
Disorders of Vocal Loudness
287(1)
Disorders of Vocal Quality
287(1)
NonPhonatory Vocal Disorders
288(2)
Voice Disorders Associated with Vocal Misuse or Abuse
290(4)
Voice Disorders Associated with Medical or Physical Conditions
294(1)
Voice Disorders Associated with Hypoadduction
295(1)
Voice Disorders Associated with Hypoadduction
296(1)
Other Conditions that Affect Voice Production
297(1)
Voice Disorders Associated with Psychological or Stress Conditions
298(1)
The Voice Evaluation and Voice Therapy
299(4)
The Voice Evaluation
299(1)
Treatment of Voice Disorders Associated with Vocal Misuse or Abuse
300(1)
Treatment of Voice Disorders Associated with Medical or Physical Conditions
301(1)
Treatment of Voice Disorders Associated with Psychological or Stress Conditions
302(1)
Efficacy of Voice Therapy
302(1)
Summary
303(1)
Reflections
304(1)
Suggested Readings
304(1)
On-Line Resources
304(3)
Disorders of Articulation and Phonology
307(44)
Understanding Speech Sounds
309(5)
Classification of Consonants by Place and Manner
309(1)
Classification of Vowels by Tongue and Lip Position and Tension
310(2)
Distinctive Feature Analysis
312(1)
Phonology and Articulation
312(2)
Associated Disorders and Related Causes
314(13)
Developmental Impairment in Children
316(2)
Language-Learning Disabilities
318(1)
Hearing Disorders
319(2)
Dysarthrias
321(1)
Developmental Apraxia of Speech
322(1)
Cleft Palate
323(1)
Other Organic Abnormalities
324(3)
Language and Dialectal Variations
327(2)
Characteristics of Articulation and Phonology
328(1)
Life Span Issues
329(1)
Assessment
329(8)
Description of Phonological Status
330(5)
Prognostic Indicators
335(2)
Intervention
337(8)
Therapy Approaches
339(5)
Generalization and Maintenance
344(1)
Summary
345(1)
Reflections
346(1)
Suggested Readings
346(1)
On-Line Resources
347(4)
Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate
351(32)
Development of the Face and Palate
351(3)
Facial Development
351(2)
Development of the Secondary Palate
353(1)
Clinical Features of Clefts
354(4)
Cleft of the Lip
355(1)
Unilateral Cleft of the Lip and Palate
356(1)
Bilateral Cleft of the Lip and Palate
356(1)
Submucous Cleft
357(1)
Cleft Lip and Palate Classification Systems
358(1)
Etiologies of Clefts
359(3)
Genetic Disorders
359(2)
Chromosomal Aberrations
361(1)
Teratogenically Induced Disorders
361(1)
Mechnically Induced Abnormalities
362(1)
Incidence of Clefts
362(1)
Gender and Racial Difference
362(1)
The Cleft Palate Team and General Management Issues
363(6)
Surgical Management of Clefts
364(2)
Dental Management of Clefts
366(1)
Audiological Management of Clefts
367(2)
Psychosocial Management of Clefts
369(1)
Communicative Problems Associated with Clefts
369(11)
Voice Disorders Associated with Clefts
370(2)
Resonance Disorders Associated with Clefts
372(5)
Articulation Disorders Associated with Clefts
377(2)
Language Disorders Associated with Clefts
379(1)
Summary
380(1)
Reflections
381(1)
Suggested Readings
381(1)
On-Line Resources
381(2)
Neurogenic Speech Disorders
383(40)
Motor Speech Control
386(5)
Nervous System
386(2)
Muscles
388(2)
The Process of Motor Speech
390(1)
Causes of Neurogenic Speech Disorders
391(2)
Cerebral Palsy
393(12)
Types of Cerebral Palsy
394(3)
Motor Speech Problems Associated with Cerebral Palsy
397(2)
Life Span Issues
399(1)
Assessment
400(2)
Intervention
402(3)
The Dysarthrias
405(10)
Types of Dysarthria and Associated Etiologies
407(5)
Life Span Issues
412(1)
Assessment
413(1)
Intervention
413(2)
Apraxia of Speech
415(4)
Etiology
418(1)
Assessment
418(1)
Intervention
419(1)
Summary
419(1)
Reflections
420(1)
Suggested Resources
421(1)
On-Line Resources
421(2)
Disorders of Swallowing
423(32)
The Swallowing Process
425(1)
Anticipatory Phase
425(1)
Oral Phase
425(1)
Pharyngeal Phase
426(1)
Esophageal Phase
426(1)
Disordered Swallowing
426(2)
Anticipatory Phase
427(1)
Oral Phase
427(1)
Pharyngeal Phase
427(1)
Esophageal Phase
427(1)
Causes and Correlates of Swallowing Disorders
428(7)
Pediatric Dysphagia
428(3)
Dysphagia in Adults
431(4)
Evaluation for Swallowing
435(10)
Screening for Dysphagia
435(2)
Case History and Background Information Regarding Dysphagia
437(1)
Clinical Assessment
438(5)
Instrumentation
443(2)
Dysphagia Intervention and Treatment
445(7)
Feeding Environment
445(1)
Body and Head Positioning
446(1)
Modification of Foods and Beverages
447(2)
Oral-Motor Exercises and Swallowing Techniques
449(1)
Medical and Pharmacological Approaches
450(2)
Prognoses and Outcomes for Swallowing Disorders
452(1)
Summary
452(1)
Reflections
453(1)
Suggested Readings
453(1)
On-Line Resources
453(2)
Audiology and Hearing Loss
455(45)
What Is Audiology?
456(1)
Fundamentals of Sound
457(1)
The Anatomy of the Ear
458(5)
The Outer Ear
458(1)
The Middle Ear
459(2)
The Inner Ear
461(2)
Types of Hearing Loss
463(8)
Conductive Hearing Loss
463(4)
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
467(3)
Mixed Hearing Loss
470(1)
Central Auditory Processing Disorders
471(2)
Degrees of Hearing Loss
473(1)
Deafness and Deaf Culture
474(2)
Audiological Testing Procedures
476(10)
Referral and Case History
476(1)
Testing Infants and Children
476(2)
Testing Adults
478(8)
Aural Habilitation/Rehabilitation
486(9)
Amplification
486(4)
Auditory Training
490(1)
Aural/Oral and Manual Communication Methods
491(4)
Summary
495(1)
Reflections
496(1)
Suggested Readings
496(1)
On-Line Resources
497(1)
An Afterword: Future of the Professions
498(2)
Suggested Readings 500(1)
On-Line Resources 500(1)
Glossary 501(24)
References 525(18)
Name Index 543(5)
Subject Index 548


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