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Introduction to Communication Disorders: A Lifespan Evidence-Based Perspective,9780205487875
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Introduction to Communication Disorders: A Lifespan Evidence-Based Perspective

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205487875

ISBN10:
0205487874
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2011
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Written in an appealing and highly readable manner, Introduction to Communication Disorders: A Lifespan Perspective has provided a multitude of students with a comprehensive introduction to the fields of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
A Journey: From Student to Professional
1(24)
Helping Others to Help Themselves
2(2)
The Professionals
4(8)
Audiologists
4(1)
Speech-Language Pathologists
5(4)
Speech, Language, and Hearing Scientists
9(2)
Related Professions: A Team Approach
11(1)
Service through the Lifespan
12(1)
Professional Organizations
13(3)
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
13(2)
Related Professional Associations
15(1)
Communication Disorders in Historical Perspective
16(3)
Summary
19(1)
Reflections
19(1)
Suggested Readings
19(1)
Online Resources
20(1)
Appendix 1.1: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Code of Ethics
21(4)
Typical and Disordered Communication
25(28)
Human Communication
26(12)
The Social Animal
26(2)
Means of Communication
28(10)
Communication through the Lifespan
38(1)
Communication Impairments
39(11)
Language Disorders
40(1)
Speech Disorders
41(2)
Hearing Disorders
43(2)
Central Auditory Processing Disorders
45(1)
How Common Are Communication Disorders?
45(5)
Summary
50(1)
Reflections
50(1)
Suggested Readings
50(1)
Online Resources
51(2)
Anatomy and Physiology Related to Speech, Hearing, and Language
53(12)
The Physiological Subsystems Supporting Speech
54(4)
The Respiratory System
55(1)
The Laryngeal System
56(1)
The Articulatory/Resonating System
57(1)
The Speech Production Process
58(3)
Anatomical and Physiological Changes to the Speech Mechanism through the Lifespan
61(2)
The Respiratory System
62(1)
The Laryngeal System
62(1)
The Articulatory/Resonating System
62(1)
Summary
63(1)
Reflections
63(1)
Suggested Readings
63(1)
Online Resources
63(2)
Assessment and Intervention
65(26)
Differences, Dialects, Disorders
66(3)
A Communication Continuum
66(1)
Dialects
67(2)
Disorders
69(1)
Is There a Problem?
69(1)
Referrals
69(1)
Screening
70(1)
Defining the Problem
70(10)
Assessment Goals
70(6)
Assessment Procedures
76(4)
Intervention with Communication Disorders
80(8)
Evidence-Based Practice
81(1)
Objectives of Intervention
81(1)
Target Selection
82(1)
Baseline Data
83(1)
Behavioral Objectives
83(2)
Clinical Elements
85(2)
Measuring Effectiveness
87(1)
Follow-up and Maintenance
87(1)
Summary
88(1)
Reflections
88(1)
Suggested Readings
89(1)
Online Resources
89(2)
Childhood Language Impairments
91(50)
Language Development through the Lifespan
94(11)
Pre-Language
94(3)
Toddler Language
97(2)
Preschool Language
99(3)
School-Age and Adolescent Language
102(3)
Adult Language
105(1)
Associated Disorders and Related Causes
105(17)
Mental Retardation/Developmental Disabilities
106(4)
Learning Disabilities
110(3)
Specific Language Impairment
113(2)
Autism Spectrum and Pervasive Development Disorders
115(4)
Brain Injury
119(1)
Neglect and Abuse
120(1)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Drug-Exposed Children
121(1)
Conclusion
122(1)
Aspects of Language Affected
122(1)
Assessment
123(9)
Referral and Screening
124(1)
Case History and Interview
125(1)
Observation
126(2)
Testing
128(1)
Sampling
128(4)
Intervention
132(6)
Target Selection and Sequence of Training
133(1)
Intervention Principles
134(1)
Intervention Procedures
134(2)
Intervention through the Lifespan
136(2)
Summary
138(1)
Reflections
139(1)
Suggested Readings
139(1)
Online Resources
139(2)
Developmental Literacy Impairments
141(38)
Reading
144(17)
Phonological Awareness
145(1)
Comprehension
146(1)
Reading Development through the Lifespan
147(3)
Reading Problems through the Lifespan
150(3)
Assessment of Developmental Reading
153(4)
Intervention for Developmental Reading Impairment
157(4)
Writing
161(15)
Spelling
162(1)
Writing Development through the Lifespan
162(3)
Writing Problems through the Lifespan
165(3)
Assessment of Developmental Writing
168(1)
Intervention for Developmental Writing Impairment
169(7)
Summary
176(1)
Reflections
176(1)
Suggested Readings
176(1)
Online Resources
176(3)
Adult Language Impairments
179(40)
Language Development through the Lifespan
181(1)
Use
181(1)
Content
182(1)
Form
182(1)
Aphasia
182(20)
Concomitant or Accompanying Deficits
184(2)
Types of Aphasia
186(5)
Causes of Aphasia
191(2)
Lifespan Issues
193(3)
Assessment for Aphasia
196(3)
Intervention
199(3)
Conclusion
202(1)
Right Hemisphere Injury
202(3)
Characteristics
203(1)
Assessment
204(1)
Intervention
205(1)
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
205(6)
Characteristics
206(2)
Lifespan Issues
208(2)
Assessment
210(1)
Intervention
210(1)
Dementia
211(5)
Alzheimer's Disease
213(3)
Summary
216(1)
Reflections
216(1)
Suggested Readings
217(1)
Online Resources
217(2)
Fluency Disorders
219(26)
Fluent Speech versus Stuttering
222(4)
Normal Disfluencies
223(1)
Stuttered Disfluencies
223(3)
The Onset and Development of Stuttering through the Lifespan
226(3)
The Effects of Stuttering through the Lifespan
229(2)
Theories and Conceptualizations of Stuttering
231(3)
Organic Theory
231(1)
Behavioral Theory
232(1)
Psychological Theory
232(1)
Current Conceptual Models of Stuttering
233(1)
Therapeutic Techniques Used with Young Children
234(3)
The Evaluation of Stuttering
234(2)
Indirect and Direct Stuttering Intervention
236(1)
Parental Counseling
237(1)
Therapeutic Techniques Used with Older Children and Adults Who Stutter
237(4)
Modifying the Timing of Speech Movements
238(1)
Modifying the Physical Tension of Speech Movements
239(1)
Selecting Intervention Techniques
240(1)
The Effectiveness of Stuttering Intervention through the Lifespan
241(1)
Efficacy of Intervention with Preschool-Age Children
241(1)
Efficacy of Therapy with School-Age Children
241(1)
Efficacy of Intervention with Adolescents and Adults
242(1)
Summary
242(1)
Reflections
243(1)
Suggested Readings
243(1)
Online Resources
243(2)
The Voice and Voice Disorders
245(24)
Changes in Voice Production through the Lifespan
247(1)
Infancy and Childhood
247(1)
Adulthood
247(1)
Advanced Age
248(1)
Pitch and the Pitch-Changing Mechanism
248(2)
Vocal Intensity and the Intensity-Changing Mechanism
250(1)
Disorders of Voice
251(12)
Disorders of Vocal Pitch
252(1)
Disorders of Vocal Loudness
252(1)
Disorders of Vocal Quality
252(1)
Nonphonatory Vocal Disorders
253(2)
Voice Disorders Associated with Vocal Misuse or Abuse
255(3)
Voice Disorders Associated with Medical or Physical Conditions
258(1)
Voice Disorders Associated with Hypoadduction
259(1)
Voice Disorders Associated with Hyperadduction
260(1)
Other Conditions that Affect Voice Production
260(1)
Voice Disorders Associated with Psychological or Stress Conditions
261(2)
The Voice Evaluation and Intervention
263(3)
The Voice Evaluation
263(1)
Intervention for Voice Disorders Associated with Vocal Misuse or Abuse
263(1)
Intervention for Voice Disorders Associated with Medical or Physical Conditions
264(1)
Intervention for Voice Disorders Associated with Psychological or Stress Conditions
265(1)
Efficacy of Voice Therapy
266(1)
Summary
266(1)
Reflections
267(1)
Suggested Readings
267(1)
Online Resources
267(2)
Disorders of Articulation and Phonology
269(42)
Understanding Speech Sounds
272(3)
Classification of Consonants by Place and Manner
272(1)
Classification of Vowels by Tongue and Lip Position and Tension
273(2)
Distinctive Feature Analysis
275(1)
Speech Sound Development through the Lifespan
275(7)
Pre-Speech
275(3)
Toddler Speech
278(2)
Preschool Speech
280(1)
School-Age Speech
280(1)
Phonology and Articulation
281(1)
Associated Disorders and Related Causes
282(9)
Developmental Impairment in Children
282(2)
Language Impairments
284(1)
Hearing Impairments
285(1)
Neuromuscular Disorders
286(2)
Apraxia of Speech
288(1)
Cleft Palate
289(1)
Other Organic Abnormalities
290(1)
Language and Dialectal Variations
291(3)
Characteristics of Articulation and Phonology
292(1)
Lifespan Issues
293(1)
Assessment
294(7)
Description of Phonological Status
294(4)
Prognostic Indicators
298(3)
Intervention
301(7)
Target Selection
301(1)
Intervention Approaches
302(5)
Generalization and Maintenance
307(1)
Summary
308(1)
Reflections
308(1)
Suggested Readings
308(1)
Online Resources
309(2)
Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate
311(32)
Physical Challenges of Clefts through the Lifespan
314(1)
The Development of the Face and Palate
315(3)
Facial Development
315(1)
Development of the Secondary Palate
316(2)
Cleft Lip and Palate Classification Systems
318(1)
Clinical Features of Clefts
318(4)
Cleft of the Lip
319(1)
Unilateral Cleft of the Lip and Palate
319(1)
Bilateral Cleft of the Lip and Palate
320(1)
Submucous Cleft
321(1)
Etiologies of Clefts
322(3)
Genetic Disorders
322(1)
Chromosomal Aberrations
323(1)
Teratogenically Induced Disorders
324(1)
Mechanically Induced Abnormalities
324(1)
Incidence of Clefts
325(1)
Gender and Racial Differences
325(1)
The Cleft Palate Team and General Management Issues through the Lifespan
325(6)
Surgical Management of Clefts
326(1)
Dental Management of Clefts
327(2)
Audiological Management of Clefts
329(1)
Psychosocial Management of Clefts
330(1)
Communicative Problems Associated with Clefts
331(9)
Voice Disorders
331(2)
Resonance Disorders
333(3)
Articulation Disorders
336(3)
Language Disorders
339(1)
Summary
340(1)
Reflections
341(1)
Suggested Readings
341(1)
Online Resources
341(2)
Neurogenic Speech Disorders
343(32)
Causes of Neurogenic Speech Disorders
345(2)
Cerebral Palsy
347(9)
Types of Cerebral Palsy
347(3)
Motor Speech Problems Associated with Cerebral Palsy
350(1)
Etiology
351(1)
Lifespan Issues
352(1)
Assessment
353(2)
Intervention
355(1)
The Dysarthrias
356(11)
Types of Dysarthria and Associated Etiologies
357(7)
Lifespan Issues
364(1)
Assessment
364(1)
Intervention
365(2)
Apraxia of Speech
367(5)
Etiology
369(1)
Assessment
370(1)
Intervention
370(2)
Summary
372(1)
Reflections
372(1)
Suggested Readings
373(1)
Online Resources
373(2)
Disorders of Swallowing
375(30)
Lifespan Perspectives
377(1)
The Swallowing Process
378(1)
Anticipatory Phase
378(1)
Oral Phase
379(1)
Pharyngeal Phase
379(1)
Esophageal Phase
379(1)
Disordered Swallowing
379(8)
Anticipatory Phase
380(1)
Oral Phase
380(1)
Pharyngeal Phase
380(1)
Esophageal Phase
380(1)
Pediatric Dysphagia
380(2)
Dysphagia in Adults
382(5)
Evaluation for Swallowing
387(8)
Screening for Dysphagia in Newborns and the Elderly
387(2)
Case History and Background Information Regarding Dysphagia
389(1)
Clinical Assessment
390(3)
Instrumentation
393(2)
Dysphagia Intervention and Treatment
395(7)
Feeding Environment
395(1)
Body and Head Positioning
396(1)
Modification of Foods and Beverages
396(1)
Oral-Motor Exercises and Swallowing Techniques
397(3)
Medical and Pharmacological Approaches
400(2)
Prognoses and Outcomes for Swallowing Disorders
402(1)
Summary
402(1)
Reflections
403(1)
Suggested Resources
403(1)
Online Resources
403(2)
Audiology and Hearing Loss
405(60)
Douglas Mackenzie
Incidence and Prevalence of Hearing Loss
407(1)
Hearing Loss through the Lifespan
407(4)
Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss
407(2)
Classification of Impairment, Disability, and Handicap
409(1)
Deafness, the Deaf Community, and Deaf Culture
409(2)
What Is Audiology?
411(1)
Fundamentals of Sound
412(2)
Audibility versus Intelligibility
413(1)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Auditory System
414(5)
The Outer Ear
414(1)
The Middle Ear
415(1)
The Inner Ear
415(3)
The Vestibulocochlear Nerve
418(1)
The Central Auditory Nervous System
418(1)
Types of Hearing Loss
419(11)
Conductive Hearing Loss
419(3)
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
422(5)
Mixed Hearing Loss
427(1)
Auditory Processing Disorders
428(2)
Degrees of Hearing Loss
430(1)
Audiological Assessment Procedures
430(17)
Assessing Infants and Children versus Adults
431(1)
Counseling
432(1)
Referral and Case History
433(1)
Otoscopic Examination
434(1)
Electroacoustic and Electrophysiological Testing
434(4)
Behavioral Testing
438(9)
Aural Habilitation/Rehabilitation
447(14)
Amplification
448(4)
Assistive Listening Devices
452(1)
Auditory Training
453(2)
Communication Strategy Training
455(1)
Treatment and Management of Auditory Processing Disorders
456(1)
Communication Modality
456(5)
Summary
461(1)
Reflections
461(1)
Suggested Readings
461(1)
Online Resources
461(4)
Augmentative and Alternative Communication
465(25)
Laura Piche
Types of AAC
467(8)
Unaided AAC
467(3)
Aided AAC
470(5)
Speech and AAC
475(1)
Theory and Reality
476(2)
Lifespan Issues
478(2)
Assessment Considerations
480(4)
AAC System Selection
483(1)
AAC Symbol Selection
483(1)
AAC Vocabulary Selection
484(1)
Intervention Considerations
484(3)
Summary
487(1)
Reflections
488(1)
Suggested Readings
488(1)
Online Resources
488(2)
Glossary 490(16)
References 506(29)
Author Index 535(6)
Subject Index 541


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