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An Introduction to Community Health

by ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780763735012

ISBN10:
0763735019
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/30/2004
Publisher(s):
Jones & Bartlett

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Summary

The fifth edition of this best-selling introductory text has been updated to reflect the latest trends and statistics in community health in an effort to effectively address the health issues facing today's communities. With emphasis on developing the knowledge and skills necessary for a career in health education, An Introduction to Community Health, Fifth Edition, covers such topics as epidemiology, community organization, program planning, minority health, health care, mental health, environmental health, drugs, safety, and occupational health.Every NEW text includes a note-taking guide at no additional cost to your students!Current News Articles from Reuters Health Information!This site is an excellent resource for the latest news and developments in the field of community health for both students and instructors.Click on the additional information link below to see what is new to this edition.Here's what's new with this edition:- Almost every single table and figure is being recreated to reflect the most updated statistics.- All reference lists have been updated.- Any outdated scenarios throughout the text have been replaced.- New information on the impact of bioterrorism (Ch1)- New information on coordinated school health programs (Ch6)- New section on improving infant health (Ch7)- Revised information on infectious diseases and children (Ch7)- Information on insurance for women, infants, and children (Ch7)- Added section on the importance of physical activity and weight control in the health of high school students (Ch8)- A new box on the newest "National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appro

Table of Contents

Preface xv
UNIT ONE FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH
1(164)
Community Health: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
3(29)
Introduction
4(6)
Definitions
4(2)
Factors That Affect the Health of a Community
6(4)
A Brief History of Community and Public Health
10(14)
Earliest Civilizations
10(1)
Middle Ages (A.D. 500--1500)
11(1)
Renaissance and Exploration (1500-1700)
12(1)
The Eighteenth Century
12(1)
The Nineteenth Century
13(2)
The Twentieth Century
15(9)
Outlook for Community Health in the Twenty-First Century
24(5)
World Planning for the Twenty-First Century
24(2)
The United States' Planning for the Twenty-First Century
26(3)
Chapter Summary
29(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
30(1)
Community Health on the Web
30(2)
Organizations that Help Shape Community Health
32(27)
Introduction
33(1)
Governmental Health Agencies
33(16)
International Health Agencies
34(2)
National Health Agencies
36(8)
State Health Agencies
44(2)
Local Public Health Agencies
46(2)
Coordinated School Health Programs
48(1)
Quasi-Governmental Health Organizations
49(2)
The American Red Cross
50(1)
Other Quasi-Governmental Organizations
51(1)
Nongovernmental Health Agencies
51(5)
Voluntary Health Agencies
51(2)
Professional Health Organizations/Associations
53(1)
Philanthropic Foundations
54(1)
Service, Social, and Religious Organizations
54(1)
Corporate Involvement in Community Health
55(1)
Chapter Summary
56(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
57(1)
Community Health on the Web
57(2)
Epidemiology: The Study of Disease, Injury, and Death in the Community
59(32)
Introduction
60(3)
Definition of Epidemiology
61(1)
History of Epidemiology
62(1)
The Importance of Rates
63(3)
Incidence, Prevalence, and Attack Rates
64(1)
Crude and Age-Adjusted Rates
64(1)
Specific Rates
65(1)
Reporting of Births, Deaths, and Diseases
66(3)
Standardized Measurements of Health Status of Populations
69(8)
Mortality Statistics
70(1)
Life Expectancy
70(3)
Years of Potential Life Lost
73(1)
Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)
74(1)
Disability-Adjusted Life Expectancy (DALE) and Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)
74(3)
Sources of Standardized Data
77(4)
The U.S. Census
77(1)
Statistical Abstract of the United States
77(1)
Monthly Vital Statistics Report
77(1)
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
78(1)
National Health Surveys
78(3)
Epidemiological Studies
81(5)
Descriptive Studies
81(2)
Analytical Studies
83(1)
Experimental Studies
84(2)
Chapter Summary
86(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
87(3)
Community Health on the Web
90(1)
Epidemiology: Prevention and Control of Diseases and Health Conditions
91(25)
Introduction
92(1)
Classification of Diseases and Health Problems
92(2)
Communicable Versus Noncommunicable Diseases
92(1)
Acute Versus Chronic Diseases and Illnesses
93(1)
Communicable Diseases
94(3)
Chain of Infection
95(1)
Modes of Transmission
96(1)
Noncommunicable Diseases
97(4)
Diseases of the Heart and Blood Vessels
98(1)
Malignant Neoplasms (Cancer)
99(1)
Other Noncommunicable Disease Problems
100(1)
Prioritizing Prevention and Control Efforts
101(1)
Leading Causes of Death
101(1)
Years of Potential Life Lost
101(1)
Economic Cost to Society
101(1)
Prevention, Intervention, Control, and Eradication of Diseases
102(1)
Levels of Prevention
102(11)
Prevention of Communicable Diseases
104(4)
Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases
108(5)
Chapter Summary
113(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
114(1)
Community Health on the Web
114(2)
Community Organizing/Building and Health Promotion Programming
116(22)
Introduction
117(1)
Community Organizing/Building
117(3)
Need for Organizing Communities
118(1)
Assumptions of Community Organizing
119(1)
Community Organizing Methods
119(1)
The Process of Community Organizing/Building
120(6)
Recognizing the Issue
121(1)
Gaining Entry into the Community
121(1)
Organizing the People
122(2)
Assessing the Community
124(1)
Determining the Priorities and Setting Goals
124(1)
Arriving at a Solution and Selecting Intervention Strategies
125(1)
The Final Steps in the Community Organizing/Building Process: Implementing, Evaluating, Maintaining, and Looping Back
126(1)
A Special Note about Community Organizing/Building
126(1)
Health Promotion Programming
126(1)
Basic Understanding of Program Planning
126(1)
Creating a Health Promotion Program
127(8)
Understanding the Community and Engaging the Priority Population
128(1)
Assessing the Needs of the Priority Population
128(3)
Setting Appropriate Goals and Objectives
131(1)
Creating an Intervention That Considers the Peculiarities of the Setting
131(2)
Implementing the Intervention
133(1)
Evaluating the Results
134(1)
Chapter Summary
135(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
136(1)
Community Health on the Web
137(1)
The School Health Program: A Component of Community Health
138(27)
Introduction
139(6)
Coordinated School Health Program Defined
139(1)
The School Health Council
140(2)
The School Nurse
142(1)
The Teacher's Role
143(2)
The Need for School Health
145(2)
Foundations of the School Health Program
147(1)
School Health Policies
147(3)
Policy Development
147(1)
Policy Implementation
147(3)
Monitoring the Status of School Health Policy in the United States
150(1)
Components of a Coordinated School Health Program
150(7)
Administration and Organization
150(1)
School Health Services
151(1)
Healthy School Environment
152(2)
School Health Education
154(3)
Counseling, Psychological, and Social Services
157(1)
Physical Education
157(1)
School Nutrition Services
157(1)
Parent/Community Involvement for School Health
157(1)
School-Site Health Promotion for Staff
157(1)
Issues and Concerns Facing the School Health Program
157(5)
Coordinated School Health Program
158(1)
Dealing with Controversy in the Curriculum
159(1)
School-Based Health Centers (SBHCs) or School-Linked Health Centers (SLHCs)
160(1)
Violence in Schools
161(1)
Chapter Summary
162(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
163(1)
Community Health on the Web
163(2)
UNIT TWO THE NATION'S HEALTH
165(204)
Maternal, Infant, and Child Health
167(39)
Introduction
168(5)
Family and Reproductive Health
173(8)
Teenage Births
174(2)
Family Planning
176(5)
Maternal Health
181(3)
Prenatal Health Care
183(1)
Infant Health
184(6)
Infant Mortality
184(1)
Improving Infant Health
185(5)
Child Health
190(6)
Childhood Mortality
190(2)
Childhood Morbidity
192(4)
Community Programs for Women, Infants, and Children
196(7)
Maternal and Child Health Bureau
196(2)
Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program
198(1)
Providing Health Insurance for Women, Infants, and Children
199(1)
Providing Child Care
200(1)
Other Advocates for Children
201(2)
Chapter Summary
203(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
204(1)
Community Health on the Web
204(2)
Adolescents, Young Adults, and Adults
206(27)
Introduction
207(1)
Adolescents and Young Adults
207(15)
Demography
208(1)
A Health Profile
209(11)
Community Health Strategies for Improving the Health of Adolescents and Young Adults
220(2)
Adults
222(8)
A Health Profile
223(5)
Community Health Strategies for Improving the Health of Adults
228(2)
Chapter Summary
230(1)
Community Health on the Web
230(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
231(2)
Elders
233(30)
Introduction
234(2)
Definitions
235(1)
Myths Surrounding Aging
236(1)
Demography of Aging
237(8)
Size and Growth of the Elder Population
238(1)
Factors That Affect Population Size and Age
238(2)
Support and Labor-Force Ratios
240(2)
Other Demographic Variables of the Aging
242(3)
A Health Profile of Elders
245(3)
Mortality
245(1)
Morbidity
245(2)
Health Behaviors and Lifestyle Choices
247(1)
Elder Abuse and Neglect
248(1)
Instrumental Needs of Elders
248(11)
Income
248(1)
Housing
249(3)
Personal Care
252(2)
Health Care
254(1)
Transportation
255(1)
Community Facilities and Services
256(3)
Chapter Summary
259(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
260(1)
Community Health on the Web
260(3)
Community Health and Minorities
263(42)
Introduction
264(4)
Racial and Ethnic Classifications
268(2)
Health Data Sources and Their Limitations
270(1)
Black Americans
271(2)
Americans of Hispanic Origin
273(1)
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
274(2)
Native Americans and Alaska Natives
276(2)
U.S. Government, Native Americans, and the Provision of Health Care
276(1)
Indian Health Service (IHS)
277(1)
Refugees: The New Immigrants
278(2)
Race and Health Initiative
280(13)
Infant Mortality
280(1)
Cancer Screening and Management
280(3)
Cardiovascular Diseases
283(1)
Diabetes
284(3)
HIV Infection/AIDS
287(1)
Child and Adult Immunization Rates
288(5)
Socioeconomic Status and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health
293(4)
Equity in Minority Health
297(5)
Cultural Competence
298(3)
Empowering the Self and the Community
301(1)
Chapter Summary
302(1)
Community Health on the Web
302(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
303(2)
Community Mental Health
305(31)
Introduction
306(4)
Definitions
307(1)
Classification of Mental Disorders
308(1)
Origins and Causes of Mental Disorders
308(2)
Mental Illness in America
310(5)
Statistical Indicators of Mental Illness
310(1)
Social Indicators of Mental Illness
310(3)
Stress: A Contemporary Mental Health Problem
313(2)
History of Mental Health Care in America
315(10)
Mental Health Care before World War II
315(4)
Mental Health Care after World War II
319(6)
Mental Health Care in America Today
325(7)
Serious Mental Illness in People Who Are Homeless
325(2)
Meeting the Needs of Those with Mental Illness: Prevention and Treatment
327(3)
Federal Initiatives for Mental Health Care
330(1)
Community Mental Health and Managed Care
331(1)
Chapter Summary
332(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
333(1)
Community Health on the Web
334(2)
Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs: A Community Concern
336(33)
Introduction
337(4)
Scope of the Current Drug Problem in the United States
338(1)
Definitions
339(2)
Factors That Contribute to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Abuse
341(2)
Inherited Risk Factors
341(1)
Environmental Risk Factors
341(2)
Types of Drugs Abused and Resulting Problems
343(12)
Legal Drugs
344(4)
Controlled Substances and Illicit (Illegal) Drugs
348(7)
Prevention and Control of Drug Abuse
355(10)
Levels of Prevention
356(1)
Elements of Prevention
356(1)
Governmental Drug Prevention and Control Agencies and Programs
357(5)
Nongovernmental Drug Prevention and Control Agencies and Programs
362(3)
Chapter Summary
365(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
366(1)
Community Health on the Web
367(2)
UNIT THREE HEALTH CARE DELIVERY
369(66)
Health Care System: Structure
371(32)
Introduction
372(1)
A Brief History of Health Care Delivery in the United States
372(8)
The Spectrum of Health Care Delivery
380(4)
Population-Based Public Health Practice
380(1)
Medical Practice
380(3)
Long-Term Practice
383(1)
End-of-Life Practice
384(1)
Types of Health Care Providers
384(10)
Independent Providers
385(5)
Limited (or Restricted) Care Providers
390(1)
Nurses
391(1)
Nonphysician Practitioners
392(1)
Allied Health Care Professionals
393(1)
Public Health Professionals
393(1)
Health Care Facilities and Their Accreditation
394(5)
Health Care Facilities
394(5)
Accreditation of Health Care Facilities
399(1)
Chapter Summary
399(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
400(1)
Community Health on the Web
401(2)
Health Care System: Function
403(32)
Introduction
404(1)
Gaining Access to and Paying for Health Care in the United States
404(6)
Access to Health Care
404(4)
Paying for Health Care
408(1)
Third-Party Payment
409(1)
Health Insurance
410(4)
The Health Insurance Policy
411(2)
Types of Health Insurance Coverage
413(1)
The Cost of Health Insurance
413(1)
Self-Insured Organizations
414(1)
Health Insurance Provided by the Government
414(4)
Medicare
415(2)
Medicaid
417(1)
Problems with Medicare and Medicaid
417(1)
Supplemental Health Insurance
418(2)
Medigap
418(1)
Other Supplemental Insurance
418(1)
Long-Term Care Insurance
419(1)
Managed Care
420(5)
Types of Managed Care
421(3)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Managed Care
424(1)
Other Arrangements for Delivering Health Care
425(5)
National Health Insurance
425(1)
Canadian Health Care System
425(3)
The Oregon Health Plan
428(2)
Health Care Reform in the United States
430(2)
Chapter Summary
432(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
433(1)
Community Health on the Web
433(2)
UNIT FOUR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
435(140)
Environmental Concerns: Wastes and Pollution
437(33)
Introduction
438(1)
Natural Environmental Hazards
438(1)
Residues and Wastes from Human Activities
439(2)
Types of Wastes and Pollution
441(26)
Solid Waste
441(5)
Hazardous Waste
446(3)
Air Pollution
449(8)
Water and Its Pollution
457(7)
Radiation
464(1)
Noise Pollution
465(2)
Chapter Summary
467(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
468(1)
Community Health on the Web
468(2)
The Impact of Environment on Human Health
470(32)
Introduction
471(1)
Biological Hazards and Human Health
471(8)
Waterborne Diseases
472(3)
Foodborne Diseases
475(1)
Vectorborne Diseases
476(3)
Chemical Hazards and Human Health
479(8)
Pesticides
479(2)
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
481(2)
Lead
483(4)
Physical Hazards and Human Health
487(2)
Radon Contamination
487(1)
Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation
488(1)
Psychological Hazards and Human Health
489(2)
Sociological Hazards and Human Health
491(4)
Population Growth
491(4)
Site and Location Hazards and Human Health
495(2)
Natural Disasters
495(2)
Chapter Summary
497(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
498(2)
Community Health on the Web
500(2)
Injuries as a Community Health Problem
502(41)
Introduction
503(3)
Definitions
503(1)
Cost of Injuries to Society
504(2)
Unintentional Injuries
506(18)
Types of Unintentional Injuries
507(1)
Epidemiology of Unintentional Injuries
508(8)
Prevention through Epidemiology
516(2)
Community Approaches to the Prevention of Unintentional Injuries
518(6)
Intentional Injuries
524(15)
Types of Intentional Injuries
524(2)
Epidemiology of Intentional Injuries
526(2)
Violence in Our Society and Resources for Prevention
528(11)
Chapter Summary
539(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
540(1)
Community Health on the Web
541(2)
Safety and Health in the Workplace
543(32)
Introduction
544(1)
Scope of the Problem
544(1)
Importance of Occupational Safety and Health to the Community
545(1)
History of Occupational Safety and Health Problems
545(5)
Occupational Safety and Health in the United States before 1970
546(3)
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
549(1)
Prevalence of Occupational Injuries, Diseases, and Deaths
550(18)
Overview of Recent Trends in Workplace Injuries and Illnesses
550(1)
Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace
551(12)
Prevention and Control of Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace
563(1)
Workplace Violence: Intentional Workplace Injuries
563(2)
Occupational Illnesses and Disorders
565(3)
Resources for the Prevention of Workplace Injuries and Diseases
568(4)
Occupational Safety and Health Professionals
568(2)
Occupational Safety and Health Programs
570(2)
Chapter Summary
572(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
573(1)
Community Health on the Web
573(2)
Appendix 1 Retrospective Studies: How to Calculate an Odds Ratio
575(1)
Prospective Studies: How to Calculate Relative and Attributable Risk
575(1)
Appendix 2 Operational Definitions for the 1990 Census
576(2)
Appendix 3 Revised Operational Definitions for 1997
578(1)
Appendix 4 Self-Assessment Checklist
579(3)
Glossary 582(17)
Index 599(15)
Credits 614


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