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Introduction to Community Health : Web Enhanced,9780763708726

Introduction to Community Health : Web Enhanced

by ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780763708726

ISBN10:
0763708720
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/1/1998
Publisher(s):
Jones & Bartlett Pub
List Price: $58.95
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Table of Contents

PREFACE XIX
UNIT ONE FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH 1(182)
CHAPTER 1 COMMUNITY HEALTH--YESTERDAY, TODAY, AND TOMORROW
2(30)
Scenario
3(1)
Introduction
3(6)
Definitions
3(2)
Factors That Affect the Health of a Community
5(4)
A Brief History of Community and Public Health
9(14)
Earliest Civilizations
10(1)
Middle Ages (500-1500 A.D.)
11(1)
Renaissance and Exploration (1500-1700 A.D.)
12(1)
The Eighteenth Century
12(1)
The Nineteenth Century
13(3)
The Twentieth Century
16(7)
Outlook for Community Health in the Twenty-First Century
23(5)
World Planning for the Year 2000 and Beyond
23(1)
The United States' Plan for Health in the Year 2000 and Beyond
23(5)
Chapter Summary
28(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
28(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
29(3)
CHAPTER 2 ORGANIZATIONS THAT HELP SHARE COMMUNITY HEALTH
32(29)
Scenario
33(1)
Introduction
33(1)
Governmental Health Agencies
34(15)
International Health Agencies
34(2)
National Health Agencies
36(7)
State Health Agencies
43(2)
Local Health Agencies
45(3)
Coordinated School Health Program
48(1)
Quasi-Governmental Health Organizations
49(2)
The American Red Cross
50(1)
Other Quasi-Governmental Organizations
51(1)
NonGovernmental Health Agencies
51(7)
Voluntary Health Agencies
51(3)
Professional Health Organizations/Associations
54(1)
Philanthropic Foundations
55(1)
Service, Social, and Religious Organizations
56(1)
Corporate Involvement in Community Health
57(1)
Chapter Summary
58(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
58(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
59(2)
CHAPTER 3 EPIDEMIOLOGY: THE STUDY OF DISEASE INJURY, AND DEATH IN THE COMMUNITY
61(34)
Scenario
62(1)
Introduction
62(3)
Definition of Epidemiology
63(1)
History of Epidemiology
64(1)
The Importance of Rates
65(4)
Incidence, Prevalence, and Attack Rates
66(1)
Crude and Specific Rates
67(2)
Reporting of Births, Deaths, and Diseases
69(2)
Sources of Standardized Data
71(5)
The U.S. Census
72(1)
Statistical Abstracts
72(1)
Monthly Vital Statistics Report
72(1)
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
72(1)
National Health Interview Survey
73(1)
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
73(2)
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
75(1)
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System
75(1)
National Hospital Discharge Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
76(1)
Standardized Measurements of Health Status of Populations
76(5)
Mortality Statistics
77(1)
Life Expectancy
78(1)
Years of Potential Life Lost
79(1)
Disability-Adjusted Life Years
80(1)
Epidemiological Studies
81(10)
Descriptive Studies
81(3)
Analytical Studies
84(3)
Experimental Studies
87(4)
Chapter Summary
91
Scenario: Analysis and Response
89
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
93(2)
CHAPTER 4 EPIDEMIOLOGY: PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DISEASES AND HEALTH CONDITIONS
95(28)
Scenario
96(1)
Introduction
96(1)
Classification of Diseases and Health Problems
96(2)
Communicable Versus Noncommunicable Diseases
97(1)
Acute Versus Chronic Diseases and Illnesses
97(1)
Communicable Diseases
98(4)
Chain of Infection
99(1)
Modes of Transmission
100(2)
Noncommunicable Diseases
102(2)
Diseases of the Heart and Blood Vessels
103(1)
Malignant Neoplasms (Cancer)
103(1)
Other Noncommunicable Disease Problems
104(1)
Prioritizing Prevention and Control Efforts
104(3)
Leading Causes of Death
106(1)
Years of Potential Life Lost
107(1)
Economic Cost to Society
107(1)
Prevention, Intervention, Control, and Eradication of Diseases
107(1)
Levels of Prevention
107(12)
Prevention of Communicable Diseases
108(6)
Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases
114(5)
Chapter Summary
119(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
119(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
120(3)
CHAPTER 5 COMMUNITY ORGANIZING AND HEALTH PROMOTION PLANNING
123(24)
Scenario
124(1)
Introduction
124(1)
Community Organizing and Community Development
124(3)
Need for Organizing Communities
125(1)
Assumptions of Community Organizing
126(1)
Community Organizing Methods
126(1)
A Process for Organizing a Community
127(7)
Recognition of a Problem
127(1)
Gaining Entry into the Community
128(1)
Organizing the People
129(1)
Identifying the Specific Problem
130(1)
Determining Priorities and Setting Goals
131(1)
Arriving at a Strategy and Selecting Intervention Activities
132(1)
The Final Steps in the Process: Implementing, Evaluating, Maintaining, Looping Back
133(1)
Special Note About Community Organization
134(1)
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Programming
134(2)
Basic Understanding of Program Planning
134(2)
Creating a Health Promotion/Disease Prevention (HP/DP) Program
136(7)
Assessing the Needs of the Target Population
136(2)
Identifying the Problem(s)
138(1)
Setting Goals and Objectives
138(1)
Developing an Intervention
139(2)
Implementing the Intervention
141(1)
Evaluating the Results
142(1)
Chapter Summary
143(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
144(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
145(2)
CHAPTER 6 THE SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAM: A COMPONENT OF COMMUNITY HEALTH
147(36)
Scenario
148(1)
Introduction
148(5)
Definitions
148(2)
The School Health Team
150(1)
The School Nurse
150(2)
The Teacher's Role
152(1)
Why School Health?
153(3)
Foundations of the School Health Program
156(1)
School Health Policies
157(3)
Policy Development
157(3)
Policy Implementation
160(1)
Major Components of a Coordinated School Health Program
160(14)
Administration and Organization
160(1)
School Health Services
161(1)
Healthful School Environment
162(3)
Health Instruction
165(9)
Issues and Concerns Facing the School Health Program
174(4)
Coordinated School Health Program
174(1)
Dealing With Controversy in the Curriculum
175(2)
School-Based Centers/Clinics (SBHCs) or School-Linked Centers/Clinics (SLHCs)
177(1)
Chapter Summary
178(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
178(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
179(4)
UNIT TWO THE NATION'S HEALTH 183(234)
CHAPTER 7 MATERNAL, INFANT, AND CHILD HEALTH
184(45)
Scenario
185(1)
Introduction
185(2)
Maternal Health
187(15)
Family and Community Health
188(9)
Maternal Mortality
197(1)
Factors Associated with Maternal Health
197(5)
Infant Health
202(8)
Infant Mortality
202(2)
Factors Associated with Infant Health
204(6)
Child Health
210(7)
Childhood Mortality
210(2)
Childhood Morbidity
212(5)
Community Programs for Women, Infants, and Children
217(7)
Maternal and Child Health Bureau
217(2)
Department of Agriculture
219(1)
Other Advocates for Children
220(2)
Providing Health Insurance and Health Care for Women, Infants, and Children
222(1)
Providing Child Care
223(1)
Chapter Summary
224(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
225(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
226(3)
CHAPTER 8 ADOLESCENTS, YOUNG ADULTS, AND ADULTS
229(32)
Scenario
230(1)
Introduction
230(1)
Adolescents and Young Adults
231(19)
Demography
231(4)
A Health Profile
235(12)
Community Health Strategies for Improving the Health of Adolescents and Young Adults
247(3)
Adults
250(8)
A Health Profile
250(7)
Community Health Strategies for Improving the Health of Adults
257(1)
Chapter Summary
258(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
258(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
259(2)
CHAPTER 9 SENIORS
261(35)
Scenario
262(1)
Introduction
262(2)
Definitions
263(1)
Myths Surrounding Aging
264(2)
Demography of Aging
266(9)
Size and Growth of the Senior Population
266(2)
Factors That Affect Population Size and Age
268(2)
Support and Labor-Force Ratios
270(2)
Other Demographic Variables of Aging
272(3)
A Health Profile of Seniors
275(4)
Mortality
275(2)
Morbidity
277(1)
Health Behaviors and Lifestyle Choices
277(1)
Elder (or Senior) Abuse
278(1)
Instrumental Needs of Seniors
279(12)
Income
279(1)
Housing
280(2)
Personal Care
282(3)
Health Care
285(2)
Transportation
287(1)
Community Facility and Services
288(3)
Chapter Summary
291(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
292(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
293(3)
CHAPTER 10 COMMUNITY HEALTH AND MINORITIES
296(48)
Scenario
297(1)
Introduction
297(2)
Data Sources and Their Limitations
299(7)
Black Americans
306(11)
Mortality Rates and Leading Causes of Death
308(4)
Life Expectancy
312(1)
Infant Mortality Rates
312(2)
Sickle Cell Disease
314(1)
Understanding the Past
315(1)
Socioeconomic Characteristics
315(2)
Americans of Hispanic Origin
317(4)
Mortality Rates and Leading Causes of Death
317(3)
Infant Mortality Rates
320(1)
Socioeconomic Characteristics
320(1)
Asian/Pacific Islanders
321(5)
Asian/Pacific Islander Culture
321(1)
Health Status
321(1)
Mortality Rates and Leading Causes of Death
321(2)
Infant Mortality Rates
323(1)
Community Health Problems of Asian/Pacific Islanders
323(3)
Socioeconomic Characteristics
326(1)
Native Americans
326(6)
Native American Culture
327(1)
Health Status
328(1)
Mortality Rates and Leading Causes of Death
328(1)
Infant Mortality Rates
329(1)
Alcohol Use
329(2)
Socioeconomic Characteristics
331(1)
U.S. Government, Native Americans, and Provision for Health Care
332(2)
Indian Health Services
333(1)
Refugees: The New Immigrants
334(2)
Solutions to the Community Health Problems of Racial/Ethnic Minorities
336(3)
Addressing the Poverty Problem
336(1)
Providing Universal Access to Health Care Services
337(1)
Empowering Self and Community
338(1)
Chapter Summary
339(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
340(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
340(4)
CHAPTER 11 COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH
344(36)
Scenario
345(1)
Introduction
345(4)
Definitions
346(1)
Classification of Mental Disorders
347(1)
Causes of Mental Disorders
348(1)
Mental Illness in America
349(5)
Statistical Indicators of Mental Illness
350(1)
Social Indicators of Mental Illness
350(2)
Stress: A Contemporary Mental Health Problem
352(2)
History of Mental Health Care in America
354(11)
Mental Health Care Before World War II
355(5)
Mental Health Care After World War II
360(5)
Mental Health Care in America in the 1990s
365(8)
Deinstitutionalization in the 1990s
366(3)
Meeting the Needs of the Mentally Ill: Prevention and Treatment
369(4)
Mental Health Care in the Twenty-First Century
373(2)
Federal Initiatives for Mental Health Care
373(1)
Community Mental Health and Managed Care
374(1)
Chapter Summary
375(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
375(2)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
377(3)
CHAPTER 12 ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, AND OTHER DRUGS: A COMMUNITY CONCERN
380(37)
Scenario
381(1)
Introduction
381(4)
Scope of the Current Drug Problem in the United States
382(1)
Definitions
383(2)
Factors That Contribute to Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Abuse
385(3)
Inherited Risk Factors
386(1)
Environmental Risk Factors
386(2)
Types of Drugs Abused and Resulting Problems
388(12)
Legal Drugs
389(5)
Illegal Drugs, Controlled Substances and Other Dangerous Drugs
394(6)
Prevention and Control of Drug Abuse
400(12)
Levels of Prevention
400(1)
Elements of Prevention
401(1)
Governmental Drug Prevention and Control Agencies and Programs
402(5)
Nongovernmental Drug Prevention and Control Agencies and Programs
407(5)
Chapter Summary
412(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
413(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
414(3)
UNIT THREE HEALTH CARE DELIVERY 417(68)
CHAPTER 13 HEALTH CARE SYSTEM: STRUCTURE
418(31)
Scenario
419(1)
Introduction
419(1)
A Brief History of Health Care Delivery in the United States
419(9)
The Spectrum of Health Care Delivery
428(4)
Public (or Population-Based) Health Practice
428(1)
Medical Practice
429(3)
Long-Term Practice
432(1)
Types of Health Care Providers
432(9)
Independent Providers
434(3)
Limited (or Restricted) Care Providers
437(1)
Nurses
438(2)
Allied Health Care Professionals
440(1)
Public Health Professionals
440(1)
Health Care Facilities
441(4)
Practitioner Offices
441(1)
Clinics
442(1)
Hospitals
442(1)
Ambulatory Care Centers
443(1)
Rehabilitation Centers
444(1)
Continuing Care Facilities
444(1)
Chapter Summary
445(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
445(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
446(3)
CHAPTER 14 HEALTH CARE SYSTEM: FUNCTION
449(36)
Scenario
450(1)
Introduction
450(1)
Gaining Access to and Paying for Health Care in the United States
450(6)
Access to Health Care
451(1)
Paying for Health Care
452(2)
Third-Party Payment
454(2)
Health Insurance
456(6)
The Health Insurance Policy
458(2)
Types of Health Care Coverage
460(1)
The Cost of Health Insurance
461(1)
Self-Insured Organizations
462(1)
Health Insurance Provided by the Government
462(3)
Medicare
462(2)
Medicaid
464(1)
Supplemental Health Insurance
465(3)
Medigap
465(1)
Other Supplemental Insurance
465(1)
Long-Term Care Insurance
465(3)
Managed Care
468(4)
Types of Managed Care
468(4)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Managed Care
472(1)
Other Arrangements for Delivering Health Care
472(7)
National Health Insurance
473(1)
Canadian Health Care System
473(4)
The Oregon Health Plan
477(2)
Chapter Summary
479(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
480(1)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
481(4)
UNIT FOUR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY 485(170)
CHAPTER 15 ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS: WASTES AND POLLUTION
486(48)
Scenario
487(1)
Introduction
487(1)
Natural Environmental Hazards
487(1)
Residues and Wastes from Human Activities
488(3)
Types of Wastes and Pollution
491(39)
Solid Waste
491(7)
Hazardous Waste
498(5)
Air Pollution
503(12)
Water and Its Pollution
515(11)
Radiation
526(2)
Noise Pollution
528(2)
Chapter Summary
530(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
530(2)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
532(2)
CHAPTER 16 THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENT ON HUMAN HEALTH
534(38)
Scenario
535(1)
Introduction
535(2)
Biological Hazards and Human Health
537(7)
Waterborne Diseases
537(2)
Foodborne Diseases
539(2)
Vectorborne Diseases
541(3)
Chemical Hazards and Human Health
544(9)
Pesticides
544(3)
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
547(2)
Lead
549(4)
Physical Hazards and Human Health
553(4)
Radon Contamination
554(1)
Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation
555(2)
Psychological Hazards and Human Health
557(1)
Sociological Hazards and Human Health
557(7)
Population Growth
558(6)
Site and Location Hazards and Human Health
564(2)
Natural Disasters
564(2)
Chapter Summary
566(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
567(2)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
569(3)
CHAPTER 17 INJURIES AS A COMMUNITY HEALTH PROBLEM
572(47)
Scenario
573(1)
Introduction
573(4)
Definitions
573(1)
Cost of Injuries to Society
574(3)
Unintentional Injuries
577(21)
Types of Unintentional Injuries
577(2)
Epidemiology of Unintentional Injuries
579(11)
Prevention Through Epidemiology
590(2)
Community Approaches to the Prevention of Unintentional Injuries
592(6)
Intentional Injuries
598(16)
Types of Intentional Injuries
598(1)
Epidemiology of Intentional Injuries
599(2)
Violence in Our Society
601(8)
Approaches to the Prevention of Intentional Injuries
609(4)
A Comprehensive Approach to Prevention of Intentional Injuries
613(1)
Chapter Summary
614(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
614(2)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
616(3)
CHAPTER 18 SAFETY AND HEALTH IN THE WORKPLACE
619(36)
Scenario
620(1)
Introduction
620(2)
Scope of the Problem
620(1)
Importance of Occupational Safety and Health to the Community
621(2)
History of Occupational Safety and Health Problems
622(4)
Occupational Safety and Health in the United States Before 1970
622(3)
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
625(1)
Prevalence of Occupational Injuries, Diseases, and Deaths
626(19)
Overview of Recent Trends in Workplace Injuries and Illnesses
627(1)
Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace
628(9)
Prevention and Control of Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace
637(1)
Workplace Violence: Intentional Workplace Injuries
637(3)
Occupational Diseases and Disorders
640(5)
Resources for the Prevention of Workplace Injuries and Diseases
645(5)
Occupational Safety and Health Professionals
645(2)
Occupational Safety and Health Programs
647(3)
Chapter Summary
650(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
650(2)
COMMUNITY HEALTH ON THE WEB
652(3)
APPENDIX 1 Retrospective Studies: How to Calculate an Odds Ratio 655(1)
Prospective Studies: How to Calculate Relative and Attributable Risk 655(1)
APPENDIX 2 Operational Definitions for the 1990 Census 656(2)
APPENDIX 3 Revised Operational Definitions for 1997 658(1)
GLOSSARY 659(20)
CREDITS 679(2)
INDEX 681


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