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An Introduction to Community Health: Web Enhanced,9780763716790
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An Introduction to Community Health: Web Enhanced

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780763716790

ISBN10:
0763716790
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Jones & Bartlett Learning
List Price: $83.95
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Summary

In an effort to effectively address the health issues facing today's communities, An Introduction to Community Health, Sixth Edition, has been updated to reflect the latest trends and statistics in community health. With an emphasis on developing the knowledge and skills necessary for a career in health education, this best-selling introductory text covers such topics as epidemiology, community organization, program planning, minority health, health care, mental health, environmental health, drugs, safety, and occupational health. Short scenarios, key terminology, marginal definitions, and web activities found in each chapter make this an accessible and reader-friendly resource for the beginning community health student. The book also features helpful instructor resources, including an Instructor's Toolkit CD-ROM and Student Note-Taking Guide.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
UNIT ONE FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH 1(162)
Community Health--Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
2(26)
Scenario
3(1)
Introduction
3(6)
Definitions
3(2)
Factors That Affect the Health of a Community
5(4)
A Brief History of Community and Public Health
9(11)
Earliest Civilizations
9(1)
Middle Ages (A.D. 500-1500)
10(1)
Renaissance and Exploration (A.D. 1500-1700)
11(1)
The Eighteenth Century
11(1)
The Nineteenth Century
12(2)
The Twentieth Century
14(6)
Outlook for Community Health in the Twenty-First Century
20(4)
World Planning for the Twenty-First Century
20(1)
The United States' Planning for the Twenty-First Century
21(3)
Chapter Summary
24(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
25(1)
Community Health on the Web
25(3)
Organizations That Help Shape Community Health
28(26)
Scenario
29(1)
Introduction
29(1)
Governmental Health Agencies
30(14)
International Health Agencies
30(1)
National Health Agencies
31(6)
State Health Agencies
37(3)
Local Health Agencies
40(2)
Coordinated School Health Program
42(2)
Quasi-Governmental Health Organizations
44(1)
The American Red Cross (ARC)
44(1)
Other Quasi-Governmental Organizations
45(1)
Nongovernmental Health Agencies
45(5)
Voluntary Health Agencies
45(2)
Professional Health Organizations/Associations
47(1)
Philanthropic Foundations
48(1)
Service, Social, and Religious Organizations
48(1)
Corporate Involvement in Community Health
49(1)
Chapter Summary
50(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
51(1)
Community Health on the Web
51(3)
Epidemiology: The Study of Disease, Injury, and Death in the Community
54(33)
Scenario
55(1)
Introduction
55(3)
Definition of Epidemilogy
56(1)
History of Epidemiology
57(1)
The Importance of Rates
58(3)
Incidence, Prevalence, and Attack Rates
59(1)
Crude and Age-Adjusted Rates
59(1)
Specific Rates
60(1)
Reporting of Births, Deaths, and Diseases
61(3)
Sources of Standardized Data
64(4)
The U.S. Census
64(1)
Statistical Abstract of the United States
65(1)
Monthly Vital Statistics Report
65(1)
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
65(1)
National Health Surveys
65(3)
Standardized Measurements of Health Status of Populations
68(6)
Mortality Statistics
68(1)
Life Expectancy
69(2)
Years of Potential Life Lost
71(1)
Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)
72(1)
Disability-Adjusted Life Expectancy
72(2)
Epidemiological Studies
74(7)
Descriptive Studies
75(2)
Analytical Studies
77(2)
Experimental Studies
79(2)
Chapter Summary
81(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
82(3)
Community Health on the Web
85(2)
Epidemiology: Prevention and Control of Diseases and Health Conditions
87(25)
Scenario
88(1)
Introduction
88(1)
Classification of Diseases and Health Problems
88(2)
Communicable Versus Noncommunicable Diseases
88(1)
Acute Versus Chronic Diseases and Illnesses
89(1)
Communicable Diseases
90(3)
Chain of Infection
90(2)
Modes of Transmission
92(1)
Noncommunicable Diseases
93(4)
Diseases of the Heart and Blood Vessels
93(1)
Malignant Neoplasms (Cancer)
94(1)
Other Noncommunicable Disease Problems
95(2)
Prioritizing Prevention and Control Efforts
97(1)
Leading Causes of Death
97(1)
Years of Potential Life Lost
97(1)
Economic Cost to Society
97(1)
Prevention, Intervention, Control, and Eradication of Diseases
98(1)
Levels of Prevention
98(11)
Prevention of Communicable Diseases
100(6)
Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases
106(3)
Chapter Summary
109(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
110(1)
Community Health on the Web
110(2)
Community Organizing/Building and Health Promotion Programming
112(22)
Scenario
113(1)
Introduction
113(1)
Community Organizing/Building
113(2)
Need for Organizing Communities
114(1)
Assumptions of Community Organizing
114(1)
Community Organizing Methods
115(1)
The Process of Community Organizing/Building
115(6)
Recognizing the Problem
115(1)
Gaining Entry into the Community
116(1)
Organizing the People
117(1)
Assessing the Community
118(1)
Determining the Priorities and Setting Goals
119(1)
Arriving at a Solution and Selecting Intervention Activities
120(1)
The Final Steps in the Community Organizing/Building Process: Implementing, Evaluating, Maintaining, and Looping Back
120(1)
A Special Note About Community Organizing/Building
121(1)
Health Promotion Programming
121(1)
Basic Understanding of Program Planning
121(1)
Creating a Health Promotion Program
122(8)
Understanding the Community and Engaging the Target Population
123(1)
Assessing the Needs of the Target Population
123(3)
Setting Appropriate Goals and Objectives
126(1)
Creating an Intervention That Considers the Peuliarities of the Setting
126(2)
Implementing the Intervention
128(1)
Evaluating the Results
129(1)
Chapter Summary
130(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
131(1)
Community Health on the Web
132(2)
The School Health Program: A Component of Community Health
134(29)
Scenario
135(1)
Introduction
135(4)
Coordinated School Health Program Defined
135(3)
The School Health Team
138(1)
The School Nurse
138(1)
The Teacher's Role
139(1)
The Need for School Health
139(3)
Foundations of the School Health Program
142(1)
School Health Policies
143(3)
Policy Development
144(1)
Policy Implementation
144(1)
Monitoring the Status of School Health Policy in the United States
144(2)
Major Components of a Coordinated School Health Program
146(8)
Administration and Organization
147(1)
School Health Services
147(1)
Healthy School Environment
148(2)
School Health Education
150(4)
Issues and Concerns Facing the School Health Program
154(5)
Coordinated School Health Program
155(1)
Dealing with Controversy in the Curriculum
156(1)
School-Based Health Centers (SBHCs) or School-Linked Health Centers (SLHCs)
157(1)
Violence in Schools
158(1)
Chapter Summary
159(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
160(1)
Community Health on the Web
160(3)
UNIT TWO THE NATION'S HEALTH 163(214)
Maternal, Infant, and Child Health
164(43)
Scenario
165(1)
Introduction
165(2)
Family and Reproductive Health
167(12)
Teenage Births
168(5)
Family Planning
173(6)
Maternal Health
179(2)
Prenatal Health Care
180(1)
Infant Health
181(7)
Infant Mortality
182(3)
Improving Infant Health
185(3)
Child Health
188(8)
Childhood Mortality
189(1)
Childhood Morbidity
190(6)
Community Programs for Women, Infants, and Children
196(7)
Maternal and Child Health Bureau
197(2)
Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC Program)
199(1)
Providing Health Insurance and Health Care for Women, Infants, and Children
200(1)
Providing Child Care
201(1)
Other Advocates for Children
202(1)
Chapter Summary
203(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
204(1)
Community Health on the Web
205(2)
Adolescents, Young Adults, and Adults
207(26)
Scenario
208(1)
Introduction
208(1)
Adolescents and Young Adults
208(15)
Demography
209(2)
A Health Profile
211(11)
Community Health Strategies for Improving the Health of Adolescents and Young Adults
222(1)
Adults
223(7)
A Health Profile
223(6)
Community Health Strategies for Improving the Health of Adults
229(1)
Chapter Summary
230(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
230(1)
Community Health on the Web
231(2)
Elders
233(31)
Scenario
234(1)
Introduction
234(2)
Definitions
234(2)
Myths Surrounding Aging
236(1)
Demography of Aging
237(8)
Size and Growth of the Elder Population
237(1)
Factors That Affect Population Size and Age
238(2)
Support and Labor-Force Ratios
240(2)
Other Demographic Variables of the Aging
242(3)
A Health Profile of Elders
245(5)
Mortality
245(1)
Morbidity
246(2)
Health Behaviors and Lifestyle Choices
248(1)
Elder Abuse and Neglect
249(1)
Instrumental Needs of Elders
250(10)
Income
250(1)
Housing
250(3)
Personal Care
253(2)
Health Care
255(2)
Transportation
257(1)
Community Facilities and Services
257(3)
Chapter Summary
260(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
261(1)
Community Health on the Web
262(2)
Community Health and Minorities
264(45)
Scenario
265(1)
Introduction
265(5)
Racial and Ethnic Classifications
270(2)
Health Data Sources and Their Limitations
272(1)
Black Americans
273(3)
Americans of Hispanic Origin
276(1)
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
276(2)
Native Americans and Alaska Natives
278(3)
U.S. Government, Native Americans, and the Provision of Health Care
279(1)
Indian Health Service (IHS)
280(1)
Refugees: The New Immigrants
281(1)
Race and Health Initiative
282(11)
Infant Mortality
282(1)
Cancer Screening and Management
283(1)
Cardiovascular Diseases
284(1)
Diabetes
285(2)
HIV Infection/AIDS
287(3)
Child and Adult Immunization Rates
290(3)
Socioeconomic Status and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health
293(4)
Equity in Minority Health
297(8)
Cultural Competence
297(4)
Empowering the Self and the Community
301(4)
Chapter Summary
305(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
306(1)
Community Health on the Web
306(3)
Community Mental Health
309(32)
Scenario
310(1)
Introduction
310(3)
Definitions
311(1)
Classification of Mental Disorders
312(1)
Origins and Causes of Mental Disorders
312(1)
Mental Illness in America
313(6)
Statistical Indicators of Mental Illness
313(1)
Social Indicators of Mental Illness
314(1)
Stress: A Contemporary Mental Health Problem
315(4)
History of Mental Health Care in America
319(9)
Mental Health Care before World War II
319(4)
Mental Health Care After World War II
323(5)
Mental Health Care in America Today
328(8)
The Problem of Homelessness
328(3)
Meeting the Needs of the Mentally Ill: Prevention and Treatment
331(3)
Federal Initiatives for Mental Health Care
334(1)
Community Mental Health and Managed Care
335(1)
Chapter Summary
336(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
337(1)
Community Health on the Web
338(3)
Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs: A Community Concern
341(36)
Scenario
342(1)
Introduction
342(4)
Scope of the Current Drug Problem in the United States
343(2)
Definitions
345(1)
Factors That Contribute to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Abuse
346(3)
Inherited Risk Factors
347(1)
Environmental Risk Factors
347(2)
Types of Drugs Abused and Resulting Problems
349(12)
Legal Drugs
349(5)
Controlled Substances and Illicit (Illegal) Drugs
354(7)
Prevention and Control of Drug Abuse
361(10)
Levels of Prevention
362(1)
Elements of Prevention
362(1)
Governmental Drug Prevention and Control Agencies and Programs
363(4)
Nongovernmental Drug Prevention and Control Agencies and Programs
367(4)
Chapter Summary
371(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
372(1)
Community Health on the Web
373(4)
UNIT THREE HEALTH CARE DELIVERY 377(64)
Health Care System: Structure
378(32)
Scenario
379(1)
Introduction
379(1)
A Brief History of Health Care Delivery in the United States
379(8)
The Spectrum of Health Care Delivery
387(4)
Public (or Population-Based) Health Practice
388(1)
Medical Practice
389(1)
Long-Term Practice
390(1)
Types of Health Care Providers
391(11)
Independent Providers
392(5)
Limited (or Restricted) Care Providers
397(1)
Nurses
397(3)
Allied Health Care Professionals
400(1)
Public Health Professionals
401(1)
Health Care Facilities and Their Accreditation
402(4)
Health Care Facilities
402(4)
Accreditation of Health Care Facilities
406(1)
Chapter Summary
406(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
407(1)
Community Health on the Web
408(2)
Health Care System: Function
410(31)
Scenario
411(1)
Introduction
411(1)
Gaining Access to and Paying for Health Care in the United States
411(5)
Access to Health Care
411(1)
Paying for Health Care
412(2)
Third-Party Payment
414(2)
Health Insurance
416(6)
The Health Insurance Policy
419(1)
Types of Health Insurance Coverage
420(1)
The Cost of Health Insurance
421(1)
Self-Insured Organizations
422(1)
Health Insurance Provided by the Government
422(3)
Medicare
422(2)
Medicaid
424(1)
Supplemental Health Insurance
425(2)
Medigap
425(1)
Other Supplemental Insurance
425(1)
Long-Term Care Insurance
425(2)
Managed Care
427(4)
Types of Managed Care
428(3)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Managed Care
431(1)
Other Arrangements for Delivering Health Care
431(6)
National Health Insurance
431(1)
Canadian Health Care System
432(3)
The Oregon Health Plan
435(2)
Chapter Summary
437(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
438(1)
Community Health on the Web
439(2)
UNIT FOUR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY 441(147)
Environmental Concerns: Wastes and Pollution
442(40)
Scenario
443(1)
Introduction
443(1)
Natural Environmental Hazards
443(1)
Residues and Wastes from Human Activities
444(2)
Types of Wastes and Pollution
446(32)
Solid Waste
446(7)
Hazardous Waste
453(3)
Air Pollution
456(9)
Water and Its Pollution
465(8)
Radiation
473(3)
Noise Pollution
476(2)
Chapter Summary
478(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
479(1)
Community Health on the Web
480(2)
The Impact of Environment on Human Health
482(34)
Scenario
483(1)
Introduction
483(1)
Biological Hazards and Human Health
484(8)
Waterborne Diseases
485(1)
Foodborne Diseases
486(4)
Vectorborne Diseases
490(2)
Chemical Hazards and Human Health
492(8)
Pesticides
492(2)
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
494(2)
Lead
496(4)
Physical Hazards and Human Health
500(3)
Radon Contamination
500(1)
Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation
501(2)
Psychological Hazards and Human Health
503(1)
Sociological Hazards and Human Health
504(4)
Population Growth
504(4)
Site and Location Hazards and Human Health
508(3)
Natural Disasters
509(2)
Chapter Summary
511(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
512(1)
Community Health on the Web
513(3)
Injuries as a Community Health Problem
516(40)
Scenario
517(1)
Introduction
517(4)
Definitions
517(1)
Cost of Injuries to Society
518(3)
Unintentional Injuries
521(15)
Types of Unintentional Injuries
521(2)
Epidemiology of Unintentional Injuries
523(7)
Prevention through Epidemiology
530(2)
Community Approaches to the Prevention of Unintentional Injuries
532(4)
Intentional Injuries
536(16)
Types of Intentional Injuries
536(1)
Epidemiology of Intentional Injuries
537(4)
Violence in Our Society and Resources for Prevention
541(11)
Chapter Summary
552(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
553(1)
Community Health on the Web
553(3)
Safety and Health in the Workplace
556(32)
Scenario
557(1)
Introduction
557(2)
Scope of the Problem
557(1)
Importance of Occupational Safety and Health to the Community
558(1)
History of Occupational Safety and Health Problems
559(4)
Occupational Safety and Health in the United States before 1970
559(2)
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
561(2)
Prevalence of Occupational Injuries, Diseases, and Deaths
563(17)
Overview of Recent Trends in Workplace Injuries and Illnesses
563(1)
Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace
564(9)
Prevention and Control of Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace
573(1)
Workplace Violence: Intentional Workplace Injuries
574(2)
Occupational Illnesses and Disorders
576(4)
Resources for the Prevention of Workplace Injuries and Diseases
580(3)
Occupational Safety and Health Professionals
580(2)
Occupational Safety and Health Programs
582(1)
Chapter Summary
583(1)
Scenario: Analysis and Response
584(1)
Community Health on the Web
585(3)
Appendix 1 Retrospective Studies: How to Calculate an Odds Ratio 588(1)
Prospective Studies: How to Calculate Relative and Attributable Risk
588(1)
Appendix 2 Operational Definitions for the 1990 Census 589(2)
Appendix 3 Revised Operational Definitions for 1997 591(1)
Appendix 4 Self-Assessment Checklist 592(3)
Glossary 595(17)
Credits 612(1)
Index 613


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