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Introduction to Counseling : An Art and Science Perspective,9780205350940
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Introduction to Counseling : An Art and Science Perspective

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205350940

ISBN10:
0205350941
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Introduction to Counseling provides an overview of counseling and the helping professions from the perspective of art and science. The Second Edition has been reorganized into three sections: An overview of counseling and the counseling process; developing a personal approach to counseling from a multicultural perspective; and special approaches and settings. The text stays true to its original focus by using the concept of art and science as a unifying theme. The new edition also revisits the topics of multicultural counseling and diversity issues such as gender, culture, and sexual orientation in each chapter, communicating how multiculturalism can be integrated into all aspects of counseling rather than viewed as a separate entity.

Author Biography

Michael S. Nystul is a professor in the department of counseling and educational psychology at New Mexico State University.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
About the Author xvii
PART ONE An Overview of Counseling and the Counseling Process 1(130)
An Overview of Counseling
3(23)
Welcome to the Field of Counseling
3(1)
What Is Counseling?
4(10)
The Art and Science of Counseling and Psychotherapy
4(3)
Counseling as Storytelling
7(1)
Counseling and Psychotherapy
8(2)
Differentiating Formal from Informal Helping
10(1)
Personal Qualities of Effective Helpers
11(3)
The Helping Profession
14(1)
Counseling: Past, Present, and Future
14(11)
Counseling from a Historical Perspective
14(7)
Future Trends
21(4)
Summary
25(1)
Professional Preparation and Ethical and Legal Issues
26(26)
Becoming a Professional Counselor
26(5)
Formal Study and Professional Affiliation
26(1)
Certification and Licensure
27(3)
Continuing Education
30(1)
Professional Involvement
30(1)
Ethical-Legal Issues
31(20)
The Art and Science of Ethical-Legal Issues
31(1)
Ethical Issues
32(6)
Legal Issues
38(3)
Special Ethical and Legal Issues
41(5)
Ethical-Legal Decision Making
46(3)
Clinical Examples
49(2)
Summary
51(1)
The Counseling Process
52(35)
The Art and Science of the Counseling Process
52(1)
The Six Stages of the Counseling Process
53(11)
Stage One: Relationship Building
54(5)
Stage Two: Assessment and Diagnosis
59(1)
Stage Three: Formulation of Counseling Goals
59(2)
Stage Four: Intervention and Problem Solving
61(3)
Stage Five: Termination and Follow-Up
64(1)
Stage Six: Research and Evaluation
64(1)
Listening Skills
64(6)
Primary Listening Skills
65(2)
Secondary Listening Skills
67(1)
Counseling Vignette
68(1)
Effective Listening ``Don'ts''
69(1)
Effective Listening ``Do's''
69(1)
A Final Thought Regarding Listening Skills
70(1)
Recent Trends in the Counseling Process
70(9)
Emotions
70(2)
Postmodern Trends
72(3)
Brief-Counseling Approaches
75(1)
Brief-Solution-Focused Counseling
76(3)
Common Problems for Beginning Counselors
79(5)
Focusing on the First Issue in a Session
79(1)
Overlooking Physical or Medical Issues
79(1)
Wanting to Rescue Clients from Their Unhappiness
80(1)
Having Perfectionist Tendencies
80(1)
Having Unrealistic Expectations
81(1)
Getting Carried Away with the Latest Technique
81(1)
Getting Lost in the Counseling Process
82(1)
Using Inappropriate Phrases
82(1)
Having an Excessive Desire to Help
82(1)
Having an Excessive Need to Be Liked
83(1)
Getting Too Emotionally Involved
83(1)
Taking Things Too Personally
83(1)
Having Difficulty Differentiating Between Normal and Abnormal
84(1)
Being Uncertain about Self-Disclosure
84(1)
Being Uncertain about Confidentiality
84(1)
Diversity Issues
84(1)
Summary
85(2)
Assessment and Diagnosis
87(25)
The Art and Science of Assessment and Diagnosis
87(1)
Assessment and Diagnosis
88(1)
Assessment
88(11)
Evaluation of Tests
89(1)
Administration and Interpretation of Tests
90(1)
Test Bias
91(2)
Types of Tests
93(5)
Environmental/Ecological Assessment
98(1)
Diagnosis
99(11)
Historical Perspective
99(1)
The DSM-IV
100(4)
The Clinical Interview
104(2)
Treatment Planning
106(4)
Diversity and Postmodern Issues in Assessment and Diagnosis
110(1)
Summary
111(1)
Counseling Research and Evaluation
112(19)
The Art and Science of Research and Evaluation
112(1)
The Purpose of Research and Evaluation
113(4)
Theory, Research, and Practice
113(1)
Research, Evaluation, and Counselor Accountability
114(1)
The Contribution of Research to the Counseling Field
115(2)
Overview of the Types of Research
117(12)
Types of Research Methodologies
117(2)
Shortcomings of Traditional Counseling Research
119(10)
Diversity and Postmodern Issues in Research and Evaluation
129(1)
Summary
129(2)
PART TWO Developing a Personal Approach to Counseling from a Multicultural Perspective 131(132)
Developing a Personal Approach to Counseling with a Multicultural Perspective
133(33)
The Art and Science of Developing a Personal Approach to Counseling with a Multicultural Perspective
133(1)
Developing a Personal Approach to Counseling
134(2)
An Eight-Stage Model for Developing a Personal Approach
136(8)
Stage One: Self-Assessment
136(1)
Stage Two: Survey of Supportive Disciplines
136(6)
Stage Three: Overview of Major Counseling Theories
142(1)
Stage Four: Intensive Study of One Counseling Theory
142(1)
Stage Five: Sensitivity to Individual Differences
142(1)
Stage Six: Integration of Techniques from Counseling Theories
143(1)
Stage Seven: Implementation
143(1)
Stage Eight: Research and Evaluation
144(1)
Multicultural Counseling
144(2)
Terms and Concepts
144(1)
Theoretical Perspectives for Multicultural Counseling
145(1)
Potential Challenges in Multicultural Counseling
146(11)
Conseling as a White Middle-Class Activity
146(1)
Social Class
146(1)
Gender
146(1)
The Intrapsychic Perspective
147(1)
Sexual Orientation
147(2)
Stereotyping
149(1)
Communication Problems
149(1)
Faulty Assumptions
150(2)
Test Bias
152(1)
Prejudice
152(1)
Racism
153(2)
The Efficacy of Multicultural Counseling
155(2)
Suggestions for Incorporating a Multicultural Perspective
157(8)
Beliefs, Knowledge, and Skills
157(1)
World View
158(1)
Identity Development
159(1)
Methods to Evaluate Counseling Theories
160(3)
Guidelines for Multicultural Counseling
163(2)
Summary
165(1)
The Classic Theories of Freud, Adler, and Jung
166(30)
The Art and Science of the Classic Theories
166(1)
An Overview of Freud, Adler, and Jung
167(1)
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
168(10)
Background Information
168(1)
Theory of Personality
169(4)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
173(1)
Techniques
174(1)
Contemporary Issues
175(1)
Freudian Brief Approaches to Counseling
176(1)
Summary and Evaluation
177(1)
Adler's Individual Psychology
178(10)
Background Information
178(1)
Theory of Personality
179(3)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
182(1)
Techniques
183(2)
Contemporary Issues
185(1)
Adlerian Brief Approaches to Counseling
186(1)
Postmodern Trends and Adlerian Psychology
187(1)
Summary and Evaluation
187(1)
Jung's Analytic Psychology
188(6)
Background Information
188(1)
Jung's Theory of Personality
189(2)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
191(1)
Techniques
192(1)
Contemporary Issues
192(1)
Jungian Brief-Counseling Approaches
193(1)
Summary and Evaluation
193(1)
The Classic Theories and Their Use in Contemprary Practice
194(1)
Diversity Issues in the Classic Theories
194(1)
Brief Counseling and the Classic Theories
195(1)
Summary
195(1)
Experiential Theories and Approaches
196(30)
The Art and Science of Experiential Counseling
196(1)
Experiential Counseling
197(1)
Experiential Theories
197(1)
Person-Centered Therapy
198(4)
Background Information
198(1)
Theory of Personality
199(1)
View of Human Nature
199(1)
Key Concepts
200(1)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
200(1)
Techniques
201(1)
Summary and Evaluation
202(1)
Gestalt Therapy
202(3)
Background Information
202(1)
Theory of Personality
202(1)
View of Human Nature
203(1)
Key Concepts
203(1)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
204(1)
Techniques
204(1)
Summary and Evaluation
205(1)
Existential Therapy
205(4)
Background Information
205(1)
Theory of Personality
206(1)
Key Concepts
206(1)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
207(1)
Techniques
208(1)
Summary and Evaluation
209(1)
Creative Arts Therapy
209(13)
Professional Issues
210(1)
Music Therapy
210(4)
Art Therapy
214(3)
Daram Therapy
217(1)
Dance Therapy
218(1)
Bibliotherapy
219(1)
Multimodality CAT
220(2)
Summary and Evaluation of CAT
222(1)
Research Trends in Experiential Counseling
222(3)
Brief Approaches to Experiential Counseling
223(1)
Diversity Issues in Experiential Counseling
224(1)
Summary
225(1)
Cognitive-Behavioral Theories
226(37)
The Art and Science of Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling
226(1)
Cognitive-Behavioral Theories
227(1)
Behavior Therapy
227(7)
Background Information
227(2)
Theory of Personality
229(1)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
230(3)
Summary and Evaluation
233(1)
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
234(5)
Background Information
234(1)
Theory of Personality
235(2)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
237(1)
Summary and Evaluation
238(1)
Cognitive Therapy
239(4)
Background Information
239(1)
Theory of Personality
239(2)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
241(1)
Summary and Evaluation
242(1)
Transactional Analysis (TA)
243(7)
Background Information
243(1)
Theory of Personality
244(4)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
248(1)
Summary and Evaluation
249(1)
Reality Therapy
250(4)
Background Information
250(1)
Theory of Personality
251(2)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
253(1)
Summary and Evaluation
254(1)
Feminist Therapy
254(4)
Background Information
254(1)
Theory of Personality
255(1)
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy
256(2)
Summary and Evaluation
258(1)
Special Issues in Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling
258(4)
Cognitive-Behavioral Theories from a Brief-Counseling Perspective
258(2)
Diversity Issues
260(1)
Postmodern Trends
261(1)
Summary
262(1)
PART THREE Special Approaches and Settings 263(175)
Marriage and Family Counseling
265(25)
The Art and Science of Marriage and Family Counseling
265(1)
Evolution of Marriage and Family Counseling
266(2)
Professional Issues and Organizations
267(1)
Theoretical Foundations
268(5)
Systems Theory
268(1)
Key Concepts
268(3)
Evaluation of Systems Theory
271(1)
The Family Life Cycle
271(2)
Evaluation of the Family Life Cycle
273(1)
Marriage Counseling
273(5)
The Counseling Process
274(1)
Skills-Based Marriage Counseling
274(1)
Marital Assessment
275(3)
Family Counseling
278(8)
Psychodynamic Family Counseling
278(1)
Experiential Family Counseling
278(2)
Structural Family Counseling
280(1)
Strategic Family Counseling
280(1)
Adlerian Family Counseling
281(2)
Postmodern/Social Constructionist Trends in Family Counseling
283(2)
The Counseling Process
285(1)
Diversity Issues in Marriage and Family Counseling
286(2)
Evaluation of Marriage and Family Counseling
288(1)
Summary
289(1)
Child and Adolescent Counseling
290(40)
The Art and Science of Child and Adolescent Counseling
290(1)
Children and Adolescents from a Historical Perspective
291(2)
Children
291(1)
Adolescents
292(1)
Developmental Theories
293(11)
Cognitive Theories
295(1)
Theories of Moral Development
296(1)
Psychosocial Theories
296(1)
Developmental Psychopathology
297(1)
The Classic Theories
298(1)
Emerging Developmental Trends
298(6)
Treatment Issues
304(11)
Assessment Procedures
304(3)
Child and Adolescent Counseling Goals
307(1)
Child and Adolescent Counseling Research
307(1)
Special Counseling Approaches for Children and Adolescents
308(5)
Guidelines for Child and Adolescent Counseling
313(2)
Special Problems of Children and Adolescents
315(12)
Child Abuse and Neglect
315(4)
Depression
319(2)
Suicide
321(2)
Antisocial Behavior
323(4)
Diversity and Postmodern Issues in Child and Adolescent Counseling
327(2)
Summary
329(1)
Group Counseling
330(18)
The Art and Science of Group Counseling
330(1)
Group Counseling
331(1)
Group Counseling from a Historical Perspective
331(1)
Comparison to Individual and Family Counseling
332(6)
Group Versus Individual Counseling
333(1)
Group Versus Family Counseling
334(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Counseling
335(1)
Group Goals and Processes
336(1)
Types of Groups
336(2)
Problem Solving and Group Process
338(1)
Group Size, Composition, and Duration
339(1)
Use of Coleaders
340(1)
Pregroup Screening and Orientation
340(1)
Stages in Group Counseling
341(1)
Brief-Solution-Focused Group Counseling
342(1)
Dealing with Disruptive Group Members
342(2)
Common Mistakes of Group Leaders
344(1)
Qualities of Effective Group Leaders
344(1)
Diversity Issues
345(2)
Summary
347(1)
Career Counseling
348(23)
The Art and Science of Career Counseling
348(1)
Evolution of Career Counseling
349(1)
Theoretical Foundations
350(7)
Career Development Theories
350(4)
Career Decision-Making Theories
354(3)
Treatment Issues
357(6)
Personal Versus Career Counseling
357(1)
Assessment Instruments
358(2)
The Process of Career Counseling
360(1)
Intervention Strategies
361(2)
Special Issues
363(3)
Career Counseling for Women
363(2)
Computer-Assisted Career Counseling
365(1)
Diversity Issues in Career Counseling
366(4)
Summary
370(1)
School Counseling
371(34)
The Art and Science of School Counseling
371(1)
A Comprehensive Developmental Model for School Counseling
372(2)
A Developmental Perspective
373(1)
Role and Function of School Counselors
374(8)
A Historical Perspective
375(2)
The Current ASCA Role Statement, Definition, and Standards
377(1)
Role and Function by Grade Level and Setting
378(4)
Special Skills and Problems
382(16)
Consultation
383(2)
Counseling Exceptional Students
385(7)
Special Problems
392(6)
Future Trends in School Counseling
398(6)
Diversity Issues
400(2)
Brief-Solution-Focused Counseling
402(1)
Use of Technology
403(1)
Summary
404(1)
Mental Health Counseling
405(33)
The Art and Science of Mental Health Counseling
405(1)
Professional Issues
406(2)
The Role and Function of Mental Health Counselors
408(6)
Direct Intervention Strategies
409(2)
Indirect Intervention Strategies
411(3)
Categories of Mental Health Services
414(4)
Problems of Living
414(1)
Mental Disorders
415(3)
Strategies for Suicidal Clients
418(5)
Causes
418(1)
Myths about Suicide
419(1)
Treatment Strategies
419(4)
Strategies for Clients with Substance-Abuse Problems
423(8)
Diagnosis
424(1)
Special Treatment Issues
425(1)
Counseling Goals
425(1)
Treatment Strategies
426(3)
Stages of Change
429(1)
Prevention of Relapses
430(1)
Current Trends and Perspectives
431(6)
Postmodern Trends
431(2)
Mental Health Counseling and the Internet
433(1)
Ecosystemic Mental Health Counseling
434(1)
Diversity Issues
435(1)
Managed Care
436(1)
Summary
437(1)
References 438(44)
Name Index 482(12)
Subject Index 494(16)
Credits 510


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