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Introduction to Criminal Justice (with CD-ROM and InfoTrac)

by ;
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780534629465

ISBN10:
0534629466
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/25/2004
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning

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Summary

This best-selling text presents criminal justice as a dynamic, ever-changing field, emphasizing how the concepts and processes of criminal justice are constantly evolving. Authors Siegel and Senna emphasize a comprehensive and balanced approach to the three major areas of criminal justice (police, courts, and corrections) and to theory, research, and policy issues, with a focus on generating students' interest in the criminal justice field. This text is the ultimate tool for complete student preparation and provides all of the up-to-date coverage of structural and procedural changes in the criminal justice system that instructors require, ultimately helping students understand the critical issues in the field, and the impact they have on the system.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
1 The Nature of Crime, Law, and Criminal Justice 1(144)
Chapter 1 Crime and Criminal Justice
3(38)
Is Crime a Recent Development?
4(2)
Crime in the Old West
4(1)
Crime in the Cities
5(1)
Images of Justice: Gangs of New York
6(20)
Creating Criminal Justice
7(1)
The Modern Era of Justice
7(1)
Federal Involvement in Criminal Justice
8(1)
The Criminal Justice System Today
8(4)
Scope of the System
10(2)
The Formal Criminal Justice Process
12(7)
The Criminal Justice Assembly Line
16(3)
The Informal Criminal Justice System
19(3)
The "Wedding Cake" Model of Justice
20(2)
Perspectives on Justice
22(4)
Crime Control Perspective
23(2)
Rehabilitation Perspective
25(1)
Due Process Perspective
25(1)
Law in Review: Board of Education of Independent School District No, 92 of Pottawatomie County et al. v. Earls et al.
26(8)
Nonintervention Perspective
28(1)
Justice Perspective
28(1)
Restorative Justice Perspective
29(1)
Perspectives in Action: Controlling the Drug Trade
29(5)
Crime Control Strategies
30(1)
Justice Model Strategies
31(1)
Rehabilitation Strategies
31(2)
Restorative Justice Strategies
33(1)
Nonintervention Strategies
33(1)
Due Process Strategies
33(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Should Drugs Be Legalized?
34(7)
Perspectives in Perspective
35(1)
Summary
36(1)
Key Terms
37(1)
Doing Research on the Web
37(1)
Discussion Questions
38(1)
Notes
38(3)
Chapter 2 The Nature and Extent of Crime
41(34)
Measuring Crime
42(7)
Official Data: Uniform Crime Reports
42(3)
Victim Surveys: National Criminal Victimization Survey
45(1)
Self-Report Surveys
45(2)
Compatibility of Crime Statistics Sources
47(2)
Official Crime Trends 48
Trends in Violent Crime
49(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Explaining Crime Trends
50(6)
Trends in Property Crime
52(1)
Victimization Trends
53(1)
Self-Report Findings
53(1)
What the Future Holds
54(1)
Crime Patterns
54(4)
The Ecology of Crime
55(1)
International Justice: Why Is Crime Booming around the World?
56(2)
Firearms and Crime
57(1)
Social Class and Crime
57(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: should Guns Be Controlled?
58(17)
Age and Crime
62(1)
Gender and Crime
63(2)
Race and Crime
65(3)
Careers and Crime
68(2)
Summary
70(1)
Key Terms
70(1)
Doing Research on the Web
71(1)
Discussion Questions
71(1)
Notes
71(4)
Chapter 3 Understanding Crime and Victimization
75(44)
Crime in the United States
76(4)
Violent Crime
76(3)
Substance Abuse
79(1)
Economic Crimes
79(1)
The Cause of Crime
80(1)
Because They Want To: Choice Theory
81(4)
Rational Criminals
81(1)
Rational Crimes
81(1)
Make 'Em Afraid I: The Concept of General Deterrence
82(1)
Make 'Em Afraid II: Specific Deterrence
83(1)
Make It Difficult: Situational Crime Prevention
84(1)
Because They Are Different: Biological Theories
85(2)
In the Blood: Biochemical Factors
85(1)
The Abnormal Brain: Neurological Problems
86(1)
The Bad Seed: Genetic Factors
87(1)
In Their Heads: Psychological Theories
87(5)
The Disturbed Mind: Psychodynamic Theory
87(1)
Learning to Commit Crime: Behavioral Theory
88(1)
Developing Criminal Ideas: Cognitive Theory
89(1)
Personality and Crime: The Psychopath
89(1)
Images of Justice: The Media and Violence
90(2)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Emerge
92(6)
IQ and Crime
93(1)
Blame Society: Sociological Theories
93(5)
Because They Are Poor: Social Structure Theory
94(1)
The Disorganized Neighborhood
95(3)
Race Gender, and Ethnicity in Criminal Justice: Building a Bridge over the Racial Divide
98(21)
Socialized to Crime: Social Process Theories
100(5)
It's All about the Benjamins: Conflict Theory
105(1)
The Path to Crime: Developmental Theories
106(3)
Latent Trait Theory
106(1)
Life Course Theory
107(2)
It's How You Live: Theories of Victimization
109(2)
Victim Precipitation
109(1)
Lifestyle Theory
109(1)
Routine Activities Theory
110(1)
Summary
111(2)
Key Terms
113(1)
Doing Research on the Web
113(1)
Discussion Questions
113(1)
Notes
113(6)
Chapter 4 Criminal Law: Substance and Procedure
119(26)
The Substantive Criminal Law
120(4)
The Historical Development of Criminal Law
120(1)
Development of Common Law
121(2)
Criminal Law and Civil Law
123(1)
Sources of the Criminal Law
124(2)
Common Law, Statutes, and Case Decisions
124(1)
Administrative Rule Making
124(1)
Constitutional Law and Its Limits
125(1)
Law in Review: Ex Post Facto Laws
126(2)
Classifying Crimes
127(1)
Law in Review: Chicago v. Morales (1999)
128(7)
Felonies and Misdemeanors
128(1)
The Legal Definition of a Crime
129(3)
Criminal Defenses
132(3)
Ignorance or Mistake
133(1)
Insanity
133(1)
Intoxication
133(1)
Age
134(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: The Insanity Defense
135(5)
Justification and Excuse
136(1)
Reforming the Criminal Law
137(2)
Creating New Penalties
138(1)
Constitutional Criminal Procedure
139(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: The Criminal Law and Terrorism
140(7)
Due Process of Law
141(1)
The Meaning of Due Process
142(1)
Summary
143(1)
Key Terms
143(1)
Doing Research on the Web
143(1)
Discussion Questions
144(1)
Notes
144(1)
2 The Police and Law Enforcement 145(126)
Chapter 5 Police in Society: History and Organization
147(28)
The History of Police
148(5)
Eighteenth-Century Developments
149(1)
Law Enforcement in Colonial America
150(1)
Early Police Agencies
150(2)
Twentieth-Century Reform
152(1)
The Emergence of Professionalism
152(1)
The Modern Era of Policing: 1960 to the Present Day
153(2)
Policing in the 1960's
153(1)
Policing in the 1970's
153(1)
Policing in the 1980's
154(1)
Policing in the 1990's
154(1)
Policing and Law Enforcement Today
155(6)
Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
156(4)
State Law Enforcement Agencies
160(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Operation X-Out
161(7)
County Law Enforcement Agencies
162(1)
Metropolitan Law Enforcement Agencies
162(2)
Technology and Law Enforcement
164(5)
Using Computer Software
164(1)
Information Technology
164(1)
Criminal Identification
165(3)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Crime Mapping and the ICAM Program 166
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems
168(1)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Added Security: Biometric Technology
169(6)
DNA Testing
169(1)
Communications
170(1)
Summary
171(1)
Key Terms
172(1)
Doing Research on the Web
172(1)
Discussion Questions
172(1)
Notes
173(2)
Chapter 6 The Police: Organization, Role, Function
175(32)
The Police Organization
176(1)
The Police Role
177(2)
The Patrol Function
179(3)
Patrol Activities
179(1)
Does Patrol Deter Crime?
180(1)
Improving Patrol
180(2)
The Investigation Function
182(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Amber Alert
183(4)
Sting Operations
185(1)
Undercover Work
186(1)
Evaluating Investigations
186(1)
Improving Investigations
186(1)
Images of Justice: CSI: Crime Scene Investigation
187(7)
Using Technology
188(1)
Community Policing
189(3)
Implementing Community Policing
190(1)
Neighborhood Policing
191(1)
Changing the Police Role
191(1)
Problem-Oriented Policing
192(1)
Criminal Acts, Criminal Places
192(1)
The Challenges of Community Policing
193(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Boston Gun Project: Operation Ceasefire
194(4)
Overcoming Obstacles
196(1)
Support Functions
196(2)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Citizen Oversight of Police: Civilian Review Boards
198(4)
Improving Police Productivity
200(2)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Community Mapping, Planning, and Analysis for Safety Strategies (COMPASS)
202(5)
Summary
203(1)
Key Terms
203(1)
Doing Research on the Web
203(1)
Discussion Questions
204(1)
Notes
204(3)
Chapter 7 Issues in Policing
207(38)
The Police Profession
208(4)
Police Culture
208(2)
Police Personality
210(1)
Police Style
210(2)
Police Discretion
212(4)
Legal Factors
212(1)
Victim Factors
212(1)
Environmental Factors
213(1)
Departmental Factors
213(1)
Supervisory Factors
214(1)
Peer Factors
214(1)
Situational Factors
214(1)
Extralegal Factors
215(1)
Race, Gender, and Ethnicity in Criminal: Justice Racial Profiling: Does Race Influence the Police Use of Discretion?
216(11)
Who Are the Police?
216(7)
Police Education
217(2)
Minorities in Policing
219(1)
Minority Police Officers
219(2)
Women in Policing
221(2)
Problems of Policing
223(10)
Job Stress
223(2)
Violence
225(2)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Working with Problem Cops: Early Intervention Programs
227(6)
Deadly Force
228(1)
Factors Related to Police Shootings
229(4)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Less Than Lethal Weapons
233(12)
Corruption
234(11)
Chapter 8 Police and the Rule of Law
245(26)
Police and the Courts
246(1)
Search and Seizure
246(4)
Search Warrant Requirements
246(2)
Obtaining a Warrant
248(1)
Anonymous Tips
249(1)
Warrantless Searches
250(9)
Field Interrogation: Stop and Frisk
251(1)
Searches Incident to a Lawful Arrest
252(1)
Automobile Searches
252(2)
Consent Searches
254(1)
Plain View
255(2)
Electronic Surveillance
257(2)
Arrest
259(1)
Arrest in Noncriminal Acts
259(1)
Custodial Interrogation
260(2)
The Miranda Warning
260(1)
The Miranda Rule Today
261(1)
The Impact of Miranda
262(1)
Pretrial Identification
262(2)
Law in Review: United States v. Bin Laden
264(3)
The Exclusionary Rule
264(3)
Current Status
266(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: The Future of the Exclusionary Rule
267(6)
Summary
268(1)
Key Terms
268(1)
Doing Research on the Web
268(1)
Discussion Questions
269(1)
Notes
269(2)
3 Courts and Adjudication 271(158)
Chapter 9 The Courts and the Judiciary
273(26)
The Criminal Court Process
275(1)
State Courts
275(3)
Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
276(1)
Courts of General Jurisdiction
276(1)
Appellate Courts
277(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Specialized Courts: Drugs and Mental Health
278(12)
Model State Court Structure
280(3)
Federal Courts
283(3)
District Courts
283(1)
Federal Appeals Courts
284(1)
The U.S. Supreme Court
285(1)
Court Congestion
286(2)
The Judiciary
288(2)
Other Judicial Functions
288(1)
Judicial Qualifications
289(1)
Images of Justice: Commonwealth v. Louise Woodward
290(4)
Judicial Alternatives
290(2)
Selecting Judges
292(1)
Judicial Overload
293(1)
Court Administration
293(1)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Technology and Court Management
294(5)
Summary
296(1)
Key Terms
296(1)
Doing Research on the Web
296(1)
Discussion Questions
296(1)
Notes
297(2)
Chapter 10 The Prosecution and the Defense
299(30)
The Prosecutor
300(7)
The Duties of the Prosecutor
302(1)
Priority Prosecution
302(3)
Types of Prosecutors
305(1)
The Prosecutor within Society
305(2)
Prosecutorial Discretion
307(4)
The Exercise of Discretion
308(2)
Disposition Factors
310(1)
Political Factors
311(1)
The Role of Prosecutorial Discretion
311(1)
The Defense Attorney
311(3)
The Role of the Criminal Defense Attorney
312(1)
Ethical Issues
313(1)
The Right to Counsel
314(1)
Law in Review: The Danielle Van Dam Case: Should Defense Lawyers Tell the Truth?
315(9)
The Private Bar
316(1)
Legal Services for the Indigent
317(4)
Public versus Private Attorney
321(1)
The Defense Lawyer as a Professional Advocate
321(3)
The Informal Justice System
322(1)
The Competence of Defense Lawyers
323(1)
Law in Review: Wiggins v. Smith, Warden et al. (2002)
324(5)
Relations between Prosecutor and Defense Attorney
324(1)
Summary
325(1)
Key Terms
326(1)
Doing Research on the Web
326(1)
Discussion Questions
326(1)
Notes
327(2)
Chapter 11 Pretrial Procedures
329(28)
Procedures Following Arrest
330(1)
Pretrial Services
331(1)
Bail
331(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Pretrial Services Programs
332(7)
Bail Today
332(1)
Receiving Bail
333(1)
The Legal Right to Bail
334(1)
Making Bail
335(2)
Preventive Detention
337(2)
Law in Review: United States v. Salerno (1987)
339(18)
Pretrial Detention
339(1)
Charging the Defendant
340(5)
The Indictment Process-The Grand Jury
341(1)
The Indictment Process-The Preliminary Hearing
342(1)
Arraignment
343(1)
The Plea
343(2)
Plea Bargaining
345(8)
The Nature of the Bargain
346(1)
Pros and Cons of Plea Bargaining
346(2)
Legal Issues in Plea Bargaining
348(1)
The Role of the Prosecutor in Plea Bargaining
349(1)
The Role of the Defense Counsel in Plea Bargaining
350(1)
The Role of the Judge in Plea Bargaining
351(1)
The Victim and Plea Bargaining
351(1)
Plea-Bargaining Reform
352(1)
Pretrial Diversion
353(1)
Summary
353
Key Terms
54(300)
Doing Research on the Web
354(1)
Discussion Questions
354(1)
Notes
354(3)
Chapter 12 The Criminal Trial
357(32)
Legal Rights during Trial
358(7)
The Right to Be Competent at Trial
358(1)
The Right to Confront Witnesses
359(1)
The Right to a Jury Trial
360(2)
The Right to Counsel at Trial
362(1)
The Right to Self-Representation
363(1)
The Right to a Speedy Trial
364(1)
Fair Trial versus Free Press
365(4)
The Law of Fair Trial
366(1)
The Right to a Public Trial
367(1)
Televising Criminal Trials
367(2)
The Trial Process
369(7)
Jury Selection
369(1)
Images of Justice: TV or Not TV? Should Criminal Trials Be Televised?
370(3)
Law in Review: Batson v. Kentucky (1986)
373(3)
Opening Statements
375(1)
Race Gender and Ethnicity in Criminal Justice: Jury Selection and Peremptory Challenges
376(13)
Presentation of the Prosecutor's Evidence
376(1)
Types of Evidence at a Criminal Trial
377(1)
Motion for a Directed Verdict
378(1)
Presentation of Evidence by the Defense Counsel
378(1)
Closing Arguments
378(1)
Instructions to the Jury
379(1)
The Verdict
380(1)
The Sentence
380(1)
The Appeal
381(1)
Evidentiary Standards
382(1)
Trial Reform in the Twenty-first Century
383(2)
Summary
385(1)
Key Terms
385(1)
Doing Research on the Web
385(1)
Discussion Questions
385(1)
Notes
386(3)
Chapter 13 Punishment and Sentencing
389(40)
The History of Punishment
390(3)
From Exile to Fines, Torture to Forfeiture
391(1)
Public Work and Transportation to the Colonies
392(1)
The Rise of the Prison
392(1)
The Goals of Modern Sentencing
393(5)
General Deterrence
393(1)
Incapacitation
394(1)
Specific Deterrence
395(1)
Retribution/Just Desert
395(1)
Rehabilitation
395(1)
Equity/Restitution
396(1)
Imposing the Sentence
397(1)
Sentencing Models
398(8)
Indeterminate Sentences
398(1)
Determinate Sentences
399(1)
Structural Sentences
399(5)
Mandatory Sentences
404(1)
Truth-in-Sentencing
404(2)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Getting Tough: Three Strikes Laws
406(6)
What Factors Affect Sentencing?
406(4)
Capital Punishment
410(8)
Arguments for the Death Penalty
411(1)
Race, Gender, and Ethnicity in Criminal Justice: Race and Sentencing
412(2)
International Justice: The Death Penalty Abroad
414(4)
Arguments against the Death Penalty
416(2)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: The Capital Jury Project
418(13)
Legal Issues in the Death Penalty
421(2)
Jury Issues
423(1)
Does the Death Penalty Deter Murder?
424(1)
Summary
425(1)
Key Terms
425(1)
Doing Research on the Web
425(1)
Discussion Questions
426(1)
Notes
426(3)
4 Corrections 429(116)
Chapter 14 Community Sentences: Probation, Intermediate Sanctions, and Restorative Justice
431(38)
History of Probation
432(1)
Probation Today
433(11)
Why Probation?
433(1)
Awarding Probation
434(1)
The Extent of Probation
435(1)
Eligibility for Probation
435(1)
Conditions of Probation
436(1)
Administration of Probation Services
437(1)
Duties of Probation Officers
438(1)
Treatment Supervision
439(1)
How Successful Is Probation?
439(3)
Legal Rights of Probationers
442(1)
The Future of Probation
443(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
444(1)
Race, Gender, and Ethnicity in Criminal Justice: Alternatives to Incarceration Abroad
445(10)
Advantages of Intermediate Sanctions
446(1)
Fines
447(1)
Forfeiture
447(1)
Restitution
448(1)
Shock Probation and Split Sentencing
449(1)
Intensive Probation Supervision
449(2)
House Arrest
451(1)
Electronic Monitoring
452(1)
Residential Community Corrections
453(2)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: DTAP: Drug Treatment Alternative-to-Prison
455(4)
Can Intermediate Sanctions Work?
456(1)
Restorative Justice
457(5)
The Concept of Restoration
458(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Reintegrative Shaming
459(3)
The Process of Restoration
460(1)
Restorative Programs
461(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Restorative Justice in the Community
462(7)
The Challenge of Restorative Justice
463(1)
Summary
464(1)
Key Terms
464(1)
Doing Research on the Web
465(1)
Discussion Questions
465(1)
Notes
465(4)
Chapter 15 Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations
469(32)
History of Correctional Institutions
471(9)
The Origins of Corrections in the United States
472(1)
The Pennsylvania System
473(1)
The Auburn System
473(1)
Developing Prisons
474(1)
The Late Nineteenth Century
475(1)
Prisons in the Twentieth Century
476(1)
International justice: The Development of Parole
477(3)
The Modern Era
478(2)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Penal Harm: The No-Frills Movement
480(6)
Jails
480(4)
Jail Populations
482(1)
Who Are Jail Inmates?
483(1)
Jail Conditions
483(1)
New Generation Jails
484(1)
Prisons
484(4)
Types of Prisons
484(2)
Criminal Justice and Technology: You've Got Mail?
486(2)
Prison Inmate Characteristics
487(1)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Ultramaximum-Security Prisons
488(13)
Alternative Correctional Institutions
489(6)
Prison Farms and Camps
490(1)
Shock Incarceration in Boot Camps
490(3)
Community Correctional Facilities
493(1)
Private Prisons
493(2)
Correctional Populations
495(2)
Going to Prison during Your Lifetime
495(1)
Explaining Prison Population Trends
496(1)
Summary
497(1)
Key Terms
497(1)
Doing Research on the Web
497(1)
Discussion Questions
498(1)
Notes
498(3)
Chapter 16 Prison Life: Living in and Leaving Prison
501(44)
Men Imprisoned
502(5)
Living in Prison
502(1)
Adjusting to Prison
503(2)
Prison Culture
505(2)
Women Imprisoned
507(3)
Female Institutions
508(1)
Female Inmates
508(2)
Adapting to the Female Prison
510(1)
Correctional Treatment Methods
510(4)
Counseling and Treatment
511(1)
Treating the Special-Needs Inmate
512(1)
Educational and Vocational Programs
513(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Girl Scouts Beyond Bars
514(8)
Vocational Services
515(2)
Inmate Self-Help
517(1)
Can Rehabilitation Work?
518(2)
Guarding the Institution
520(2)
Female Correctional Officers
521(1)
Images of Justice: Newjack
522(4)
Prison Violence
522(3)
Individual Violence
524(1)
Collective Violence
524(1)
Prisoners' Rights
525(1)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Technocorrections: Contemporary Correctional Technology
526(5)
Substantive Rights
528(3)
Law in Review: Hope v. Pelzer et al.
531(5)
Leaving Prison
532(7)
Parole
532(1)
The Parole Board
532(1)
Parole Hearings
533(1)
The Parolee in the Community
533(1)
The Effectiveness of Parole
534(1)
The Problems of Reentry
535(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: The Problems of Reentry
536(3)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Residential Substance Abuse Treatment
539(8)
Summary
541(1)
Key Terms
541(1)
Doing Research on the Web
541(1)
Discussion Questions
542(1)
Notes
542(3)
5 The History and Nature of the Juvenile Justice Systems 545(33)
Chapter 17 The Juvenile Justice System
547(31)
The History of Juvenile Justice
548(4)
Care of Children in Early America
549(1)
The Child-Saving Movement
549(1)
The Reform Movement Spreads
550(1)
Establishment of the Juvenile Court
550(1)
The Development of Juvenile Justice
551(1)
Juvenile Justice Today
552(3)
Police Processing of the Juvenile Offender
555(3)
Use of Discretion
556(1)
Legal Rights
556(1)
Policing in Schools
557(1)
The Juvenile Court Process
558(7)
The Intake Process
558(1)
The Detention Process
558(2)
Bail
560(1)
Plea Bargaining
560(1)
Waiver of Jurisdiction
561(2)
The Trial
563(1)
Law in Review: In re Gault
564(1)
Alternatives to the Juvenile Trial
564(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Teen Courts
565(8)
Disposition and Treatment
566(1)
Juvenile Sentencing
567(1)
The Juvenile Correctional Process
567(3)
Probation
568(1)
Institutionalization
568(1)
Deinstitutionalization
569(1)
Aftercare
570(1)
Preventing Delinquency
570(3)
Community Strategies
571(1)
Enforcement Strategies
572(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: The Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP)
573(1)
Keep the Juvenile Court?
573(1)
Analyzing Criminal Justice Issues: Should the Juvenile Court Be Abolished?
574(4)
Summary
575(1)
Key Terms
575(1)
Doing Research on the Web
575(1)
Discussion Questions
576(1)
Notes
576(2)
Appendix A Careers in Criminal Justice 578(9)
Appendix B The Constitution of the United States 587(10)
Glossary 597(8)
Table of Cases 605(9)
Name Index
Subject Index 614


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