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Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology : Critical Thinking and Contemporary Application,9780205295661

Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology : Critical Thinking and Contemporary Application

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205295661

ISBN10:
0205295665
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $53.20
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Summary

Provides a comprehensive review of theories and research in cross-cultural psychology within a critical thinking framework for examining, analyzing, and evaluating cross-cultural data. This book introduces the field of cross-cultural psychology, discusses basic methodology for cross-cultural research, and explores the fields of sensation and perception, intelligence, human development, emotion, motivation, social perception and interaction, and mental disorders from a cross-cultural perspective. A selection of applied problems in cross-cultural psychology and contemporary society are also examined.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology
1(24)
What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology?
3(1)
Basic Definitions
4(4)
Empirical Examination of Culture
8(2)
Collectivism and Individualism: Further Research
10(1)
Cultural Syndromes
11(1)
Sociobiological Approach
12(1)
Sociological Approach
12(2)
Ecocultural Approach
14(1)
The Cultural Mixtures Approach: A New Cross-Cultural Psychology in the Twenty-First Century?
15(1)
The Integrative Approach: A Summary
16(3)
What Is Indigenous Psychology?
19(1)
What Is Ethnocentrism?
19(1)
What Is Multiculturalism?
20(1)
A Brief History of the Field
20(5)
Methodology of Cross-Cultural Research
25(30)
Goals of Cross-Cultural Research
27(1)
Quantitative Research in Cross-Cultural Psychology
27(2)
Quantitative Approach: Measurement Scales
29(1)
Quantitative Approach: Looking for Linkages and Differences
29(2)
Qualitative Approach in Cross-Cultural Psychology
31(1)
Major Steps for Preparation of a Cross-Cultural Study
32(1)
Sample Selection
33(2)
Observation in Cross-Cultural Psychology
35(1)
Survey Methods
36(1)
Experimental Studies
37(1)
Content-Analysis
38(1)
Focus-Group Methodology
39(1)
Meta-Analysis: Research of Research
40(1)
A Hidden Obstacle of Cross-Cultural Studies: Test Translation
40(2)
Comparing Two Phenomena: Some Important Principles
42(1)
On Smilarities and Differences: Some Critical Thinking Applications
43(1)
Cultural Dichotomies
44(2)
Avoiding Bias for Generalizations
46(2)
Know More about Cultures You Examine!
48(7)
Critical Thining in Cross-Cultural Psychology
55(44)
The Evaluative Bias of Language: To Describe Is to Prescribe
57(2)
Differentiating Dictomous Variables and Continuous Variables: Black and White, or Shades of Gray?
59(2)
The Similarity-Uniqueness Paradox: All Phenomena Are Both Similar and Different
61(3)
The Barnum Effect: ``One-Size-Fits-All'' Descriptions
64(2)
The Assimilation Bias: Viewing the World through Schema-Colored Glasses
66(3)
The Representativenss Bias: Fits and Misfits of Categorization
69(3)
The Availability Bias: The Persuasive Power of Vivid Events
72(3)
The Fundamental Attribution Error: Understanding the Impact of External Influences
75(4)
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: When Expectations Create Reality
79(2)
Correlation Does Not Prove Causation: Confusing ``What'' with ``Why''
81(3)
Bidirectional Causation and Multiple Causation: Causal Loops and Compound Pathways
84(3)
The Naturalistic Fallacy: Blurring the Line between ``Is'' and ``Should''
87(4)
The Belief Perseverance Effect: ``Don't Confuse Me with the Facts!''
91(4)
Conclusions: ``To Metathink or Not to Metathink?''
95(4)
Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Conciousness
99(31)
Sensation and Perception: Basic Principles
100(2)
How Culture Influences What We Perceive
102(2)
How People Perceive Depictions
104(1)
How People Scan Pictures
105(1)
Perception of Depth
106(1)
Are People Equally Misled by Visual Illusions?
106(1)
Some Cultural Patterns of Drawing Pictures
107(1)
Perception of Color
108(2)
Other Senses
110(2)
Perception of Time
112(2)
Perception of the Beautiful
114(2)
Perception of Music
116(1)
Consciousness and Culture
117(2)
Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams
119(4)
Beyond Altered States of Consciousness
123(7)
Intelligence
130(34)
Defining Intelligence
131(3)
Ethnic Differences in IQ Scores
134(3)
Explaining Group Differences in Test Scores: Intelligence and Intelligent Behavior
137(1)
Do Biological Factors Contribute to Intelligence?
138(2)
Incompatibility of Tests: Cultural Biases
140(1)
A Word about ``Cultural Literacy''
141(2)
Environment and Intelligence
143(1)
Socioeconomic Factors
144(2)
The Family Factors
146(1)
``Natural Selection'' and IQ Scores?
147(1)
Cultural Values of Cognition
148(3)
General Cognition: What Is ``Underneath'' Intelligence?
151(3)
Cognitive Skills, School Grades, and Educational Systems
154(1)
Culture, Tests, and Motivation
155(2)
IQ, Culture, and Social Justice
157(2)
And in the End, Moral Values
159(5)
Emotion
164(27)
When We Laugh We Are Happy: Similarities of Emotional Experience
166(3)
You Cannot Explain Pain if You Have Never Been Hurt: Differences in Emotional Experience
169(2)
Emotions: Different or Universal?
171(1)
Physiological Arousal
171(2)
The Meaning of Preceding Events
173(3)
Emotion as an Evaluation
176(1)
We Are Expected to Feel in a Particular Way
177(1)
How People Assess Emotional Expereince
178(1)
When Emotions Signal a Challenge: Cross-Cultural Research on Stress
179(1)
Expression of Emotion
180(4)
When Emotion Hurts: Cross-Cultural Studies of Anger
184(1)
Emotion and Inclination to Act
185(1)
Emotion and Judgment
186(5)
Motivation and Behavior
191(28)
Sociobiology: A Glance into Evolution
192(2)
Social Science: See the Society First
194(1)
Drive and Arousal: Two Universal Mechanisms of Motivation
194(1)
The Power of the Unconscious: Psychoanalysis
195(1)
Humanistic Theories
196(2)
Learning and Motivation: Cognitive Theories
198(1)
A Carrot and a Beef Tongue: Hunger and Food Preference
199(1)
When Hunger Causes Distress: Eating Disorders
200(1)
Victory and Harmony: Achievement Motivation
200(5)
Aggressive Motivation and Violence
205(5)
Culture and Sexuality
210(4)
Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
214(1)
Sex and Sexuality: Some Cross-Cultural Similarities
215(4)
Human Development and Socialization
219(28)
Development and Socialization
220(1)
Quality of Life and the Child's Development
221(1)
Norms, Customs, and Child Care
222(2)
Parental Values and Expectations
224(2)
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
226(2)
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
228(1)
Stages of Moral Development According to Kohlberg
229(2)
Developmental Stages
231(1)
Life before Birth: Prenatal Period
232(1)
First Steps: Infancy
233(2)
Discovering the World: Childhood
235(3)
Major Rehearsal: Adolescence
238(3)
Adulthood
241(1)
Late Adulthood
242(5)
Mental Disorders
247(30)
American Background DSM-IV
249(1)
Two Views on Culture and Psychopathology
249(3)
Central and Peripheral Symptoms
252(2)
Environment, Culture, and Mental Health
254(2)
Schizophrenia
256(1)
Depressive Disorders
257(2)
Culture and Suicide
259(2)
Anxiety Disorders
261(1)
Dementia
262(1)
Attention-Defict/Hyperactivity Disorder (AHDH)
263(1)
Persoanlity Disorders
264(1)
Is Substance Abuse Culturally Bound?
265(4)
Psychodiagnostic Biases
269(1)
Psychotherapy
270(1)
Culture Match?
271(6)
Social Perception and Social Cognition
277(26)
The Nature of Attitude
279(1)
Values
280(2)
Western and Non-Western Values
282(1)
Striving for Consistency: The Cognitive Balance Theory
283(1)
Avoding Inconsistency: Cognitive Dissonance
284(1)
Psychological Dogmatism
285(1)
Social Attribution
286(1)
Attribution as Locus of Control
287(2)
Explaining the Behavior of Others
289(2)
Attribution of Success and Failure
291(1)
Self-Perception
292(2)
Do Social Norms Affect the Way We See Our Own Body Weight?
294(1)
Duty and Fairness in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures
295(2)
Stereotypes and the Power of Generalizations
297(6)
Social Interaction
303(24)
Universal Interaction
304(4)
Direct Contacts
308(2)
Conformity
310(2)
Is Conformity Universal across Cultures?
312(4)
Following Orders
316(2)
Social Influence
318(1)
Feeling Good about Some Views
319(1)
Is Social Loafing Universal?
320(1)
Cooperation and Competition
321(1)
Leaders: Born or Bred?
322(5)
Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology: Some Highlights
327(25)
Resources and Health
329(1)
Prejudice: Is It Inevitable?
330(3)
Cross-Cultural Psychology and Negotiations
333(2)
Streotypes in Daily Life
335(2)
Acculturative Stress
337(2)
Culture and Cognitive Tests
339(1)
Race and Perception of Political Candidates
340(1)
Immigration and Immigrants
341(2)
Cross-Cultural Psychology and Human Rights
343(2)
Culture, Ethnicity, and Equality
345(2)
Discrimination and Minority Status
347(1)
Multiculturalism and Religion: A Campus Context
348(1)
Conclusion
349(3)
Appendices 352(5)
References 357(32)
Author Index 389(6)
Subject Index 395


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