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Introduction to Educational Research

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780321081759

ISBN10:
0321081757
Media:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $98.80
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Summary

This practical introductory text helps students understand, conduct, and interpret both qualitative and quantitative paradigms in educational research methods. This book is organized around eight research methods to help users plan and conduct their first educational research projects. By proceeding through chapter contents and completing the in-text exercises, readers will simultaneously prepare a research plan and learn how to obtain and analyze data, address research questions and hypotheses, and prepare a report of their projects. In keeping with the main purpose of helping users clearly understand and apply research concepts, many pedagogical features have been included in the book. Additionally, each chapter contains one or more special sections titled Applying Technology.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
PART ONE Orientation to Educational Research 1(48)
Educational Research: Its Nature and Rules of Operation
3(23)
Preview
3(1)
Targeted Learnings
3(1)
Chapter Information Organizers
4(1)
Information Organizer
5(1)
New Questions about Elmwood's Schools
5(1)
Seeking Answers to Questions
5(2)
The Scientific Method
7(1)
Research and the Scientific Method
8(3)
The Meaning of Research
8(1)
The Process of Educational Research
9(2)
Research and Educational Research
11(1)
Rules of Operation in Educational Research
11(12)
Legal Principles
12(1)
Ethical Principles
13(1)
Applying Technology: Human Subjects Research Approval
14(3)
Philosophical Principles
17(2)
Procedural Principles
19(3)
Applying Technology: Ethics and Standards of Research
22(1)
Educators as Researchers
23(1)
Chapter Summary
23(1)
List of Important Terms
24(1)
Your Current Status
24(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
24(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
25(1)
References and Recommended Readings
25(1)
Types of Educational Research and Corresponding Sources of Data
26(23)
Preview
26(1)
Targeted Learnings
27(1)
Variables and Educational Research
27(1)
Continuous, Discrete, and Dichotomous Variables
27(1)
Independent and Dependent Variables
27(1)
Information Organizer
28(1)
Types of Educational Research
29(7)
Types of Research Categorized by Practicality
29(1)
Types of Research Differentiated by Methodology
30(1)
Types of Research Defined by Questions Addressed
31(5)
Primary and Secondary Sources of Research Data
36(1)
Specific Sources of Research Data
37(1)
Procedures Used in Collecting Data
38(2)
Qualities Required in Research Data
40(2)
Authenticity and Believability
40(1)
Validity and Reliability
41(1)
Treatment and Presentation of Data
42(3)
Applying Technology: More About Variables and Questions
43(2)
Additional Terminology Related to Data
45(1)
Participants, Samples, and Populations
45(1)
Chapter Summary
45(1)
List of Important Terms
46(1)
Your Current Status
46(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
46(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
47(1)
References and Recommended Readings
47(2)
PART TWO Preliminary Skills Needed for Conducting Research 49(70)
Selecting, Refining, and Proposing a Topic for Research
51(24)
Preview
51(1)
Targeted Learnings
51(1)
Information Organizer
52(1)
Where to Find Good Research Topics
53(2)
Topics for Teachers
53(1)
Topics for Administrators
54(1)
Topics for Other Educators
55(1)
Preliminary Considerations in Selecting Topics
55(3)
Applying Technology: Sources for Research Topics
56(2)
Refining the Research Topic
58(1)
Some Necessary Terminology
59(5)
Regulating the Size of Research Topics
64(1)
Foreseeing the Research Report Format
65(1)
The Value of Conventional Procedures and Report
66(1)
Refining the Topic: Two Illustrative Cases
67(3)
Jan's Concern about Students' Entry Age to Kindergarten
67(2)
Tony's Concern about Sexual Harassment among High School Students
69(1)
Preparing a Research Proposal
70(1)
Chapter Summary
71(1)
List of Important Terms
72(1)
Your Current Status
72(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
72(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
73(1)
References and Recommended Readings
73(2)
Locating Published Research
75(24)
Preview
75(1)
Targeted Learnings
75(1)
Information Organizer
76(1)
Using the Research Library
76(1)
Secondary Sources in the Library
77(3)
Locating Secondary Sources
80(1)
Primary Sources in the Library
80(14)
Specific Directories of Primary References
81(2)
Locating Primary Sources
83(7)
Applying Technology: Electronic Journals
90(1)
Applying Technology: Searching ERIC On-line
91(3)
A Purposeful Visit to the Library
94(1)
Not Just for Conducting Research--Valuable Sources for Professional Development
95(1)
Chapter Summary
96(1)
List of Important Terms
96(1)
Your Current Status
96(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
97(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
97(1)
References and Recommended Readings
97(2)
Interpreting and Summarizing Published Research
99(20)
Preview
99(1)
Targeted Learnings
100(1)
Reading Research Reports
100(1)
Skimming the Information
100(1)
Information Organizer
101(4)
Summarizing the Reports
102(3)
Interpreting the Statistical Information You Encounter
105(8)
Applying Technology: Writing a Review of Literature
106(1)
Status Reports
107(3)
Review of Terminology Used in Status Reports
110(1)
Comparison Reports
110(3)
Review of Terminology Used in Comparison Reports
113(1)
Correlational Reports
113(1)
Review of Terminology Used in Correlational Reports
114(1)
The Concept of Significance
115(1)
Chapter Summary
116(1)
List of Important Terms
117(1)
Your Current Status
117(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
117(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
118(1)
References and Recommended Readings
118(1)
PART THREE Conducting Your Own Research Project 119(116)
Designing a Research Project
121(24)
Preview
121(1)
Targeted Learnings
121(1)
Information Organizer
122(1)
How Planning Should Be Done
122(1)
The Approach to Planning Advocated in This Book
123(1)
Tasks to Be Accomplished When Planning Research
123(15)
State the Topic, Problem, and Questions and/or Hypotheses
124(5)
Outline the Library Search for Related Information
129(2)
Identify Needed Data and Sources
131(2)
List the Steps You Will Need to Carry Out to Complete the Study
133(1)
Specify the Procedures and Tools You Will Employ in Collecting Data
134(1)
Foresee How Data Can Best Be Analyzed and Interpreted
135(1)
Anticipate the Appropriate Report Format for Your Research
136(1)
Applying Technology: More Guidelines for Reports
137(1)
Illustrative Example of Planning a Research Project
138(3)
Topic and Problem
138(1)
Examination of the Literature
139(1)
Required Data and Data Sources
139(1)
Appraisal of Holly's Plan
140(1)
Chapter Summary
141(3)
Comprehensive Guide for Planning Educational Research
141(3)
Your Current Status
144(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
144(1)
References and Recommended Readings
144(1)
Procedures and Tools for Gathering Data
145(32)
Preview
145(1)
Targeted Learnings
145(1)
Information Organizer
146(1)
Types of Research and Their Typical Foci
147(1)
Types of Data Needed
148(1)
Sources of Data for Various Types of Research
148(1)
Samples and Their Selection
149(5)
Are Samples Necessary in Research?
149(1)
Can Small Samples Represent Large Populations?
150(1)
Probability Sampling
150(1)
Nonprobability Sampling
151(2)
Applying Technology: Probability and Nonprobability Sampling
153(1)
Size of Samples
154(1)
Relationships among Research Focus, Data, Source, and Sample
155(1)
Validity and Reliability in Data Collection
155(4)
Validity of Data
155(1)
Determining Validity of Test Data
155(2)
Determining Validity of Non-Test Data
157(1)
Reliability of Data
157(1)
Determining Reliability of Test Data
158(1)
Determining Reliability of Non-Test Data
158(1)
Relationship between Validity and Reliability
159(1)
Procedures in Data Collection
159(11)
Notation
159(1)
Description
160(1)
Analysis
161(1)
Questioning
162(3)
Testing
165(1)
Applying Technology: Survey Construction
166(1)
Applying Technology: ERIC Clearinghouse Test Locator
167(2)
Measurement
169(1)
Relationships between Types of Research and Data Collection
170(1)
Relationships among Procedures, Tools, and Formats
171(1)
A Composite of Research Types and Data Collection Procedures
172(1)
Data Collection Profiles
172(1)
Chapter Summary
172(2)
List of Important Terms
174(1)
Your Current Status
174(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
175(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
175(1)
References and Recommended Readings
175(2)
Analyzing Research Data and Presenting Findings
177(24)
Preview
177(1)
Targeted Learnings
178(1)
Information Organizer
178(1)
Qualitative Data and Quantitative Data
179(3)
An Example of Qualitative Analysis
180(1)
An Example of Quantitative Analysis
181(1)
Analyzing Ethnographic Data
182(2)
Cautions and Reminders in Qualitative Data Analysis
184(1)
Analyzing Quantitative Data
185(1)
Populations and Parameters; Samples and Statistics
185(1)
What Statistics Are Used For
186(2)
Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics
188(10)
Applying Technology: More about Statistics
191(1)
Applying Technology: Interactive Statistical Calculations Using WebStat
192(4)
Cautions in Using Statistics
196(1)
Applying Technology: Selecting an Appropriate Statistical Test
197(1)
Presenting Your Findings
198(1)
Chapter Summary
199(1)
List of Important Terms
199(1)
Your Current Status
199(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
199(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
200(1)
References and Recommended Readings
200(1)
Preparing a Research Report
201(34)
Preview
201(1)
Targeted Learnings
201(1)
Information Organizer
202(1)
Conventions in Research and Reporting
202(1)
Conventions of Style
203(3)
Title
203(1)
Person and Voice
203(1)
Tense
204(1)
Tentative Versus Definite Statements
204(1)
Simplicity of Language
205(1)
Consistency
205(1)
Conventions of Format
206(7)
Introduction
206(1)
Review of Related Literature
207(2)
Procedures or Method
209(1)
Findings or Results
210(2)
Conclusions or Discussion
212(1)
Front and Back Material
213(1)
Style Guides
213(1)
A Composite Outline of Format Conventions
214(7)
Applying Technology: APA-Style Helper 2.0
215(3)
Applying Technology: Organizing Research Papers with Take Note!
218(3)
Sample Pages
221(12)
For Research Papers and Journal Articles
221(3)
For Masters' Theses
224(1)
For a Thesis That Reports Action Research
224(6)
Thesis Format for Other Types of Research
230(3)
Chapter Summary
233(1)
Your Current Status
233(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
233(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
234(1)
PART FOUR Procedures and Exemplars in Eight Types of Research 235(121)
Ethnographic Research
237(26)
Preview
237(1)
Targeted Learnings
237(1)
Information Organizer
238(1)
The Nature of Ethnographic Research
238(4)
Topics in Ethnographic Research
239(1)
Procedures in Ethnographic Research
239(2)
The Richness of Ethnographic Research
241(1)
Strengths and Concerns in Ethnographic Research
242(1)
An Example of Ethnographic Research: ``Teachers in Bars: From Professional to Personal Self''
242(10)
A Second Example of Ethnographic Research: ``I Wouldn't Want to Shoot Nobody: The Out-of-School Curriculum as Described by Urban Students''
252(6)
Organizing for Ethnographic Research
258(3)
Applying Technology: More about Qualitative Research
259(2)
Chapter Summary
261(1)
List of Important Terms
261(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
261
Answers to Chapter Exercises
260(2)
References and Recommended Readings
262(1)
Descriptive Research and Historical Research
263(18)
Preview
263(1)
Targeted Learnings
263(1)
Information Organizer
264(1)
The Nature of Descriptive Research and Historical Research
265(4)
Purpose and Topics
265(1)
Hypotheses and Questions
265(1)
Data Sources and Collection
265(2)
Tools for Obtaining Data
267(2)
Treatment and Analysis of Data
269(1)
An Example of Descriptive Research: ``Urban Teachers Who Quit: Why They Leave and What They Do''
269(3)
An Example of Historical Research: ``An A Is Not an A Is Not an A: A History of Grading''
272(4)
Organizing for Descriptive Research and Historical Research
276(1)
Case Study
277(2)
Purposes of a Case Study
277(1)
Applying Technology: More about Descriptive and Historical Research
277(1)
Organizing and Conducting the Case Study
278(1)
Chapter Summary
279(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
280(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
280(1)
References and Recommended Readings
280(1)
Correlational Research
281(18)
Preview
281(1)
Targeted Learnings
281(1)
Information Organizer
282(1)
Weather and the Process of Education
282(1)
Correlations
283(1)
The Nature of Correlational Research
284(1)
Cautions Concerning Cause and Effect
284(1)
Topics for Correlational Research
285(1)
Hypotheses and Questions in Correlational Research
285(1)
Correlational Research Design
286(1)
Data Sources and Collection
287(1)
What Can Be Correlated, and How
287(1)
Product-Moment Correlation
287(1)
Biserial Correlation and Point-Biserial Correlation
288(1)
Phi Correlation and Tetrachoric Correlation
288(1)
Correlations from Rankings
288(1)
Multivariate Correlations
288(1)
Partial Correlation
288(1)
Multiple Regression
289(1)
Discriminant Analysis
289(1)
Factor Analysis
289(1)
An Example of Correlational Research: ``Relationship of Computer Science Aptitude with Selected Achievement Measures among Junior High Students''
289(3)
Organizing for Correlational Research
292(5)
Selecting the Variables
293(1)
Stating Questions or Hypotheses
293(1)
Assessing and Quantifying the Variables
294(1)
Selecting a Sample
295(1)
Collecting Data
295(1)
Analyzing the Data
295(1)
Applying Technology: More about Correlational Research
296(1)
Chapter Summary
297(1)
List of Important Terms
297(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
298(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
298(1)
References and Recommended Readings
298(1)
Action Research and Evaluation Research
299(25)
Preview
299(1)
Targeted Learnings
299(1)
Information Organizer
300(1)
Action Research
301(10)
The Action Research Process
303(2)
A Published Example of Action Research: ``Designing an Authentic Assessment''
305(4)
Review of Action Research
309(1)
Organizing for Action Research
309(1)
Strengths and Cautions in Action Research
310(1)
Evaluation Research
311(10)
Evaluating Methods, Materials, and Programs
311(2)
An Example of Evaluation Research: ``Class Size Does Make a Difference''
313(4)
Organizing for Evaluation Research
317(2)
Applying Technology: More About Action and Evaluation Research
319(2)
Chapter Summary
321(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
321(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
322(1)
References and Recommended Readings
323(1)
Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Causal-Comparative Research
324(32)
Preview
324(1)
Targeted Learnings
324(1)
Information Organizer
325(1)
The Search for Causation
326(1)
Experimental Research
326(1)
Quasi-Experimental Research
327(1)
Causal-Comparative Research
327(1)
Fundamentals of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research
328(5)
Cause and Effect
328(1)
Random Selection and Assignment
328(1)
Use of Experimental Research
328(1)
Experimental Designs
329(3)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
332(1)
The Commonality of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs
333(1)
Threats to Internal and External Validity
334(1)
An Example of Experimental Research: ``The Development of a Positive Self-Concept in Preservice Teachers''
335(6)
Causal-Comparative Research
341(3)
The Nature of Causal-Comparative Research
341(2)
Conducting Causal-Comparative Research
343(1)
An Example of Causal-Comparative Research: ``The Relation of Gender and Academic Achievement to Career Self-Efficacy and Interests''
344(7)
Chapter Summary
351(3)
Applying Technology: More about Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Designs
352(2)
List of Important Terms
354(1)
Activities for Thought and Discussion
354(1)
Answers to Chapter Exercises
354(1)
References and Recommended Readings
355(1)
Appendix Overview of Statistical Concepts and Procedures 356(23)
The Nature and Uses of Statistics
356(1)
Populations and Samples
357(1)
Parametric Statistics and Nonparametric Statistics
358(1)
The Calculation and Interpretation of Descriptive Statistics
359(5)
Measures of Central Tendency
359(1)
Measures of Variability
360(2)
Relative Position
362(1)
Relationships
363(1)
Descriptive Statistics and the Normal Probability Curve
364(1)
Relative Standings Associated with the Normal Curve
365(2)
Percentile Rankings
366(1)
Stanines
366(1)
Z Scores
367(1)
T Scores
367(1)
Calculating and Interpreting Inferential Statistics
367(2)
Chi-square--Its Calculation and Interpretation
369(1)
Calculating and Interpreting Standard Error and Confidence Limits
370(3)
Testing for Significance
373(3)
Type I and Type II Errors
376(1)
Review of Statistical Terminology
376(1)
Exercise in Calculating a Coefficient of Correlation
377(1)
Answers to Exercises
378(1)
Glossary 379(8)
Author Index 387(1)
Subject Index 388


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