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Introduction to Educational Research (with MyEducationLab),9780131381148
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Introduction to Educational Research (with MyEducationLab)

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780131381148

ISBN10:
0131381148
Format:
Package
Pub. Date:
12/30/2009
Publisher(s):
Pearson
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Summary

This non-technically written, hands-on introductory text is supported by up-to-date technology to augment students' comprehension and interpretation of both qualitative and quantitative techniques in educational research methods.   Introduction to Educational Research, Sixth Edition,guides learners through eight research methods to help plan and compose their first educational research project. Through chapter contents and in-text exercises, readers simultaneously learn how to prepare a research plan, gather and analyze data, address research questions and hypotheses, and organize a report of their projects. In keeping with the main purpose of helping students clearly understand and apply research concepts,the language of the text is non-technical and there are are many pedagogical features throughout the text.

Author Biography

Craig A. Mertler is currently a Professor and Director of the Doctoral Program in School Improvement in the College of Education at the University of West Georgia. He teaches doctoral courses focused on the application of action research to promote school improvement and reform, and also teaches quantitative research methods, introductory statistical analysis, multivariate statistical analysis, and educational assessment methods. He is the author of 5 books, 2 invited book chapters, 15 refereed journal articles, 2 instructors’ manuals, and numerous nonrefereed articles and manuscripts. He has also presented numerous research papers at professional meetings around the country, as well as internationally. He conducts workshops for inservice educational professionals on classroom-based action research and on the broad topic of classroom assessment. His primary research interests include classroom-based action research, professional learning communities, and assessment practices of classroom teachers. Before teaching and researching at the university level, he taught high school biology and earth science, and also coached track and volleyball. In his leisure time, he enjoys travelling with his family and playing golf.

Table of Contents

Preface    

 

PART ONE: Orientation to Educational Research

 

CHAPTER 1   Educational Research: Its Nature and Rules of Operation                

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Chapter Information Organizers  

An example: New Questions about Elmwood’s Schools 

Seeking Answers to Questions    

The Scientific Method     

Research and the Scientific Method    

The Meaning of Research

The Process of Educational Research

Research and Educational Research     

Rules of Operation in Educational Research  

Legal Principles 

Ethical Principles     

Philosophical Principles     

Procedural Principles  

Why Study Educational Research?    

Educators as Researchers  

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY Guiding Principles of Research     

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Your Current Status 

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter exercises    

References and Recommended Readings   

 

CHAPTER 2   Types of Educational Research and Corresponding Sources of Data  

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Types of Educational Research   

Types of Research Categorized by Usefulness    

Types of Research Differentiated by Tradition  

Types of Research Based on Practicality  

Primary and Secondary Sources of Research Data    

Specific Sources of Research Data     

Procedures and Tools Used in Collecting Data

Qualities Required in Research Data   

Authenticity and Believability of Qualitative Data   

Validity and Reliability of Quantitative Data  

Treatment and Presentation of Data    

Additional Terminology Related to Data

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  More about Variables and Questions    

Participants, Samples, and Populations   

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY  Type of Research 

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Your Current Status 

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter Exercises    

References and Recommended Readings   

 

Part Two: Preliminary Skills Needed for Conducting Research    

 

CHAPTER 3   Selecting, Refining, and Proposing a Topic for Research

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Where to Find Good Research Topics    

Topics for Teachers, Counselors, and Other Educators 

Topics for Administrators    

Topics for Other Educators   

Preliminary Considerations in Selecting Topics    

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  Sources for Research Topics     

Refining the Research Topic     

Some Necessary Terminology

Variables and Educational Research    

Continuous, Discrete, and Dichotomous Variables   

Independent and Dependent Variables   

Regulating the Size of Research Topics

Foreseeing the Research Report Format 

The Value of Conventional Procedures and Reports  

Refining the Topic: An Illustrative Case    

Jan’s Concern about Students’ Entry Age to Kindergarten    

Preparing a Research Proposal

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY  Research Topic Refinement    

Chapter Summary      60

List of Important Terms    60

Your Current Status  61

Activities for Thought and Discussion  61

Answers to Chapter Exercises     61

References and Recommended Readings    62

 

CHAPTER 4   Locating Published Research  

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Using the Research Library

Secondary Sources in the Library

Locating Secondary Sources   

Primary Sources in the Library  

Specific Directories of Primary References     

Locating Primary Sources     

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  Electronic Journals    

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  Searching ERIC Online  

Not Just for Conducting Research—Valuable Sources for Professional Development  

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY  Locating Published Research     

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Your Current Status 

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter exercises    

References and Recommended Readings   

 

CHAPTER 5   Interpreting and Summarizing Published Research

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Reading Research Reports  

Summarizing the Reports

Interpreting the Statistical Information You Encounter  

Status Reports   

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  Writing a Review  of Literature    

Review of Terminology Used in Status Reports   

Comparison Reports     

Review of Terminology Used in Comparison Reports     

Correlational Reports  

Review of Terminology Used in Correlational Reports  

The Concept of Significance     

D EVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY  Reviewing Published Research    

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Your Current Status 

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter Exercises    

References and Recommended Readings   

 

PART THREE: Conducting Your Own Research Project     

 

CHAPTER 6   Procedures and Tools for Gathering Data  

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Types of Research and Their Typical Foci    

Types of Data Needed

Sources of Data for Various Types of Research     

Samples and Their Selection     

Are Samples Necessary in Research? 

Can Small Samples Represent Large Populations? 

Probability Sampling   

Non probability Sampling     

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  Probability and Nonprobability Sampling  

Samples and Their Selection     

Size of Samples     

Relationships among Research Focus, Data, Source, and Sample  

Validity and Reliability in Data Collection 

Validity of Data 

Determining Validity of Test Data  

Determining Validity of Non-Test Data    

Reliability of Data    

Determining Reliability of Test Data     

Determining Reliability of N on Test Data

Relationship between Validity and Reliability  

Procedures in Data Collection   

Notation

Description

Analysis

Questioning

Testing 

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  Survey Construction    

A PPLYING TECHNOLOGY  Searchable Online Test Locators    

Measurement

Relationships between Types of Research and Data Collection   

A Composite of Research Types and Data Collection Procedures  

Data Collection Profiles  

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY  Data Collection Decisions 

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Your Current Status 

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter Exercises    

References and Recommended Readings   

 

CHAPTER 7   Analyzing Research Data and Presenting Findings

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Qualitative Data and Quantitative Data

An Example of Qualitative Analysis 

An Example of Quantitative Analysis

Analyzing Ethnographic Data     

Cautions and Reminders in Qualitative Data Analysis     

Analyzing Quantitative Data     

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  Software Programs for Analyzing Qualitative Data  

Populations and Parameters; Samples and Statistics   

What Statistics Are Used For    

Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics 

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  More about Statistics  

Cautions in Using Statistics 

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  Software Programs for Analyzing Quantitative Data  

Presenting Your Findings     

A PPLYING TECHNOLOGY  Selecting an Appropriate Statistical Test

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY  Statistical Analysis Decisions  

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Your Current Status 

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter exercises    

References and Recommended Readings   

 

CHAPTER 8   Designing a Research Project 

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

How Planning Should Be Done     

The Approach to Planning Advocated in This Book   

Tasks to Be Accomplished When Planning Research   

Task 1. State the Title, Topic, Problem, and Questions and/or Hypotheses

Task 2. Identify Keywords or Desciptors and Outline the Library Search for Related Information

Task 3. Identify Needed Data and Sources 

Task 4. List the Steps You Will Need to Carry Out to Complete the Study

Task 5. Specify the Procedures and Tools You Will Employ in Collecting Data  

Task 6, Foresee How Data Can Best Be Analyzed and Interpreted    

Task 7. Anticipate the Appropriate Report Format for Your Research     

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  More Guidelines for Reports  

Illustrative Example of Planning a Research Project     

Topic and Problem

Examination of the Literature

Required Data and Data Sources     

Appraisal of Holly’s Plan    

An example of a Research Proposal     

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY  Planning for Your Research

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Your Current Status 

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

References and Recommended Readings   

 

CHAPTER 9   Preparing a Research Report  

References and Recommended Readings   

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Conventions in Research and Reporting 

Style Guides

Conventions of Style

Title

Person and Voice 

Tense

Tentative versus Definitive Statements   

Simplicity of Language 

Consistency

Conventions of Format     

Introduction     

Review of Related Literature 

Procedures or Method   

Findings or Results    

Conclusions or Discussion    

Front and Back Material

A Composite Outline of Format Conventions   

Sample Pages  

For Research Papers and Journal Articles 

For Masters’ Theses    

For a Thesis That Reports Action Research

Thesis Format for Other Types of Research

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY  Preparing to Write Your Report  

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Your Current Status 

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter Exercises    

 

PART FOUR: Procedures and Exemplars of Research as Differentiated by Tradition     

 

CHAPTER 10  Qualitative Research Methods 

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Characteristics of Qualitative Research     

The Qualitative Research Process   

Qualitative Data Collection Techniques   

Characteristics of Qualitative Data: Accuracy, Credibility, and Dependibility   

Qualitative Data Analysis Techniques     

Approaches to Qualitative Research 

The Nature of Ethnographic Research   

Topics in Ethnographic Research    

Procedures in Ethnographic Research

The Richness of Ethnographic Research    

Strengths and Concerns in ethnographic Research

An Example of Ethnographic Research

Organizing for Ethnographic Research  

The Nature of Narrative Research

Procedures in Narrative Research   

Strengths and Concerns in Narrative Research   

An Example of Narrative Research

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  More about Qualitative Research    

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter Exercises    

References and Recommended Readings   

 

CHAPTER 11  Survey Research  

Preview    

Targeted Learnings     

Characteristics of Survey Research 

Types of Surveys 

Types of Survey Questions    

Survey Design Considerations 

The Survey Research Process  

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  More about Survey Research   

Strengths and Concerns in Survey Research

An Example of Survey Research

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter Exercises 

References and Recommended Readings   

 

CHAPTER 12  Nonexperimental Quantitative Research    

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Weather and the Process of Education  

Correlations  

The Nature of Correlational Research  

Cautions Concerning Cause and Effect  

Topics for Correlational Research     

Hypotheses and Questions in Correlational Research

Correlational Research Design   

Data Sources and Collection     

What Can Be Correlated and How  

Product-Moment Correlation   

Biserial Correlation and Point-Biserial Correlation  

Phi Correlation and Tetrachoric Correlation    

Correlations from Rankings   

Multivariate Correlations 

Partial Correlation    

Multiple Regression    

Discriminant Analysis  

Factor Analysis  

An Example of Correlational Research

Organizing for Correlational Research 

Selecting the Variables

Stating Questions or Hypotheses    

Assessing and Quantifying the Variables  

Selecting a Sample     

Collecting Data  

Analyzing the Data     

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  More about Correlational Research  

Organizing for Correlational Research 

Causal-Comparative Research     

The Nature of Causal-Comparative Research   

Conducting Causal-Comparative Research   

An Example of Causal-Comparative Research

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter Exercises    

References and Recommended Readings   

 

CHAPTER 13  Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Single-Subject Designs     

Targeted Learnings  

The Search for Causation  

Experimental Research     

Quasi-Experimental Research     

Fundamentals of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research  

Cause and effect 

Random Selection and Assignment    

Use of Experimental Research 

Experimental Designs   

Quasi-experimental Designs   

The Commonality of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs

Single-Subject Designs    

Threats to Internal and External Validity   

An Example of Quasi-Experimental Research

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  More about Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Designs    

An Example of Single-Subject Research

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter Exercises    

References and Recommended Readings   

 

CHAPTER 14  Mixed-Methods Research Designs     

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Characteristics of Mixed-Methods Research   

Mixed-Methods Research Designs     

The Mixed-Methods Research Process 

Strengths and Concerns in Mixed-Methods Research     

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY  More about Mixed-Methods Research  

An Example of Mixed-Methods Research

Chapter Summary     

List of Important Terms   

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter Exercise     

References and Recommended Readings   

 

PART FIVE: Procedures and Exemplars of Research as Differentiated by Practicality 

 

CHAPTER 15  Action Research  

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Action Research     

The Importance of Action Research  

Characteristics of Action Research 

An Example 

The Action Research Process     

An Example of Action Research      

Review of Action Research 

Organizing for Action Research  

Strengths and Cautions in Action Research   

APPLYING TECHNOLOGY: More about Action Research

Chapter Summary           

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter Exercise     

References and Recommended Readings   

 

 

CHAPTER 16  Evaluation Research    

Preview 

Targeted Learnings  

Evaluation Research 

Types of Evaluation Research    

Evaluating Methods, Materials, and Programs 

An Example of Evaluation Research: “insert title of new article”          

Organizing for Evaluation Research    

Chapter Summary           

Activities for Thought and Discussion 

Answers to Chapter Exercise     

References and Recommended Readings   

 

 

APPENDIX A  Overview of Statistical Concepts and Procedures


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