## Summary

First published in 1959, this classic work has been used as a core text by hundreds of thousands of college and university students enrolled in introductory circuit analysis courses. Acclaimed for its clear, concise explanations of difficult concepts, its comprehensive problem sets andexercises, and its authoritative coverage, this new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated with the latest developments in the field. With an entirely new chapter on filters; extensive new coverage of AC and DC motors and generators; a wealth of new exercises, diagrams, and photos; and over150 Multisim circuit simulations on an accompanying CD, this ninth edition is the essential text for introducing electric circuits.

## Author Biography

**Herbert W. Jackson** published the first edition of *Introduction to Electric Circuits* in 1959. Jackson taught electronics and electrical engineering technology for over forty years. In addition, Jackson was a member of the Ontario Ministry of Education, where he oversaw the creation of the province's community colleges.

**Dale Temple** teaches electronics engineering technology at the College of the North Atlantic, where he has served as coordinator of the electronics program.

**Brian Kelly** is formerly an instructor at the College of the North Atlantic, where, in addition to teaching, he served as coordinator for the introductory circuit analysis course. Kelly created the lab manual and solutions manual that accompany the text.

## Table of Contents

**From the Publisher **

**From the Preface to the First Edition (1959) **

**From the Authors of the Eighth Edition **

**Part I The Basic Electric Circuit **

1. ** ** Introduction

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**1-1 Circuit Diagrams **

**1-2 The International System of Units **

**1-3 Calculators for Circuit Theory **

**1-4 Numerical Accuracy **

**1-5 Scientific Notation **

**1-6 SI Unit Prefixes **

**1-7 Conversion of Units **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

2. ** ** Current and Voltage

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**2-1 The Nature of Charge **

**2-2 Free Electrons in Metals **

**2-3 Electric Current **

**2-4 The Coulomb **

**2-5 The Ampere **

**2-6 Potential Difference **

**2-7 The Volt **

**2-8 EMF, Potential Difference, and Voltage **

**2-9 Conventional Current and Electron Flow **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

3. ** ** Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**3-1 Conductors **

**3-2 Electrolytic Conduction **

**3-3 Insulators **

**3-4 Insulator Breakdown **

**3-5 Semiconductors **

**Summary **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

4. ** ** Cells, Batteries, and Other Voltage Sources

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**4-1 Basic Terminology **

**4-2 Simple Primary Cell **

**4-3 Carbon-Zinc and Alkaline Cells **

**4-4 Other Commercial Primary Cells **

**4-5 Secondary Cells **

**4-6 Capacity of Cells and Batteries **

**4-7 Fuel Cells **

**4-8 Other Voltage Sources **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

5. ** ** Resistance and Ohm's Law

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**5-1 Ohm's Law **

**5-2 The Nature of Resistance **

**5-3 Factors Governing Resistance **

**5-4 Resistivity **

**5-5 Circular Mils **

**5-6 American Wire Gauge **

**5-7 Effect of Temperature on Resistance **

**5-8 Temperature Coefficient of Resistance **

**5-9 Linear Resistors **

**5-10 Nonlinear Resistors **

**5-11 Resistor Color Code **

**5-12 Variable Resistors **

**5-13 Voltage-Current Characteristics **

**5-14 Applying Ohm's Law **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

6. ** ** Work and Power

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**6-1 Energy and Work **

**6-2 Power **

**6-3 Efficiency **

**6-4 The Kilowatt Hour **

**6-5 Relationships Among Basic Electric Units **

**6-6 Heating Effect of Current **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

**Part II Resistance Networks **

7. ** ** Series and Parallel Circuits

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**7-1 Resistors in Series **

**7-2 Voltage Drops in Series Circuits **

**7-3 Double-Subscript Notation **

**7-4 Kirchhoff's Voltage Law **

**7-5 Characteristics of Series Circuits **

**7-6 Internal Resistance **

**7-7 Cells in Series **

**7-8 Maximum Power Transfer **

**7-9 Resistors in Parallel **

**7-10 Kirchhoff's Current Law **

**7-11 Conductance and Conductivity **

**7-12 Characteristics of Parallel Circuits **

**7-13 Cells in Parallel **

**7-14 Troubleshooting **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

8. ** ** Series-Parallel Circuits

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**8-1 Series-Parallel Resistors **

**8-2 Equivalent-Circuit Method **

**8-3 Kirchhoff's Laws Method **

**8-4 Voltage-Divider Principle **

**8-5 Voltage Dividers **

**8-6 Current-Divider Principle **

**8-7 Cells in Series-Parallel **

**8-8 Troubleshooting **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

9. ** ** Resistance Networks

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**9-1 Network Equations from Kirchhoff's Laws **

**9-2 Constant-Voltage Sources **

**9-3 Constant-Current Sources **

**9-4 Source Conversion **

**9-5 Kirchhoff's Voltage-Law Equations: Loop Procedure **

**9-6 Networks with More Than One Voltage Source **

**9-7 Loop Equations in Multisource Networks **

**9-8 Mesh Analysis **

**9-9 Kirchhoff's Current-Law Equations **

**9-10 Nodal Analysis **

**9-11 The Superposition Theorem **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

10. ** ** Equivalent-Circuit Theorems

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**10-1 Thevenin's Theorem **

**10-2 Norton's Theorem **

**10-3 Dependent Sources **

**10-4 Delta-Wye Transformation **

**10-5 Troubleshooting **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

11. ** ** Electrical Measurement

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**11-1 Moving-Coil Meters **

**11-2 The Ammeter **

**11-3 The Voltmeter **

**11-4 Voltmeter Loading Effect **

**11-5 Resistance Measurement **

**11-6 The Electrodynamometer Movement **

**11-7 Digital Meters **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

**Part III Capacitance and Inductance **

12. ** ** Capacitance

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**12-1 Electric Fields **

**12-2 Dielectrics **

**12-3 Capacitance **

**12-4 Capacitors **

**12-5 Factors Governing Capacitance **

**12-6 Dielectric Constant **

**12-7 Capacitors in Parallel **

**12-8 Capacitors in Series **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

13. ** ** Capacitance in DC Circuits

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**13-1 Charging a Capacitor **

**13-2 Rate of Change of Voltage **

**13-3 Time Constant **

**13-4 Graphical Solution for Capacitor Voltage **

**13-5 Discharging a Capacitor **

**13-6 Algebraic Solution for Capacitor Voltage **

**13-7 Transient Response **

**13-8 Energy Stored by a Capacitor **

**13-9 Characteristics of Capacitive DC Circuits **

**13-10 Troubleshooting **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

14. ** ** Magnetism

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**14-1 Magnetic Fields **

**14-2 Magnetic Field around a Current-Carrying Conductor **

**14-3 Magnetic Flux **

**14-4 Magnetomotive Force **

**14-5 Reluctance **

**14-6 Permeance and Permeability **

**14-7 Magnetic Flux Density **

**14-8 Magnetic Field Strength **

**14-9 Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic, and Ferromagnetic Materials **

**14-10 Permanent Magnets **

**14-11 Magnetization Curves **

**14-12 Permeability from the BH Curve **

**14-13 Hysteresis **

**14-14 Eddy Current **

**14-15 Magnetic Shielding **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

15. ** ** Magnetic Circuits

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**15-1 Practical Magnetic Circuits **

**15-2 Long Air-Core Coils **

**15-3 Toroidal Coils **

**15-4 Linear Magnetic Circuits **

**15-5 Nonlinear Magnetic Circuits **

**15-6 Leakage Flux **

**15-7 Series Magnetic Circuits **

**15-8 Air Gaps **

**15-9 Parallel Magnetic Circuits **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

16. ** ** Inductance

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**16-1 Electromagnetic Induction **

**16-2 Faraday's Law **

**16-3 Lenz's Law **

**16-4 Self-Induction **

**16-5 Self-Inductance **

**16-6 Factors Governing Inductance **

**16-7 Inductors in Series **

**16-8 Inductors in Parallel **

**16-9 The DC Generator **

**16-10 Simple Generators **

**16-11 Simple DC Generators **

**16-12 EMF Equation **

**16-13 The CD Motor **

**16-14 Speed and Torque of a DC Motor **

**16-15 Types of DC Motors **

**16-16 Speed Characteristics of DC Motors **

**16-17 Torque Characteristics of DC Motors **

**16-18 Permanent Magnet and Brushes of DC Motors **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

17. ** ** Inductance in DC Circuits

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**17-1 Current in an Ideal Inductor **

**17-2 Rise of Current in a Practical Inductor **

**17-3 Time Constant **

**17-4 Graphical Solution for Inductor Current **

**17-5 Algebraic Solution for Inductor Current **

**17-6 Energy Stored by an Inductor **

**17-7 Fall of Current in an Inductive Circuit **

**17-8 Algebraic Solution for Discharge Current **

**17-9 Transient Response **

**17-10 Characteristics of Inductive DC Circuits **

**17-11 Troubleshooting **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

**Part IV Alternating Current **

18. ** ** Alternating Current

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**18-1 A Simple Generator **

**18-2 The Nature of the Induced Voltage **

**18-3 The Sine Wave **

**18-4 Peak Value of a Sine Wave **

**18-5 Instantaneous Value of a Sine Wave **

**18-6 The Radian **

**18-7 Instantaneous Current in a Resistor **

**18-8 Instantaneous Power in a Resistor **

**18-9 Periodic Waves **

**18-10 Average Value of a Periodic Wave **

**18-11 RMS Value of a Sine Wave **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

19. ** ** Reactance

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**19-1 Instantaneous Current in an Ideal Inductor **

**19-2 Inductive Reactance **

**19-3 Factors Governing Inductive Reactance **

**19-4 Instantaneous Current in a Capacitor **

**19-5 Capacitive Reactance **

**19-6 Factors Governing Capacitive Reactance **

**19-7 Resistance, Inductive Reactance, and Capacitive Reactance **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

20. ** ** Phasors

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**20-1 Addition of Sine Waves **

**20-2 Addition of Instantaneous Values **

**20-3 Representing a Sine Wave by a Phasor Diagram **

**20-4 Letter Symbols for Phasor Quantities **

**20-5 Phasor Addition by Geometrical Construction **

**20-6 Addition of Perpendicular Phasors **

**20-7 Expressing Phasors with Complex Numbers **

**20-8 Phasor Addition by Rectangular Coordinates **

**20-9 Subtraction of Phasor Quantities **

**20-10 Multiplication and Division of Phasor Quantities **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

21. ** ** Impedance

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**21-1 Resistance and Inductance in Series **

**21-2 Impedance **

**21-3 Practical Inductors **

**21-4 Resistance and Capacitance in Series **

**21-5 Resistance, Inductance, and Capacitance in Series **

**21-6 Resistance, Inductance, and Capacitance in Parallel **

**21-7 Conductance, Susceptance, and Admittance **

**21-8 Impedance and Admittance **

**21-9 Troubleshooting **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

22. ** ** Power in Alternating-Current Circuits

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**22-1 Power in a Resistor **

**22-2 Power in an Ideal Inductor **

**22-3 Power in a Capacitor **

**22-4 Power in a Circuit Containing Resistance and Reactance **

**22-5 The Power Triangle **

**22-6 Power Factor **

**22-7 Power Factor Correction **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

**PART V Impedance Networks **

23. ** ** Series and Parallel Impedances

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**23-1 Resistance and Impedance **

**23-2 Impedances in Series **

**23-3 Impedances in Parallel **

**23-4 Series-Parallel Impedances **

**23-5 Source Conversion **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

24. ** ** Impedance Networks

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**24-1 Loop Equations **

**24-2 Mesh Equations **

**24-3 Superposition Theorem **

**24-4 Thevenin's Theorem **

**24-5 Norton's Theorem **

**24-6 Nodal Analysis **

**24-7 Delta-Wye Transformation **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

25. ** ** Resonance

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**25-1 Effect of Varying Frequency in a Series RLC Circuit **

**25-2 Series Resonance **

**25-3 Quality Factor **

**25-4 Resonant Rise of Voltage **

**25-5 Selectivity **

**25-6 Ideal Parallel-Resonant Circuits **

**25-7 Practical Parallel-Resonant Circuits **

**25-8 Selectivity of Parallel-Resonant Circuits **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

26. ** ** Passive Filters

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**26-1 Filters **

**26-2 Frequency Response Graphs **

**26-3 RC Low-Pass Filters **

**26-4 RL Low-Pass Filters **

**26-5 RC High-Pass Filters **

**26-6 RL High-Pass Filters **

**26-7 Band-Pass Filters **

**26-8 Band-Stop Filters **

**26-9 Troubleshooting **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

27. ** ** Transformers

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**27-1 Transformer Action **

**27-2 Transformation Ratio **

**27-3 Impedance Transformation **

**27-4 Leakage Reactance **

**27-5 Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Tests **

**27-6 Transformer Efficiency **

**27-7 Effect of Loading a Transformer **

**27-8 Autotransformers **

**27-9 Troubleshooting **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

28. ** ** Coupled Circuits

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**28-1 Determining Coupling Network Parameters **

**28-2 Open-Circuit Impedance Parameters **

**28-3 Short-Circuit Admittance Parameters **

**28-4 Hybrid Parameters **

**28-5 Air-Core Transformers **

**28-6 Mutual Inductance **

**28-7 Coupled Impedance **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

29. ** ** Three-Phase Systems

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**29-1 Advantages of Polyphase Systems **

**29-2 Generation of Three-Phase Voltages **

**29-3 Double-Subscript Notation **

**29-4 Four-Wire Wye-Connected System **

**29-5 Delta-Connected Systems **

**29-6 Wye-Delta System **

**29-7 Power in a Balanced Three-Phase System **

**29-8 Phase Sequence **

**29-9 Unbalanced Three-Wire Wye Loads **

**29-10 The AC Generator **

**29-11 The Three-Phase Induction Motor **

**29-12 The Three-Phase Synchronous Motor **

**29-13 Single-Phase Motors **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

30. ** ** Harmonics

**Learning Outcomes **

**Key Terms **

**30-1 Nonsinusoidal Waves **

**30-2 Fourier Series **

**30-3 Addition of Harmonically Related Sine Waves **

**30-4 Generation of Harmonics **

**30-5 Harmonics in an Amplifier **

**30-6 Harmonics in an Iron-Core Transformer **

**30-7 RMS Value of a Nonsinusoidal Wave **

**30-8 Square Waves and Sawtooth Waves **

**30-9 Nonsinusoidal Waves in Linear Impedance Networks **

**Summary **

**Problems **

**Review Questions **

**Integrate the Concepts **

**Practice Quiz **

**Appendices **

**1 Determinants **

**2 Calculus Derivations **

**2-1 Maxium Power-Transfer Theorem **

**2-2 Instantaneous Voltage in a CR Circuit **

**2-3 Energy Stored by a Capacitor **

**2-4 Instantaneous Current in an LR Circuit **

**2-5 Energy Stored by an Inductor **

**2-6 RMS and Average Values of a Sine Wave **

**2-7 Inductive Reactance **

**2-8 Capacitive Reactance **

**2-9 General Transformer Equation **

**2-10 Maximum Transformer Efficiency **

**3 Multisim Schematic Capture and Simulation **

**Glossary **

**Answers to Selected Problems **

**Index **