# Introduction to Electronics

**by**Gates, Earl D.

5th

### 9781401889005

140188900X

Hardcover

5/24/2006

Cengage Learning

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## Related Products

## Summary

Obtain the fundamental background in electronics needed to succeed in today's increasingly digital world! The fifth edition continues to expose readers to the broad field of electronics at a level that can be easily understood, with all-new information on circuit board fabrication, assembly, and repair as well as practical applications and troubleshooting. Color has been added to all drawings and photos that supplement the descriptions of important concepts and techniques, making it even easier to master basic theory. Coverage is divided into six sections - DC Circuits, AC Circuits, Semiconductor Devices, Linear Circuits, Digital Circuits, and now, Practical Applications - a new section providing hands-on opportunities to apply DC/AC principles.

## Author Biography

Earl D. Gates is an associate professor Emeritus at the State University of New York at Oswego, where he teaches Electronics Technology

## Table of Contents

Preface | p. vii |

Careers in Electronics | p. xii |

Using a Calculator | p. xvi |

Safety Precautions | p. xix |

Dc Circuits | p. 1 |

Fundamentals of Electricity | p. 3 |

Matter, Elements, and Compounds | p. 4 |

A Closer Look at Atoms | p. 5 |

Current | p. 7 |

Voltage | p. 7 |

Resistance | p. 8 |

Current | p. 10 |

Electrical Charge | p. 10 |

Current Flow | p. 11 |

Scientific Notation | p. 13 |

Voltage | p. 17 |

Voltage Sources | p. 17 |

Cells and Batteries | p. 21 |

Connecting Cells and Batteries | p. 24 |

Voltage Rises and Voltage Drops | p. 27 |

Ground as a Voltage Reference Level | p. 28 |

Resistance | p. 31 |

Resistance | p. 31 |

Conductance | p. 32 |

Resistors | p. 32 |

Resistor Identification | p. 37 |

Connecting Resistors | p. 40 |

Connecting Resistors in Series | p. 40 |

Connecting Resistors in Parallel | p. 41 |

Connecting Resistors in Series and Parallel | p. 43 |

Ohm's Law | p. 49 |

Electric Circuits | p. 49 |

Ohm's Law | p. 51 |

Application of Ohm's Law | p. 53 |

Kirchhoff's Current Law | p. 57 |

Kirchhoff's Voltage Law | p. 58 |

Electrical Measurements-Meters | p. 61 |

Introduction to Meters | p. 62 |

Types of Meters | p. 63 |

Multimeters | p. 64 |

Measuring Current | p. 65 |

Measuring Voltage | p. 67 |

Measuring Resistance | p. 68 |

Reading Meter Scales | p. 70 |

Power | p. 75 |

Power | p. 75 |

Power Application (Circuit Analysis) | p. 76 |

DC Circuits | p. 80 |

Series Circuits | p. 80 |

Parallel Circuits | p. 82 |

Series-Parallel Circuits | p. 84 |

Voltage Dividers | p. 88 |

Wheatstone Bridge | p. 93 |

Magnetism | p. 96 |

Magnetic Fields | p. 97 |

Electricity and Magnetism | p. 99 |

Magnetic Induction | p. 101 |

Magnetic and Electromagnetic Applications | p. 104 |

Inductance | p. 110 |

Inductance | p. 110 |

Inductors | p. 111 |

L/R Time Constants | p. 113 |

Capacitance | p. 116 |

Capacitance | p. 116 |

Capacitors | p. 117 |

RC Time Constants | p. 120 |

AC Circuits | p. 123 |

Alternating Current | p. 125 |

Generating Alternating Current | p. 126 |

AC Values | p. 128 |

Nonsinusoidal Waveforms | p. 130 |

AC Measurements | p. 133 |

AC Meters | p. 133 |

Oscilloscopes | p. 136 |

Frequency Counters | p. 139 |

Bode Plotters | p. 140 |

Resistive AC Circuits | p. 142 |

Basic AC Resistive Circuits | p. 142 |

Series AC Circuits | p. 143 |

Parallel AC Circuits | p. 145 |

Power in AC Circuits | p. 146 |

Capacitive AC Circuits | p. 148 |

Capacitors in AC Circuits | p. 148 |

Applications of Capacitive Circuits | p. 151 |

Inductive AC Circuits | p. 155 |

Inductance in AC Circuits | p. 155 |

Applications of Inductive Circuits | p. 158 |

Resonance Circuits | p. 161 |

Reactance in Series Circuits | p. 161 |

Reactance in Parallel Circuits | p. 165 |

Power | p. 167 |

Introduction to Resonance | p. 168 |

Transformers | p. 171 |

Electromagnetic Induction | p. 171 |

Mutual Inductance | p. 172 |

Turns Ratio | p. 173 |

Applications | p. 175 |

Semiconductor Devices | p. 181 |

Semiconductor Fundamentals | p. 183 |

Semiconduction in Germanium and Silicon | p. 184 |

Conduction in Pure Germanium and Silicon | p. 186 |

Conduction in Doped Germanium and Silicon | p. 187 |

PN Junction Diodes | p. 191 |

PN Junctions | p. 191 |

Diode Biasing | p. 193 |

Diode Characteristics | p. 194 |

Diode Construction Techniques | p. 195 |

Testing PN Junction Diodes | p. 197 |

Zener Diodes | p. 199 |

Zener Diode Characteristics | p. 199 |

Zener Diode Ratings | p. 200 |

Voltage Regulation with Zener Diodes | p. 201 |

Testing Zener Diodes | p. 202 |

Bipolar Transistors | p. 204 |

Transistor Construction | p. 204 |

Transistor Types and Packaging | p. 206 |

Basic Transistor Operation | p. 206 |

Transistor Testing | p. 208 |

Transistor Substitution | p. 209 |

Field Effect Transistors (FETs) | p. 213 |

Junction FETs | p. 213 |

Depletion Insulated Gate FETs (MOSFETs) | p. 216 |

Enhancement Insulated Gate FETs (MOSFETs) | p. 218 |

MOSFET Safety Precautions | p. 220 |

Testing FETs | p. 220 |

Thyristors | p. 223 |

Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers | p. 223 |

TRIACs | p. 226 |

Bidirectional Trigger Diodes | p. 228 |

Testing Thyristors | p. 229 |

Integrated Circuits | p. 232 |

Introduction to Integrated Circuits | p. 233 |

Integrated Circuit Construction Techniques | p. 234 |

Integrated Circuit Packaging | p. 236 |

Optoelectric Devices | p. 239 |

Basic Principles of Light | p. 240 |

Light-Sensitive Devices | p. 240 |

Light-Emitting Devices | p. 244 |

Linear Electronic Circuits | p. 247 |

Power Supplies | p. 249 |

Transformers | p. 250 |

Rectifier Circuits | p. 250 |

Filter Circuits | p. 253 |

Voltage Regulators | p. 256 |

Voltage Multipliers | p. 261 |

Circuit-Protection Devices | p. 263 |

Amplifier Basics | p. 267 |

Amplifier Configurations | p. 267 |

Amplifier Biasing | p. 269 |

Amplifier Coupling | p. 273 |

Amplifier Applications | p. 277 |

Direct-Coupled Amplifiers | p. 277 |

Audio Amplifiers | p. 280 |

Video Amplifiers | p. 282 |

RF and IF Amplifiers | p. 285 |

Operational Amplifiers | p. 287 |

Oscillators | p. 293 |

Fundamentals of Oscillators | p. 293 |

Sinusoidal Oscillators | p. 294 |

Nonsinusoidal Oscillators | p. 298 |

Waveshaping Circuits | p. 302 |

Nonsinusoidal Waveforms | p. 302 |

Waveshaping Circuits | p. 305 |

Special-Purpose Circuits | p. 309 |

Digital Electronic Circuits | p. 313 |

Binary Number System | p. 315 |

Binary Numbers | p. 315 |

Binary and Decimal Conversion | p. 317 |

BCD Code | p. 319 |

Basic Logic Gates | p. 321 |

AND Gate | p. 321 |

OR Gate | p. 322 |

NOT Gate | p. 323 |

NAND Gate | p. 323 |

NOR Gate | p. 324 |

Exclusive OR and NOR Gates | p. 325 |

Buffer | p. 327 |

Simplifying Logic Circuits | p. 330 |

Veitch Diagrams | p. 330 |

Karnaugh Maps | p. 333 |

Sequential Logic Circuits | p. 338 |

Flip-Flops | p. 339 |

Counters | p. 342 |

Shift Registers | p. 345 |

Memory | p. 351 |

Combinational Logic Circuits | p. 356 |

Encoders | p. 356 |

Decoders | p. 358 |

Multiplexers | p. 360 |

Arithmetic Circuits | p. 363 |

Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) | p. 368 |

Microcomputer Basics | p. 371 |

Computer Basics | p. 372 |

Microprocessor Architecture | p. 375 |

Microcontrollers | p. 378 |

Practical Applications | p. 383 |

Printed Circuit Board Fabrication | p. 385 |

Fundamentals | p. 385 |

Schematic Diagram | p. 389 |

Breadboarding | p. 395 |

Laying Out Printed Circuit Boards | p. 396 |

Transferring Designs | p. 402 |

Etching Printed Circuit Boards | p. 403 |

Preparing the Etched Printed Circuit Board | p. 405 |

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) | p. 406 |

Printed Circuit Board Assembly and Repair | p. 415 |

Electronics Technician Toolbox | p. 416 |

Electronic Test Equipment | p. 421 |

Solder and Soldering Irons | p. 424 |

Soldering a Printed Circuit Board | p. 427 |

Analyzing Soldered Connections | p. 433 |

Protective Coatings | p. 434 |

Safety Precautions | p. 435 |

Electrostatic Discharge | p. 438 |

Basic Troubleshooting | p. 444 |

Tools for Troubleshooting | p. 444 |

Isolation Techniques for Effective Troubleshooting | p. 448 |

Common Types of Defects | p. 449 |

Troubleshooting Tips | p. 452 |

Documentation | p. 452 |

Glossary | p. 455 |

Self-Test Answers | p. 467 |

Appendices | p. 503 |

Electronics Abbreviations | p. 503 |

Periodic Table of Elements | p. 504 |

The Greek Alphabet | p. 505 |

Metric Prefixes Used in Electronics | p. 506 |

Resistor Color Codes | p. 507 |

Capacitor Color Code | p. 508 |

Electronics Symbols | p. 511 |

Semiconductor Schematic Symbols | p. 512 |

Digital Logic Symbols | p. 513 |

DC and AC Circuit Formulas | p. 514 |

Index | p. 515 |

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