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What is included with this book?
One of the bestselling texts in the field, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics continues to provide students with a balanced and comprehensive approach to mastering critical concepts. The new eighth edition once again incorporates a proven problem solving methodology that will help students develop an orderly plan to finding the right solution.
It starts with basic equations, then clearly states assumptions, and finally, relates results to expected physical behavior. Many of the steps involved in analysis are simplified by using Excel. Provides a balanced and comprehensive approach to fluid mechanics that equips students with a proven problem-solving methodology.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION /1
1.1 Note to Students /3
1.2 Scope of Fluid Mechanics /4
1.3 Definition of a Fluid /4
1.4 Basic Equations /5
1.5 Methods of Analysis /6
System and Control Volume /7
Differential versus Integral Approach /8
Methods of Description /9
1.6 Dimensions and Units /11
Systems of Dimensions /11
Systems of Units /11
Preferred Systems of Units /13
Dimensional Consistency and “Engineering” Equations /14
1.7 Analysis of Experimental Error /15
1.8 Summary /16
Problems /17
CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS /20
2.1 Fluid as a Continuum /21
2.2 Velocity Field /23
One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows /24
Timelines, Pathlines, Streaklines, and Streamlines /25
2.3 Stress Field /29
2.4 Viscosity /31
Newtonian Fluid /32
Non-Newtonian Fluids /34
2.5 Surface Tension /36
2.6 Description and Classification of Fluid Motions /38
Viscous and Inviscid Flows /38
Laminar and Turbulent Flows /41
Compressible and Incompressible Flows /42
Internal and External Flows /43
2.7 Summary and Useful Equations /44
References /46
Problems /46
CHAPTER 3 FLUID STATICS /55
3.1 The Basic Equation of Fluid Statics /56
3.2 The Standard Atmosphere /60
3.3 Pressure Variation in a Static Fluid /61
Incompressible Liquids: Manometers /61
Gases /66
3.4 Hydraulic Systems /69
3.5 Hydrostatic Force on Submerged Surfaces /69
Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Submerged Surface /69
Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Submerged Surface /76
*3.6 Buoyancy and Stability /80
3.7 Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion (on the Web) /W-1
3.8 Summary and Useful Equations /83
References /84
Problems /84
CHAPTER 4 BASIC EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM FOR A CONTROL VOLUME /96
4.1 Basic Laws for a System /98
Conservation of Mass /98
Newton’s Second Law /98
The Angular-Momentum Principle /99
The First Law of Thermodynamics /99
The Second Law of Thermodynamics /99
4.2 Relation of System Derivatives to the Control Volume Formulation /100
Derivation /101
Physical Interpretation /103
4.3 Conservation of Mass /104
Special Cases /105
4.4 Momentum Equation for Inertial Control Volume /110
*Differential Control Volume Analysis /122
Control Volume Moving with Constant Velocity /126
4.5 Momentum Equation for Control Volume with Rectilinear Acceleration /128
4.6 Momentum Equation for Control Volume with Arbitrary Acceleration (on the Web) /W-6
*4.7 The Angular-Momentum Principle /135
Equation for Fixed Control Volume /135
Equation for Rotating Control Volume (on the Web) /W-11
4.8 The First Law of Thermodynamics /139
Rate of Work Done by a Control Volume /140
Control Volume Equation /142
4.9 The Second Law of Thermodynamics /146
4.10 Summary and Useful Equations /147
Problems /149
CHAPTER 5 INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID MOTION /171
5.1 Conservation of Mass /172
Rectangular Coordinate System /173
Cylindrical Coordinate System /177
*5.2 Stream Function for Two-Dimensional Incompressible Flow /180
5.3 Motion of a Fluid Particle (Kinematics) /184
Fluid Translation: Acceleration of a Fluid Particle in a Velocity Field /185
Fluid Rotation /190
Fluid Deformation /194
5.4 Momentum Equation /197
Forces Acting on a Fluid Particle /198
Differential Momentum Equation /199
Newtonian Fluid: NavierStokes Equations /199
*5.5 Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics /208
The Need for CFD /208
Applications of CFD /209
Some Basic CFD/Numerical Methods Using a Spreadsheet /210
The Strategy of CFD /215
Discretization Using the Finite-Difference Method /216
Assembly of Discrete System and Application of Boundary Conditions /217
Solution of Discrete System /218
Grid Convergence /219
Dealing with Nonlinearity /220
Direct and Iterative Solvers /221
Iterative Convergence /222
Concluding Remarks /223
5.6 Summary and Useful Equations /224
References /226
Problems /226
CHAPTER 6 INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW /235
6.1 Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation /237
6.2 Euler’s Equations in Streamline Coordinates /238
6.3 Bernoulli Equation—Integration of Euler’s Equation Along a Streamline for Steady Flow /241
*Derivation Using Streamline Coordinates /241
*Derivation Using Rectangular Coordinates /242
Static, Stagnation, and Dynamic Pressures /244
Applications /247
Cautions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation /252
6.4 The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy Equation /253
6.5 Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line /257
*6.6 Unsteady Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Euler’s Equation Along a Streamline (on the Web) /W-16
*6.7 Irrotational Flow /259
Bernoulli Equation Applied to Irrotational Flow /260
Velocity Potential /261
Stream Function and Velocity Potential for Two-Dimensional, Irrotational, Incompressible Flow: Laplace’s Equation /262
Elementary Plane Flows /264
Superposition of Elementary Plane Flows /267
6.8 Summary and Useful Equations /276
References /279
Problems /279
CHAPTER 7 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILITUDE /290
7.1 Nondimensionalizing the Basic Differential Equations /292
7.2 Nature of Dimensional Analysis /294
7.3 Buckingham Pi Theorem /296
7.4 Determining the Π Groups /297
7.5 Significant Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics /303
7.6 Flow Similarity and Model Studies /305
Incomplete Similarity /308
Scaling with Multiple Dependent Parameters /314
Comments on Model Testing /317
7.7 Summary and Useful Equations /318
References /319
Problems /320
CHAPTER 8 INTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW /328
8.1 Introduction /330
Laminar versus Turbulent Flow /330
The Entrance Region /331
PART A. FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW /332
8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow between Infinite Parallel Plates /332
Both Plates Stationary /332
Upper Plate Moving with Constant Speed, U /338
8.3 Fully Developed Laminar Flow in a Pipe /344
PART B. FLOW IN PIPES AND DUCTS /348
8.4 Shear Stress Distribution in Fully Developed Pipe Flow /349
8.5 Turbulent Velocity Profiles in Fully Developed Pipe Flow /351
8.6 Energy Considerations in Pipe Flow /353
Kinetic Energy Coefficient /355
Head Loss /355
8.7 Calculation of Head Loss /357
Major Losses: Friction Factor /357
Minor Losses /361
Pumps, Fans, and Blowers in Fluid Systems /367
Noncircular Ducts /368
8.8 Solution of Pipe Flow Problems /369
Single-Path Systems /370
*Multiple-Path Systems /383
PART C. FLOW MEASUREMENT /387
8.9 Direct Methods /387
8.10 Restriction Flow Meters for Internal Flows /387
The Orifice Plate /391
The Flow Nozzle /391
The Venturi /393
The Laminar Flow Element /394
8.11 Linear Flow Meters /397
8.12 Traversing Methods /399
8.13 Summary and Useful Equations /400
References /402
Problems /403
CHAPTER 9 EXTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW /421
PART A. BOUNDARY LAYERS /423
9.1 The Boundary-Layer Concept /423
9.2 Boundary-Layer Thicknesses /425
9.3 Laminar Flat-Plate Boundary Layer: Exact Solution (on the Web) /W-19
9.4 Momentum Integral Equation /428
9.5 Use of the Momentum Integral Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient /433
Laminar Flow /434
Turbulent Flow /439
Summary of Results for Boundary-Layer Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient /441
9.6 Pressure Gradients in Boundary-Layer Flow /442
PART B. FLUID FLOW ABOUT IMMERSED BODIES /445
9.7 Drag /445
Pure Friction Drag: Flow over a Flat Plate Parallel to the Flow /446
Pure Pressure Drag: Flow over a Flat Plate Normal to the Flow /450
Friction and Pressure Drag: Flow over a Sphere and Cylinder /450
Streamlining /456
9.8 Lift /459
9.9 Summary and Useful Equations /474
References /477
Problems /478
CHAPTER 10 FLUID MACHINERY /492
10.1 Introduction and Classification of Fluid Machines /494
Machines for Doing Work on a Fluid /494
Machines for Extracting Work (Power) from a Fluid /496
Scope of Coverage /498
10.2 Turbomachinery Analysis /499
The Angular-Momentum Principle: The Euler Turbomachine Equation /499
Velocity Diagrams /501
Performance: Hydraulic Power /504
Dimensional Analysis and Specific Speed /505
10.3 Pumps, Fans, and Blowers /510
Application of Euler Turbomachine Equation to Centrifugal Pumps /510
Application of the Euler Equation to Axial Flow Pumps and Fans /512
Performance Characteristics /516
Similarity Rules /522
Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head /526
Pump Selection: Applications to Fluid Systems /529
Blowers and Fans /541
10.4 Positive Displacement Pumps /548
10.5 Hydraulic Turbines /552
Hydraulic Turbine Theory /552
Performance Characteristics for Hydraulic Turbines /554
Sizing Hydraulic Turbines for Fluid Systems /558
10.6 Propellers and Wind-Power Machines /562
Propellers /563
Wind-Power Machines /571
10.7 Compressible Flow Turbomachines /581
Application of the Energy Equation to a Compressible Flow Machine /581
Compressors /582
Compressible-Flow Turbines /586
10.8 Summary and Useful Equations /586
References /589
Problems /591
CHAPTER 11 FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS /600
11.1 Basic Concepts and Definitions /603
Simplifying Assumptions /604
Channel Geometry /605
Speed of Surface Waves and the Froude Number /606
11.2 Energy Equation for Open-Channel Flows /610
Specific Energy /613
Critical Depth: Minimum Specific Energy /616
11.3 Localized Effect of Area Change (Frictionless Flow) /619
Flow over a Bump /620
11.4 The Hydraulic Jump /625
Depth Increase Across a Hydraulic Jump /627
Head Loss Across a Hydraulic Jump /628
11.5 Steady Uniform Flow /631
The Manning Equation for Uniform Flow /633
Energy Equation for Uniform Flow /639
Optimum Channel Cross Section /640
11.6 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth /641
Calculation of Surface Profiles /643
11.7 Discharge Measurement Using Weirs /646
Suppressed Rectangular Weir /646
Contracted Rectangular Weirs /647
Triangular Weir /648
Broad-Crested Weir /648
11.8 Summary and Useful Equations /650
References /652
Problems /653
CHAPTER 12 INTRODUCTION TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW /657
12.1 Review of Thermodynamics /659
12.2 Propagation of Sound Waves /665
Speed of Sound /665
Types of Flow—The Mach Cone /670
12.3 Reference State: Local Isentropic Stagnation Properties /673
Local Isentropic Stagnation Properties for the Flow of an Ideal Gas /674
12.4 Critical Conditions /681
12.5 Summary and Useful Equations /681
References /683
Problems /683
CHAPTER 13 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW /689
13.1 Basic Equations for One-Dimensional Compressible Flow /691
13.2 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas: Area Variation /694
Subsonic Flow, M , 1 /697
Supersonic Flow, M . 1 /697
Sonic Flow, M 5 1 /698
Reference Stagnation and Critical Conditions for Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas /699
Isentropic Flow in a Converging Nozzle /704
Isentropic Flow in a Converging-Diverging Nozzle /709
13.3 Normal Shocks /715
Basic Equations for a Normal Shock /716
Fanno and Rayleigh Interpretation of Normal Shock /718
Normal-Shock Flow Functions for One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas /719
13.4 Supersonic Channel Flow with Shocks /724
Flow in a Converging-Diverging Nozzle /724
Supersonic Diffuser (on the Web) /W-24
Supersonic Wind Tunnel Operation (on the Web) /W-25
Supersonic Flow with Friction in a Constant-Area Channel (on the Web) /W-26
Supersonic Flow with Heat Addition in a Constant-Area Channel (on the Web) /W-26
13.5 Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Friction /727
Basic Equations for Adiabatic Flow /727
Adiabatic Flow: The Fanno Line /728
Fanno-Line Flow Functions for One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas /732
Isothermal Flow (on the Web) /W-29
13.6 Frictionless Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Heat Exchange /740
Basic Equations for Flow with Heat Exchange /740
The Rayleigh Line /741
Rayleigh-Line Flow Functions for One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas /746
13.7 Oblique Shocks and Expansion Waves /750
Oblique Shocks /750
Isentropic Expansion Waves /759
13.8 Summary and Useful Equations /768
References /771
Problems /772
APPENDIX A FLUID PROPERTY DATA /785
APPENDIX B EQUATIONS OF MOTION IN CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES /798
APPENDIX C VIDEOS FOR FLUID MECHANICS /800
APPENDIX D SELECTED PERFORMANCE CURVES FOR PUMPS AND FANS /803
APPENDIX E FLOW FUNCTIONS FOR COMPUTATION OF COMPRESSIBLE FLOW /818
APPENDIX F ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL UNCERTAINTY /829
APPENDIX G SI UNITS, PREFIXES, AND CONVERSION FACTORS /836
APPENDIX H A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL (ON THE WEB) /W-33
Answers to Selected Problems /838
Index /867