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Introduction to Forensic Anthropology : A Textbook,9780205435388
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Introduction to Forensic Anthropology : A Textbook

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205435388

ISBN10:
0205435386
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $113.33
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Summary

Comprehensive and engaging, Stephen Byers leaves readers rejoicing in the thoughtful pedagogy that leads them step by step through the most current and detailed explanation of forensic anthropology to date! This one-of-a-kind source offers comprehensive coverage of all the major topics in the field of forensics with accuracy, intensity, and clarity. Following the protocol developed for the field by Clyde Snow in his 1982 article in the Annual Review of Anthropology, this cutting-edge text includes coverage of all areas in the field. Extensive illustrations and photos ensure that the book is accessible to all levels of readers. New material through out this Second Edition takes the reader to the next level of anaylsis, expanding their understanding of what samples can reveal about their source. As one reviewer says, "There is no other source available that is so comprehensive in its coverage of the methods and issues in the current practice of forensic anthropology." Another raves, "The first edition has been a big hit with my students, and I have been very pleased with the ease with which this text has corresponded to my class lecture structure . . . I am anxiously awaiting the second edition!"

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Foreword xix
Introduction
1(27)
Historical Background
4(4)
Formative Period: Early 1800s to 1938
5(2)
Consolidation Period: 1939 to 1971
7(1)
Modern Period: 1972 to the Present
8(1)
Forensic Anthropologists and the Medicolegal Community
8(2)
The Forensic Anthropology Protocol and the Layout of This Book
10(2)
Methods of Forensic Anthropology
12(14)
Data Gathering Methods
13(2)
Data Analysis Methods
15(1)
Decision Tables
16(1)
Range Charts
17(1)
Indexes
18(2)
Discriminant Functions
20(4)
Regression Equations
24(2)
Summary
26(1)
Exercises
27(1)
Basics of Human Osteology and Odontology
28(32)
Overview of the Human Skeleton
29(9)
Cranial Skeleton
30(1)
Bones
31(2)
Sutures
33(4)
Landmarks
37(1)
Sinuses
38(1)
Axial Skeleton and Thorax
38(14)
Vertebral Column
38(3)
Rib Cage
41(2)
Appendicular Skeleton
43(1)
Upper Limbs
43(3)
Lower Limbs
46(6)
Basic Topics in Osteology
52(2)
Anatomy of Bone
52(1)
Bone Growth
53(1)
Joint Types
54(1)
Overview of the Human Dentition
54(4)
Summary
58(1)
Exercises
58(2)
Establishing the Forensic Context
60(26)
Bone versus Nonbone
61(1)
Human versus Nonhuman
61(11)
Maturity Distinctions
62(1)
Architectural Differences
62(3)
Cranial Skeleton
65(1)
Axial Skeleton and Thorax
66(2)
Appendicular Skeleton
68(2)
Histological Differences
70(1)
Bear Paws and Pig's Teeth
70(2)
Contemporary versus Noncontemporary
72(12)
State of Preservation
75(1)
Color
75(2)
Texture
77(1)
Hydration
77(1)
Weight
77(1)
Condition
77(1)
Fragility
78(1)
Soft Tissue
78(1)
Body Modifications
79(2)
Personal Belongings
81(1)
Conditions of Interment
81(3)
Summary
84(1)
Exercises
85(1)
Recovery Scene Methods
86(21)
Preliminary Issues
87(1)
Locating Remains
88(6)
Searching for Human Remains
89(3)
Searching for Associated Materials
92(2)
Mapping Remains
94(2)
Grave Excavation
96(2)
Collecting Remains
98(4)
Mass Disasters
102(3)
Personnel
102(1)
Locating, Mapping, Collecting
103(1)
Temporary Morgue
103(1)
Victim Information
104(1)
DMORT
104(1)
Summary
105(1)
Exercises
105(2)
Estimating Time Since Death
107(22)
Overview of Decomposition
109(2)
Decomposition and Skeletonization
111(7)
Surface Finds
113(1)
Warm, Moist Climates
113(1)
Hot, Dry Climates
113(4)
Cold Climates
117(1)
Buried and Submerged Remains
118(1)
Animal Scavenging
118(3)
Other Methods
121(5)
Forensic Entomology
121(3)
Forensic Botany
124(1)
Deterioration of Clothing and Other Materials
125(1)
Chemical Methods
126(1)
Summary
126(1)
Exercises
127(2)
Initial Treatment and Examination
129(29)
Forensic Anthropology Laboratory
129(2)
Preparation of Remains
131(5)
Bulk Soft Tissue Removal
132(1)
Disarticulation
133(1)
Residual Soft Tissue Removal
134(1)
Stabilizing Remains
135(1)
Reconstruction, Sorting, and Reassembly
136(9)
Reconstruction
136(2)
Sorting
138(2)
Reassembly
140(5)
Inventorying Remains
145(4)
Summary
149(1)
Exercises
150(1)
Appendix A. Skeletal Inventory Form (Adults)
151(2)
Appendix B. Skeletal Inventory Form (Subadults)
153(5)
Attribution of Ancestry
158(24)
Anthroposcopic Traits
160(11)
Cranial Skeleton
161(1)
Nose
161(6)
Face
167(1)
Vault
168(1)
Jaws and Teeth
169(1)
Postcranial Skeleton
170(1)
Metric Methods
171(6)
Direct Measurements
172(1)
Indexes
173(1)
Discriminant Functions
174(3)
Miscellaneous Ancestral Characteristics
177(2)
Summary
179(1)
Exercises
180(2)
Attribution of Sex
182(25)
Sexing the Pelvis
183(7)
Anthroposcopic Traits
184(5)
Metric Methods
189(1)
Sexing the Skull
190(8)
Anthroposcopic Traits
191(5)
Metric Methods
196(2)
Miscellaneous Methods
198(5)
Multiple Postcranial Bones
199(1)
Long Limb Bone Lengths
200(1)
Scapula
200(1)
Humerus
200(1)
Femur
201(2)
Sexing Subadults
203(2)
Auricular Surface
203(1)
Greater Sciatic Notch
204(1)
Other Methods
205(1)
Summary
205(1)
Exercises
206(1)
Estimation of Age at Death
207(47)
Subadults
207(19)
Long Bone Lengths
208(4)
Union of Primary Ossification Centers
212(1)
Tooth Formation
213(6)
Tooth Eruption
219(4)
Epiphyseal Union
223(3)
Adults
226(25)
Pubic Symphyses
227(6)
Auricular Surface
233(4)
Sternal Rib Ends
237(1)
Cranial Suture Closure
238(3)
Ectocranial Sutures
241(2)
Endocranial Sutures
243(2)
Palatal Sutures
245(1)
Histological Methods
246(1)
Cortical Bone Remodeling
246(3)
Dental Changes
249(2)
Other Methods
251(1)
Summary
252(1)
Exercises
252(2)
Calculation of Stature
254(20)
Basics of Stature Reconstruction
254(2)
Full Skeleton Methods
256(4)
Long Limb Bones
260(5)
Other Skeletal Elements
265(2)
Partial Long Limb Bones
267(3)
Adjustments to Stature
270(2)
Age of Individual
271(1)
Bone Shrinkage
271(1)
Reported versus Measured Stature
272(1)
Summary
272(1)
Exercises
273(1)
Death, Trauma, and the Skeleton
274(21)
Cause and Manner of Death
276(2)
Basics of Bone Trauma
278(6)
Characteristics of Forces Causing Trauma
284(3)
Direction of Force
284(1)
Tension
284(1)
Compression
285(1)
Torsion
285(1)
Bending
285(1)
Shearing
286(1)
Speed of Force
286(1)
Focus of Force
287(1)
Types of Trauma
287(2)
Blunt Force Trauma
287(1)
Sharp Force Trauma
288(1)
Projectile Trauma
288(1)
Miscellaneous Trauma
288(1)
Timing of Bone Injury
289(4)
Antemortem Trauma
289(1)
Perimortem Trauma
290(1)
Postmortem Damage
291(2)
Summary
293(1)
Exercises
293(2)
Projectile Trauma
295(22)
Basics of Ammunition and Firearms
296(3)
Size
297(1)
Bullet Construction
298(1)
Projectile Velocity
298(1)
Basics of Bullet Travel
299(1)
Effects of Bullets on Bone
299(7)
Wound Beveling
299(1)
Wound Shape
300(2)
Wound Size
302(2)
Fracture Lines
304(2)
Bullet Wound Analysis
306(5)
Description of Wound(s)
306(1)
Estimation of Caliber
306(2)
Estimation of Bullet Construction
308(1)
Estimation of Velocity
308(1)
Estimation of Direction of Fire
308(1)
Estimation of Sequence
309(1)
Miscellaneous Estimations
310(1)
Pellet Wound Analysis
311(1)
Miscellaneous Projectiles
311(1)
Determining Cause and Manner of Death
312(3)
Summary
315(1)
Exercises
316(1)
Blunt Trauma
317(22)
Characteristics of Instruments
317(3)
Size
318(1)
Shape
319(1)
Weight
319(1)
Types of Fractures
320(2)
Effects of Blunt Instruments
322(6)
Skull
322(5)
Long Bones
327(1)
Other Bones
327(1)
Wound Analysis
328(7)
Description of Wound(s)
328(2)
Estimation of Size
330(1)
Estimation of Shape
330(1)
Estimation of Direction
330(2)
Estimation of Energy
332(1)
Estimation of Number
333(1)
Estimation of Sequence
334(1)
Miscellaneous Estimations
335(1)
Determining Manner and Cause of Death
335(2)
Summary
337(1)
Exercises
338(1)
Sharp and Miscellaneous Trauma
339(16)
Sharp Trauma
339(11)
Effects of Sharp Instruments
340(2)
Punctures
342(1)
Incisions
343(1)
Clefts
344(2)
Wound Analysis
346(1)
Description of Wound(s)
346(1)
Instrument Characteristics
346(2)
Direction of Force
348(1)
Number of Traumatic Events
349(1)
Sequence of Events
350(1)
Strangulation
350(3)
Chemical Trauma
353(1)
Determining Cause and Manner of Death
353(1)
Summary
354(1)
Exercises
354(1)
Antemortem Skeletal Conditions
355(28)
Pathological Conditions
357(6)
Lytic Lesions
358(2)
Proliferative Lesions
360(3)
Deformative Lesions
363(1)
Skeletal Anomalies
363(11)
Accessory Bones
364(2)
Nonfusion Anomalies
366(5)
Accessory Foramen
371(2)
Miscellaneous Anomalies
373(1)
Occupational Stress Markers
374(7)
Summary
381(1)
Exercises
382(1)
Postmortem Changes to Bone
383(23)
Dismemberments
384(6)
Basics of Saws and Saw Damage
385(2)
Analysis of Saw Marks
387(1)
Basic Description
387(1)
Direction of Saw Cut
388(1)
Number of Teeth
388(1)
Blade Width
388(1)
Blade Shape
388(2)
Source of Energy
390(1)
Animal Scavenging
390(4)
Carnivores
390(4)
Rodents
394(1)
Fire Damage
394(4)
Weathering
398(2)
Burial Damage
400(1)
Water Transport Damage
401(1)
Miscellaneous
402(2)
Summary
404(1)
Exercises
405(1)
Additional Aspects of Individualization
406(18)
Facial Reproduction
406(11)
Assessing Handedness
417(3)
Estimating Body Weight
420(2)
Summary
422(1)
Exercises
422(2)
Identification Using Antemortem Records
424(20)
Radiography
425(3)
Frontal Sinus
425(2)
Other Structures
427(1)
Photographic Superimposition
428(3)
Forensic Odontology
431(10)
Ancestry (Race)
432(1)
Age
433(1)
Sex
433(1)
``Civilized'' Teeth
434(1)
Cause of Death
434(1)
Antemortem Health
435(2)
Positive Identification
437(4)
Miscellaneous Techniques
441(1)
Summary
442(1)
Exercises
443(1)
Conclusion
444(10)
Ethical Responsibilities
444(3)
The Final Report
447(3)
Courtroom Testimony
450(1)
Future of Forensic Anthropology
451(2)
Summary
453(1)
References 454(10)
Note on Photography 464(1)
Index 465


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