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Introduction to Forensic Science and Criminalistics,9780072988482
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Introduction to Forensic Science and Criminalistics

by ; ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780072988482

ISBN10:
0072988487
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/23/2007
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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Summary

Written by authors with close to one hundred years of forensic experience combined, this introductory text features comprehensive coverage of the types of forensic work done by crime laboratories for criminal cases and by private examiners for civil cases. The book's unifying vision of the role of forensic science in the justice system and of the role of the professional forensic scientist is clearly introduced in the first two chapters and reinforced throughout the text. Each chapter discusses a key case in the field and references other "real world" applications of the techniques described. The text's premise is that being a scientist is not required for understanding and using forensic science, but that a greater understanding of science lends itself to better use of the techniques of forensic science.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 1
Introduction to Forensic Sciencep. 3
What Is Forensic Science?p. 7
Science in the Service of the Lawp. 7
Value of Forensic Sciencep. 7
Corpus Delicti-Elements of a Crimep. 7
Support or Disprove Statements by Witnesses, Victims, or Suspectsp. 8
Identify Substances or Materialsp. 9
Identify Personsp. 9
Provide Investigative Leadsp. 9
Establish Linkages or Exclusionsp. 10
A Brief History of Forensic Sciencep. 10
Development of Forensic Science Laboratories and Professional Organizationsp. 13
Nature of Science and the Scientific Methodp. 15
Careful Observationp. 16
Make Logical Suppositions to Explain the Observationsp. 16
Hypothesis Testing-Controlled Experimentsp. 16
Refining the Hypothesis-Theories and Natural Lawsp. 17
The Scientific Method and Its Applicability to Forensic Science and to Investigationp. 18
Forensic Science Specialtiesp. 19
Forensic Pathologyp. 19
Forensic Entomologyp. 19
Forensic Odontologyp. 20
Forensic Anthropologyp. 20
Forensic Toxicologyp. 20
Forensic Psychiatry and Psychologyp. 21
Forensic Engineeringp. 22
Forensic Computer Sciencep. 22
Forensic/Investigative Technologiesp. 22
Criminalisticsp. 22
Elements of Forensic Evidence Analysis-The Types of Results Forensic Scientists Producep. 23
Evidence Recognitionp. 24
Classification (Identification)p. 25
Individualizationp. 26
Reconstructionp. 27
Physical Evidence and the Legal Systemp. 31
How Physical Evidence Is Producedp. 33
Changes Induced at a Scenep. 33
Imprints or Indentationsp. 33
Striationsp. 35
Damagep. 35
Exchange of Material upon Contactp. 36
Depositsp. 36
Classification of Physical Evidencep. 37
Utilization of Physical Evidencep. 39
Provide Investigative Leads-Helping Develop MO and Leads from Databasesp. 39
Establish Linkages or Exclusionsp. 40
Corroboration-Credibility-Supporting or Disproving Statementsp. 42
Identification of Personsp. 42
Identification of Substances or Materialsp. 43
Establishing a Basis for a Crime and Criminal Prosecution-Corpus Delictip. 43
The Physical Evidence Processp. 44
Recognition-Most Critical and Requires a Trained Observerp. 44
Documentation and Marking for Identificationp. 44
Collection, Packaging, and Preservationp. 44
Laboratory Analysisp. 45
Reporting and Testimonyp. 46
Origin of Legal Systemsp. 47
The Criminal Justice System and Processp. 48
Scientific and Technical Evidence Admissibility and the Expert Witnessp. 52
Crime Scene Procedures, Techniques, and Analysisp. 57
Crime Scene Processing and Analysisp. 59
Processing versus Analysisp. 61
Types of Scenesp. 62
Initial Actions and Scene Securityp. 62
Steps in Scene Processing and Analysisp. 64
Scene Survey and Evidence Recognitionp. 64
Scene Searchesp. 64
Documentationp. 64
Evidence Collection and Preservationp. 65
Release of the Scenep. 65
Scene Survey and Evidence Recognitionp. 65
Scene Searchesp. 66
Documentationp. 67
Notesp. 67
Sketchesp. 67
Photographyp. 70
Video Recordingp. 74
Duty to Preservep. 75
Evidence Collection and Preservationp. 75
Collection Methodsp. 76
Numbering and Evidence Description Methodsp. 76
Packaging Optionsp. 77
Proper Controls and Comparison Standardsp. 78
Laboratory Submissionp. 79
Crime Scene Analysis and Reconstructionsp. 80
Laboratory Analysis and Comparisons of Evidencep. 80
Medical Examiner's Reports in Death Casesp. 80
Reconstruction: Putting It All Togetherp. 80
Reconstruction versus Reenactmentp. 81
Digital Evidence and Forensic Computer Sciencep. 81
Examination and Interpretation of Patterns for Reconstructionp. 85
Pattern Evidence: Reconstruction Patterns and Individualization Patternsp. 87
Most Reconstruction Patterns Are Crime Scene Patternsp. 87
Importance of Documentation of Reconstruction Patternsp. 87
Blood Spatter Patternsp. 88
Basis of Blood Pattern Interpretationp. 88
Velocity and Impact Anglep. 88
Various Blood Spatter Patternsp. 90
Factors Affecting Blood Patterns and Their Interpretationp. 92
Glass Fracture Patternsp. 94
Determining the Side of the Glass Where Force Was Appliedp. 94
Determining the Order of Gunshots Fired Through Glassp. 94
Track and Trail Patternsp. 96
Tire and Skid Mark Patternsp. 96
Clothing and Article or Object Patternsp. 97
Gunshot Residue Patternsp. 97
Projectile Trajectory Patternsp. 99
Fire Burn Patternsp. 101
Modus Operandi Patterns and Profilingp. 101
Wound, Injury, and Damage Patternsp. 102
Physical Pattern Evidence and Technological Examinationsp. 105
Examination of Physical Pattern Evidencep. 107
Classification/Types of Physical Patterns for Comparisonp. 109
Physical Matchesp. 109
Impression and Striation Markp. 109
Shape and Formp. 109
General Principles in Physical Pattern Comparisonsp. 110
The Process of Identificationp. 110
Physical Matchingp. 111
Exclusions, Inconclusives, and Insufficient Detailp. 112
Physical Pattern Comparisons and the Daubert Criteriap. 113
Impression and Striation Mark Comparisonsp. 113
Impressions: Imprints and Indentationsp. 113
Striationsp. 114
Collection and Preservation of Impressionsp. 114
Footwear, Tire, and Other Impressionsp. 116
Clarification and Contrast Improvement Techniquesp. 117
Weapon, Tool, and Object Marksp. 118
Shape and Form Comparisonsp. 119
Other Patternsp. 119
Concluding Commentsp. 119
Fingerprints and Other Personal Identification Patternsp. 123
Fingerprints-An Old and Traditionally Valuable Type of Evidencep. 125
About Fingerprints-Their Nature and the History and Development of Their Usep. 126
Nature of Fingerprintsp. 126
History and Development of the Use of Fingerprintsp. 127
Fingerprint Classification, Management of Large Files, AFISsp. 128
Classification and Large Filesp. 129
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFISs)p. 130
Collection and Preservation of Fingerprint Evidencep. 132
Latent Prints and Their Developmentp. 132
Types of Evidentiary Fingerprintsp. 132
Development of Latent Fingerprintsp. 133
Fingerprint Comparison and Identificationp. 141
The Fingerprint Identification Professionp. 142
Other Patterns for Person Identificationp. 143
Palm and Sole Printsp. 143
Bite Marksp. 144
Skeletal Featuresp. 145
Lip and Ear Printsp. 145
Voice Identificationp. 145
Biometricsp. 146
Identification of Human Remains-Handling of Mass Disastersp. 146
Questioned Document Examinationp. 151
Types of Document Evidencep. 153
Development of Handwritingp. 155
Writing Processp. 156
Recognition, Collection, and Preservation of Document Evidencep. 159
Handwriting Comparisonp. 161
Class and Individual Characteristicsp. 162
Importance of Known Standardsp. 163
Writing Mechanicsp. 164
Handprintingp. 165
Legal Status of Underlying Sciencep. 165
Nonhandwriting Document Examinationsp. 165
Typewriter and Printer Comparisonsp. 165
Copying Machinesp. 167
Reconstruction of Document Eventsp. 167
Alterations and Erasuresp. 168
Charred Documents and Indented Writingp. 170
Age Determinationp. 172
Toolmarks and Firearmsp. 177
Toolmark-Definitionp. 179
Class and Individual Characteristicsp. 179
Residue from Softer Object on Toolp. 179
Types of Toolmarksp. 180
Collection of Toolmarksp. 180
Examination and Comparison of Toolmarksp. 181
Firearms Examination-Backgroundp. 182
Firearms Function-the Firing Trainp. 183
Types of Firearmsp. 187
Collection and Preservation of Firearms Evidencep. 192
Firearms Evidence Examination and Comparisonp. 193
Physical Examination of Firearm for Safety and Physical Conditionp. 193
Test for Functionality and to Obtain Control Bullets and Casesp. 194
Bullet and Cartridge or Shotshell Case Comparisons-the Comparison Microscopep. 195
Association of Cartridges or Bullets to Firearm or Maker Using Databasesp. 198
Comparison of Badly Damaged Projectiles or Casesp. 198
Use of Firearms Evidence for Reconstructionp. 198
Recovered Firearm and Fired Evidence in Reconstructionp. 198
Muzzle to Target Distance-Powder Patternp. 199
GSR on Hands-Dermal Nitrate, Lift, Swab, Tapep. 199
Serial Number Restorationp. 202
Serial Number Obliteration Methods-Defacingp. 203
Recovery of Serial Number-Clean, Smooth, Etchp. 204
The Firearms and Toolmark Examiner Professionp. 205
Biological Evidencep. 209
Blood and Physiological Fluid Evidence: Evaluation and Initial Examinationp. 211
How Biological Evidence Analysis Has Changed Because of DNA Typingp. 213
Nature of Bloodp. 214
Collection, Preservation, and Packaging of Biological (Including Blood) Evidencep. 215
Blood or Buccal Swab from Known Personp. 216
Biological Evidence from Scenesp. 216
Test Controls, Substratum Comparison Specimens, and Contamination Issuesp. 218
Know (Exemplar or Reference) Controlsp. 218
Alibi (Alternative) Known Controlp. 218
Blank Controlp. 218
Substratum Comparison Specimensp. 218
Initial Examination of and for Biological Evidencep. 220
Forensic Identification of Bloodp. 221
Preliminary or Presumptive Tests for Bloodp. 222
Confirmatory Tests for Bloodp. 222
Species Determinationp. 223
Forensic Identification of Body Fluidsp. 224
Identification of Semenp. 225
Identification of Vaginal "Secretions," Saliva, and Urinep. 227
Forensic Investigation of Sexual Assault Casesp. 227
Coordination of Effort-SANEs and SARTsp. 228
Initial Investigationp. 228
The Forensic Scientist's Rolep. 229
Medical Examinationp. 229
Evidence Collection and Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kitsp. 230
Types of Sexual Assault Cases and Their Investigationp. 231
Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault-"Date-Rape" Drugsp. 232
Blood and Body Fluid Individuality: Traditional (pre-DNA) Approachesp. 233
The Classical or Conventional (pre-DNA) Genetic Markersp. 233
How Does Typing Genetic Markers Help "Individualize" a Biological Specimen?p. 234
DNA Analysis and Typingp. 241
Genetics, Inheritance, Genetic Markersp. 243
DNA-Nature and Functionsp. 243
Where DNA Is Found in the Body-Nuclear (Genomic) and Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)p. 247
Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for DNA Typingp. 249
Development and Methods of DNA Analysisp. 250
Isolation (Extraction) of DNAp. 250
The Beginning-RFLPp. 251
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-The First PCR-Based DNA Typing Methodsp. 253
Current DNA Typing Methods-Short Tandem Repeats (STRs)p. 254
The Power of DNA to Individualize Biological Evidencep. 256
Databasing and CODISp. 258
Applications of Forensic DNA Typingp. 260
Newer DNA Technologiesp. 264
Strengths, Limitations, Promise, Hypep. 265
Chemical and Materials Evidencep. 271
Arson and Explosivesp. 273
Fire and Arsonp. 275
The Combustion Reaction-Flaming Combustion and Glowing Combustionp. 275
Necessary Components for Combustion-Fuel, Oxygen, and Ignitionp. 275
Nature of Fuels-Gaseous, Liquid, and Solidp. 276
Characteristics of Fuels-Measures of Combustibilityp. 278
Investigating Suspicious Fires-Arsonists' Motivesp. 281
Economic Motivesp. 281
Revenge, Vandalism, Intimidation, and Other Motivesp. 282
Investigation of Fire Scenesp. 283
Burn Patternsp. 283
Search for Point or Points of Originp. 283
Search for Causesp. 283
Recovery of Ignitable Liquid Residues from Suspicious Fire Scenesp. 283
Reasons for Finding Accelerant Residuesp. 283
Search for Places to Collect Debris-Sniffers and Arson Dogsp. 284
Collection of Debris Samples and Proper Packagingp. 284
Collection of Samples Other Than Debrisp. 285
Collection of Other Physical Evidencep. 285
Laboratory Analysis of Debris and Other Samples-Recovery of Ignitable Liquid Residuesp. 286
Preparation of Liquid Samplesp. 286
Four Primary Techniques for Preparation of Debris Samplesp. 286
Laboratory Examination of Prepared Samplesp. 289
Examination of Criminalistics Evidence Collectedp. 294
Explosives and Explosion Incidentsp. 295
Characteristics of Explosives and Explosionsp. 296
Exothermicp. 296
Molecular Fragmentation to Produce Gaseous Productsp. 296
Rapid Expansionp. 296
Containmentp. 297
The Three Major Classes of Explosivesp. 297
Low Explosivesp. 297
Primary High Explosivesp. 298
Secondary High Explosivesp. 299
The Explosive Train or Devicep. 300
The Role of the Scene Investigatorp. 301
Laboratory Analysis of Explosives and Explosive Residuesp. 302
Examination of the Unexploded Devicep. 302
Examination of the Exploded Device and Associated Debrisp. 303
Examination of the Device or Debris for Other Physical Evidencep. 305
Drugs and Drug Analysis and Forensic Toxicologyp. 311
Nature of Drugs and Drug Abusep. 313
Working Definition of a Drugp. 313
Nature of Drug Dependencep. 314
Drugs and Society-Controlled Substancesp. 315
Major Classes of Abused Drugsp. 315
Opiates or Narcotic Drugsp. 316
Stimulantsp. 317
Hallucinogensp. 318
Depressants, Hypnotics, and Tranquilizersp. 321
Club Drugsp. 322
Athletic Performance Enhancersp. 323
Controlled Substance Lawsp. 324
Analysis of Controlled Substances in the Forensic Laboratoryp. 325
Screening Testsp. 325
Isolation and Separationp. 326
Microcrystal Testsp. 327
Chromatography (Separations)p. 328
Spectroscopy/Spectrometryp. 329
Qualitative versus Quantitative Analysisp. 330
Forensic Toxicology-Antimortem and Postmortemp. 331
Forensic Toxicology on Samples from the Livingp. 331
Postmortem Toxicologyp. 331
Classes of Poisonsp. 332
Alcohol and Drugs and Drivingp. 332
Driving While Impaired by Alcoholp. 333
Other Drugs and Drivingp. 334
Materials Evidencep. 339
Introduction to Materials Evidencep. 341
Transfer Materials Evidence Is Used to Establish or Disprove Connectionsp. 342
Materials Evidence Can Be Transferred or Depositedp. 343
Clothing and Vehicles Are the Most Common Sources of Materials Evidencep. 343
Collection Methods for Materials Evidencep. 344
Collection Without Samplingp. 344
Use of Forceps-Always the First Approach in the Labp. 344
Mechanical Dislocation-Shaking or Scraping of Surface Materialp. 345
Tape Lifts-Sticky but Not Too Stickyp. 345
Laboratory Examination of Trace and Transfer Evidencep. 345
Initial Physical Examination-Stereomicroscope, Hand Lens Microscopyp. 346
Instrumental Comparison and Identification-Micro FTIR and SEM/EDXp. 347
Materials Evidence Comparisons-Individualization, Inclusion, and Exclusionp. 349
Some Common Types of Materials Evidencep. 349
Fibersp. 350
Biological Materialsp. 350
Wood and Paperp. 350
Building Materialsp. 351
Metallic Residuesp. 352
Paint and Other Coatingsp. 352
Cosmetics and Beauty Productsp. 352
Soil and Dustp. 353
Discussion of Major Categories of Materials Evidencep. 353
Fibersp. 353
Human and Animal Hairp. 362
Paintp. 367
Glassp. 371
Soilp. 375
Appendixp. 385
Glossaryp. 397
Photo Creditsp. 405
Indexp. 406
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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